The Chatti (also Chatthi or Catti) were an ancient Germanic tribe whose homeland was near the upper Weser.[1][2] They lived in central and northern Hesse and southern Lower Saxony, along the upper reaches of that river and in the valleys and mountains of the Eder and Fulda regions, a district approximately corresponding to Hesse-Kassel, though probably somewhat more extensive. They settled within the region in the first century B.C. According to Tacitus,[3] the Batavians and Cananefates of his time, tribes living within the empire, were descended from part of the Chatti, who left their homeland after an internal quarrel drove them out, to take up new lands at the mouth of the Rhine.

Roman Empire 125
The Roman empire under Hadrian (ruled 117–138), showing the location of the Chatti in central Germany.


The extremely large timescale of Prehistoric Europe left stone tools and weapons dating from the Paleolithic to the Iron Age that were chronologically ordered and dated in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Tribes such as the Chatti, Cimbri, and Langobardi have not been well distinguished until relatively recently.[4]


While Julius Caesar (100–44 BC) was well informed about the regions and tribes on the eastern banks of the Rhine, he never mentioned the Chatti by name. He did make note of the Suebi though, and suggested that they had previously driven out the Celts to the south of the region corresponding to modern north Hesse in the prior centuries BC (cfr. the early medieval Hessengau).[5] Pliny the Elder, in his Natural History (written 77–79 AD) grouped the Chatti and Suebi together with the Hermunduri and the Cherusci, calling this group the Hermiones, which is a nation of Germanic tribes mentioned by Tacitus as living in inland Germany.[6] Some commentators believe that Caesar's Suebi were possibly the later Chatti, a branch of the Suebian movement of people who had become more clearly identifiable.[7] If not, then the Chatti may represent a successful resistance to the Suevi, as opposed to the Tencteri, Usipetes, and Ubii who all were forced from homelands in the same region by the Suebic incursions.

The first ancient writer to mention the Chatti is Strabo, some time after 16 AD, who includes the Chatti in a listing of conquered Germanic tribes who were more settled and agricultural, but also poorer, than the nomadic tribes in central and eastern Germania such as the Suebi. They were poor because they had fought the Romans, and had been defeated and plundered.[8] In his second book of Epigrams, Martial credited the emperor Domitian (51–96 AD) as having overcome the Chatti:

  "Creta dedit magnum, maius dedit Africa nomen,
    Scipio quod uictor quodque Metellus habet;
  nobilius domito tribuit Germania Rheno,
    et puer hoc dignus nomine, Caesar, eras.
  frater Idumaeos meruit cum patre triumphos,
    quae datur ex Chattis laurea, tota tua est.

  "Crete gave a great name, Africa a greater one:
    Scipio the victor has one, and Metellus has the other.
  Germany granted a nobler name when the Rhine had been subdued,
    and even as a boy, Caesar, you were worthy of this name.
  Your brother earned Idumaean triumphs together with your father,
    but the laurel given for the Chatti is totally yours."

Martial: Epigrams. Book ll, No. 2

For the first century AD, Tacitus provides important information about the Chatti's part in the Germanic wars and certain elements of their culture. He says that:

[The Chatti's] settlements begin at the Hercynian forest, where the country is not so open and marshy as in the other cantons into which Germany stretches. They are found where there are hills, and with them grow less frequent, for the Hercynian forest keeps close till it has seen the last of its native Chatti. Hardy frames, close-knit limbs, fierce countenances, and a peculiarly vigorous courage, mark the tribe. For Germans, they have much intelligence and sagacity; they promote their picked men to power, and obey those whom they promote; they keep their ranks, note their opportunities, check their impulses, portion out the day, intrench themselves by night, regard fortune as a doubtful, valour as an unfailing, resource; and what is most unusual, and only given to systematic discipline, they rely more on the general than on the army. Their whole strength is in their infantry, which, in addition to its arms, is laden with iron tools and provisions. Other tribes you see going to battle, the Chatti to a campaign. Seldom do they engage in mere raids and casual encounters. It is indeed the peculiarity of a cavalry force quickly to win and as quickly to yield a victory. Fleetness and timidity go together; deliberateness is more akin to steady courage.[9]

Tacitus also notes that like other Germanic tribes, the Chatti took an interest in traditions concerning haircuts and beards.

A practice, rare among the other German tribes, and simply characteristic of individual prowess, has become general among the Chatti, of letting the hair and beard grow as soon as they have attained manhood, and not till they have slain a foe laying aside that peculiar aspect which devotes and pledges them to valour. Over the spoiled and bleeding enemy they show their faces once more; then, and not till then, proclaiming that they have discharged the obligations of their birth, and proved themselves worthy of their country and of their parents. The coward and the unwarlike remain unshorn. The bravest of them also wear an iron ring (which otherwise is a mark of disgrace among the people) until they have released themselves by the slaughter of a foe. Most of the Chatti delight in these fashions. Even hoary-headed men are distinguished by them, and are thus conspicuous alike to enemies and to fellow-countrymen. To begin the battle always rests with them; they form the first line, an unusual spectacle. Nor even in peace do they assume a more civilised aspect. They have no home or land or occupation; they are supported by whomsoever they visit, as lavish of the property of others as they are regardless of their own, till at length the feebleness of age makes them unequal to so stern a valour.[10]

Between the Rhine and the Chatti, Tacitus places the Tencteres and Usipetes, who apparently had been moved since the time of Caesar into the old homeland of the Ubii, who had in turn settled in Cologne.[11] (Caesar had described these three tribes as under pressure from Suebi to their east, and attempting to move across the Rhine.) To the south, Tacitus also says that the Chatti's land is beyond the questionable lands, the so-called tithe lands, or agri decumates, that adventurers from the Roman sides of the Rhine and Danube had been trying to settle.[12] It is possible that at first the Chatti moved into place on the Rhine, in the old territory of the Ubii. Cassius Dio describes Drusus establishing a fort in Chatti territory on the Rhine in 11 BC, and that in 10 BC they moved out of an area where the Romans had permitted them.[13]

To the north of the Chatti, Tacitus places the large area of the Chauci.[14] To the east, the neighbours of the Chatti and Chauci were the Cherusci, who Tacitus describes as excessively peace-loving in his time.[15] (Caesar had described the Suevi, not the Chatti, as living between the Ubii on the Rhine and a forest called the Bacenis, which separated them from the Cherusci. This is why Caesar's Suevi are sometimes thought to be Chatti.)

The Chatti successfully resisted incorporation into the Roman Empire, joining the Cheruscan war leader Arminius' coalition of tribes that annihilated Varus' legions in 9 AD in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. Germanicus later, in 15,[16] raided their lands in revenge, but Rome eventually responded to the Chatti's belligerent defense of their independence by building the limes border fortifications along the southern boundary of their lands in central Hesse during the early years of the first century. A major raid by the Chatti into Germania Superior was defeated decisively by the legions in 50 AD.[17] In 58 AD the Chatti were defeated by the Hermunduri in a border dispute over a religiously significant river.

Roman sources identify the fabled Mattium, beyond the Eder, as the capital of the Chatti. Destroyed by Germanicus, its location is not known today, but generally is assumed to be in the wider neighbourhood of Fritzlar north of the river Eder.[18]

After the early third century AD, however, the Chatti virtually disappear from the sources and are only called upon as a topical element or when writing about events of the first century. Cassius Dio is most likely not only the first author to mention the Alamanni but also the last one to record a historical appearance of the Chatti. Writing about the Germanic war of Caracalla in 213 AD, he has the emperor fight "Κέννους, Kελτικòν ἔθνος" ("the Kenni, a Celtic people").[19] This is taken from an excerpt of Dio in the writings of Joannes Xiphilinus, however, whereas the Fragmenta Valesiana refer to the same people as "Chattoi".[20] The usage of "Kελτικός" for Germanic peoples was an archaic tradition among Greek writers.

After Cassius Dio, the name "Chattus" appears among others in a panegyric by Sidonius Apollinaris in the late fifth century, now as a poetic synonym for "Germanus".[21] The last ancient source to mention the Chatti, if only in a quotation of Sulpicius Alexander describing events of the late fourth century, was Gregory of Tours.[22] The Chatti eventually may therefore have become a branch of the much larger neighboring Franks and their region was incorporated in the kingdom of Clovis I, probably with the Ripuarians, at the beginning of the sixth century.

The Chatti name is apparently preserved in the medieval and modern name of Hesse in Germany, which is a name that already appears early. In 723 for example, the Anglo-Saxon missionary Winfrid—subsequently called St. Boniface, Apostle of the Germans—proselytizing among the Hessians (Hessorum), felled their sacred tree, Thor's Oak, near Fritzlar, as part of his efforts to convert them and other Germanic tribes to Christianity.

Chasuarii and Chattuarii

Two tribes in northern Germany have names that are sometimes compared to the Chatti. The Chattuarii, whose name appears to mean that they are dwellers upon the Chatti lands, or else Chatti people, lived near the Rhine, probably between IJssel and Lippe. They came to be seen as Franks and apparently moved over the Rhine as a Frankish people, to settle into the corner of land between the Rhine and Maas rivers.[13]

The name of the Chattuarii is in turn, sometimes compared to another people called the Chasuarii mentioned by several classical authors. The Chasuarii were a Germanic tribe mentioned by Tacitus in the Germania. According to him, they dwelt to the north of the Chamavi and Angrivarii, who dwelt in turn to the north of the Bructeri, between Ems and Weser, however the name of the Chasuarii most often is interpreted to mean "dwellers on the Hase [river]", a tributary to the Ems. The second century geographer Claudius Ptolemy mentions that the Kasouarioi lived to the east of the Abnoba mountains, in the vicinity of Hesse, but this account of northern Europe is thought to contain confusions derived from using different sources.[23]

Places named after the Chatti

In popular culture

  • The Light Bearer (1994), a historical novel by Donna Gillespie.
  • Mark of the Lion Series (1993), a series of historical fiction novels by Francine Rivers.
  • Romanike series (2006-2014), a series of historical fiction novels by Codex Regius.

See also


  1. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Article
  2. ^ Carl Waldman; Catherine Mason (2006). Encyclopedia of European Peoples. Infobase Publishing. pp. 170–. ISBN 978-1-4381-2918-1.
  3. ^ Histories iv. under 70
  4. ^ Malcolm Todd (4 February 2009). The Early Germans. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 243–. ISBN 978-1-4051-3756-0. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
  5. ^ James Cowles Prichard (1841). Researches Into the Physical History of Mankind: Researches into the ethnography of Europe. Sherwood, Gilbert, and Piper. pp. 352–. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
  6. ^ Plin. Nat. 4.28
  7. ^ Peck (1898), Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities
  8. ^ Strabo, 7.1.3-4.
  9. ^ Tac. Ger. 30
  10. ^ Tac. Ger. 31
  11. ^ Tac. Ger. 32
  12. ^ Tac. Ger. 29
  13. ^ a b Lanting; van der Plicht (2010), "De 14C-chronologie van de Nederlandse Pre- en Protohistorie VI: Romeinse tijd en Merovingische periode, deel A: historische bronnen en chronologische schema's", Palaeohistoria, 51/52: 52
  14. ^ Tac. Ger. 35
  15. ^ Tac. Ger. 36
  16. ^ Tacitus, The Annals 1.55
  17. ^ Tacitus, The Annals 12.27
  18. ^ Armin Becker: Mattium. In: Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde (RGA). 2. edition, volume 19, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin – New York 2001, p. 443–444. (restricted online copy, p. 443, at Google Books) (German)
  19. ^ Cassius Dio, 78.14.1f; Greek.
  20. ^ Fragmenta Valesiana 377.
  21. ^ Sidonius, Carmina 7.388ff. In this poem honouring Avitus, the "Chatt" is restricted by the swampy water of the river Elbe. Cf. Ludwig Rübekeil, Diachrone Studien zur Kontaktzone zwischen Kelten und Germanen, ÖAW, Vienna 2002, pp. 45f.
  22. ^ Gregorius Turonenesis, Historia Francorum, 2.9.55.
  23. ^ Schütte, Ptolemy's Maps of Northern Europe, p. 119
  24. ^ A Brief Introduction to the History of Hesse (Hessen) Archived July 17, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ The History Files: Hesse
  26. ^ "Meyers Konversationslexikon 1888, Vol. 9, Page 623".
  27. ^ "Meyers Konversationslexikon 1888, Vol. 11, Page 449".

External links

Batavi (Germanic tribe)

The Batavi were an ancient Germanic tribe that lived around the modern Dutch Rhine delta in the area that the Romans called Batavia, from the second half of the first century BC to the third century AD. The name is also applied to several military units employed by the Romans that were originally raised among the Batavi. The tribal name, probably a derivation from batawjō ("good island", from Germanic bat- "good, excellent," which is also in the English "better," and awjō "island, land near water"), refers to the region's fertility, today known as the fruitbasket of the Netherlands (the Betuwe).

Finds of wooden tablets show that at least some were literate.


The Cananefates, or Canninefates, Caninefates, or Canenefatae, meaning "leek masters", were a Germanic tribe, who lived in the Rhine delta, in western Batavia (later Betuwe), in the Roman province of Germania Inferior (now in the Dutch province of Zuid-Holland), before and during the Roman conquest.

Apparently, the name had its origins in the fact that the Cananefates lived on sandy soils that were considered excellent for growing Alliums such as leeks and onions.At the beginning of the Batavian rebellion under Gaius Julius Civilis in the year 69, the Batavians sent envoys to the Canninefates to urge a common policy. "This is a tribe," says Tacitus (Histories Book iv) "which inhabits part of the island, and closely resembles the Batavians in their origins, languages, and in their courageous character, but is inferior in numbers." This would imply a similar descent as the Batavians from the Chatti. In the failed uprising that followed, the Canninefates were led by their chieftain Brinno, the son of a chief who had faced down Caligula.

The capital of the civitas of the Cananefates was Forum Hadriani, modern Voorburg.

In modern times, the region Kennemerland is said to derive from the name of the Cananefates.


The Chamavi were a Germanic tribe of Roman imperial times whose name survived into the Early Middle Ages. They first appear under that name in the 1st century AD Germania of Tacitus as a Germanic tribe that lived to the north of the Lower Rhine. Their name probably survives in the region today called Hamaland, which is in the Gelderland province of the Netherlands, between the IJssel and Ems rivers.


The Chasuarii were an ancient Germanic tribe known from the reports of authors writing in the time of the Roman empire. They lived somewhere to the east and north of the Rhine, near the modern river Hase, which feeds into the Ems. This means they lived near modern Osnabrück.

Tacitus in his Germania (Chapter 34) says they are between Ems and Weser, to the north of the Angrivarii and Chamavi (who had also expanded into the area once belonging to the Bructeri, between Ems, Weser and Lippe). In this same area as the Chasuarii were the Dulgubnii (but then probably nearer the Weser).

To their north, on the coast of the North Sea, were the Chauci. By the account of Tacitus, the Chauci in his time had not only the coast in this region, but would have also stretched down to the lands of the Cherusci (north of the Harz mountains) and Chatti (in modern Hessen).

Claudius Ptolemy in his Geography places Chasuarii (Κασουάροι), east of the Tencteri and Abnoba mountains which run north-south and parallel with the Rhine, and west of the Harz mountains where he places some Chamavi (Camavi) between the Cherusci and the Chatti. Interpretation of this passage in Ptolemy is difficult, and it may contain systematic errors. The position for the Chasuarii and Chamavi and many other tribes does not correspond to other sources, and for example in the case of the Chamavi and Tubantes, this includes post Roman records.

Although the theory is not widely supported, the Chasuarii are sometimes thought to be equivalent to, or related to, the Chattuari, and maybe even the Chatti, based on similarity of names.

Chatti pathiri

Chatti pathiri is a layered pastry made in the North Malabar and Malabar region, of Kerala, India. It is made in both sweet and savoury variations. The dish is similar to the Italian lasagna, but instead of pasta, pastry sheets / pancakes made with flour, egg, oil and water are used. The filling depends on the variation desired. The sweet ones are made with sweetened beaten eggs, nuts and raisins, seasoned with cardamom. The savoury ones are made with traditional meat filling used in making samosas or savoury puffs. The flour is kneaded into soft dough and rolled into thin pancakes. These pancakes are soaked in milk to soften them and arranged in layers. The fillings are added between these layers. Once layered, it goes in for baking at 180 degrees for approximately 20 minutes.

An essential ingredient to enhance the authenticity of the dish is white poppy seeds, used extensively in Malabar cuisine while making biryani and meat stews. It is considered an essential part of any festival, pre- and post-wedding events, and Iftar. This dish is popular during the Ramadan Fasting period.


The Chattuarii or Attoarii were a Germanic tribe of the Franks. They lived originally north of the Rhine in the area of the modern border between Germany and the Netherlands, but then moved southwards in the 4th century, as a Frankish tribe living on both sides of the Rhine.

According to Velleius Paterculus, in 4 AD, the emperor Tiberius crossed the Rhine, first attacking a tribe which commentators interpret variously as the Cananefates or Chamavi, both being in the area of the modern Netherlands, then the Chattuari, and then the Bructeri between Ems and Lippe, somewhere to the north of the modern Ruhr district in Germany. This implies that the Chattuari lived somewhere in the west of Westphalia.Strabo mentions the Chattuari as one of the non-nomadic northern Germanic tribes in a group along with the Cherusci, the Chatti, and the Gamabrivii. (He also contrasted with other non nomadic tribes supposedly near the Ocean, the Sugambri, the "Chaubi", the Bructeri, and the Cimbri, "and also the Cauci, the Caülci, the Campsiani".) Strabo also notes them as one of the tribes who allied under the Cherusci and were made poor after being defeated by Germanicus. They apparently appeared at his triumph in 17 AD along with the Caülci, Campsani, Bructeri, Usipi, Cherusci, Chatti, Landi, and Tubattii.

There is no consensus on any connection between the Chattuarii and either the similar-sounding Chatti or, less likely, the Chasuarii, who both lived in a similar region of Germany, and are also mentioned in Roman era texts.

The Chattuari appear again in the historical record in the 4th century, living on the Rhine amongst the first tribes to be known as Franks. Ammianus Marcellinus reports that Emperor Julian, crossed the Rhine border from Xanten and......entered the district belonging to a Frank tribe, called the Attuarii, men of a turbulent character, who at that very moment were licentiously plundering the districts of Gaul. He attacked them unexpectedly while they were apprehensive of no hostile measures, but were reposing in fancied security, relying on the ruggedness and difficulty of the roads which led into their country, and which no prince within their recollection had ever penetrated.

Some of them (laeti) were also settled in France pagus attuariorum (French; Atuyer, comprising Oscheret at that time) south of Langres in the 3rd century.

Under the Franks, the name of the Chattuari was used for what became two early medieval gaus on either side of the ride, north of the Ripuarian Franks, whose capital was in Cologne. The eastern side, they were near the Ruhr river, and across the Rhine they settled near the Niers river, between Maas and Rhine, where the Romans had much earlier settled the Germanic Cugerni. This western gau (Dutch: Hettergouw, German: Hattuariergau) is mentioned in the Treaty of Meerssen, in the year 870 AD.

The Chattuarii may also appear in the poem Beowulf as "Hetwaras" where they appear to form a league together with the Hugas (who may be the Chauci) and the Frisians to fight against a Geatish raiding force from Denmark. The Geats are defeated and their king Hygelac is killed, Beowulf alone escaping. According to Widsith, the Hætwera were ruled by Hun.


The Cherusci were a Germanic tribe that inhabited parts of the plains and forests of northwestern Germany, in the area possibly near present-day Hanover, during the first centuries BC and AD. Ethnically, Pliny the Elder groups them with their neighbours, the Suebi and Chatti, as well as the Hermunduri, as Hermiones, one of the Germanic groupings said to descend from an ancestor named Mannus. They led an important war against the Roman Empire. Subsequently, they were probably absorbed into the tribal confederations such as the Franks and Allemanni.

County of Katzenelnbogen

The County of Katzenelnbogen (named after Chatti Melibokus) was an immediate state of the Holy Roman Empire. Chatti Melibokus is a very old tribe who stayed on a high hill in the Bergstraße region of Hesse (the part that lies south), in Germany. It existed between 1095 and 1479, when it was inherited by the Landgraves of Hesse.

The estate comprised two separate territories. The main parts were the original Untergrafschaft ("lower county") with its capital at Katzenelnbogen in the Middle Rhine area and the Obergrafschaft ("upper county") south of the Main River around Darmstadt, predecessor of the Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt.

Germanic Wars

"Germanic Wars" is a name given to a series of wars between the Romans and various Germanic tribes between 113 BC and 596 AD. The nature of these wars varied through time between Roman conquest, Germanic uprisings and later Germanic invasions in the Roman Empire that started in the late 2nd century BC. The series of conflicts, which began in the 5th century under the Western Roman Emperor Honorius, led (along with internal strife) to the ultimate downfall of the Western Roman Empire.

Cimbrian War, 113–101 BC

Battle of Noreia 112 BC

Battle of Agen 107 BC

Battle of Arausio 105 BC

Battle of Aquae Sextiae 102 BC

Battle of Vercellae 101 BC

Battle of Vosges 58 BC

Battle of the Sabis 57 BC

Clades Lolliana 16 BC

Early Imperial campaigns in Germania, 12 BC – AD 16

Battle of Arbalo 11 BC

Battle of the Lupia River 11 BC

Battle of the Teutoburg Forest 9 AD

Campaign against the Marsi 14

Campaign against the Chatti 15

Campaign against the Bructeri 15

Battle at Pontes Longi 15

Battle of Idistaviso 16

Battle of the Angrivarian Wall 16

Campaign against the Chatti 16

Battle of Baduhenna Wood 28

Revolt of the Batavi 69-70

Domitian's Campaign against the Chatti 82

Marcomannic Wars 166–180

Battle of Carnuntum 170

Crisis of the Third Century 235–284

Battle at the Harzhorn c. 235

Battle of Nicopolis ad Istrum 250

Battle of Beroe 250

Battle of Philippopolis 250

Battle of Abrittus 251

Siege of Thessalonica 254

Battle of Thermopylae 254

Battle of Mediolanum 259

Battle of Augusta Vindelicorum 260

Siege of Mainz 268

Battle of Lake Benacus 268

Battle of Naissus 269

Battle of Placentia 271

Battle of Fano 271

Battle of Pavia 271

Battle of Lingones 298

Battle of Vindonissa 298

German and Sarmatian campaigns of Constantine 306–336

Siege of Senonae 356

Siege of Autun 356

Battle of Durocortorum 356

Battle of Brumath 356

Battle of Argentoratum 357

Battle of Solicinium 367

Great Conspiracy 367–368

Gothic War (376–382)

Battle of Marcianople 376

Battle of the Willows 377

Battle of Dibaltum 377

Battle of Adrianople 378

Siege of Adrianople (378)

Battle of Constantinople (378)

Battle of Thessalonica 380

Battle of Argentovaria 378

Massacre of Thessalonica 390

Battle of the Frigidus 394

Gothic War (402-403)

Siege of Asti 402

Battle of Pollentia 402

Battle of Verona 403

Battle of Faesulae 406

Battle of Moguntiacum 406

Crossing of the Rhine 406

Sack of Rome 410

Siege of Hippo Regius 430–431

Battle of Narbonne 436

Battle of the Catalaunian Plains 451

Sack of Aquileia 452

Sack of Rome 455

Battle of Aylesford 455

Battle of Órbigo 456

Battle of Arelate 458

Battle of Cartagena 461

Battle of Orleans 463

Battle of Bassianae 468

Battle of Cap Bon 468

Battle of Bolia 469

Battle of Déols c. 469

Battle of Ravenna 476

Battle of Soissons 486

Battle of Isonzo 489

Battle of Verona 489

Battle of the Adda River 490

Vandalic War 533-534

Battle of Ad Decimum 533

Battle of Tricamarum 533

Gothic War (535–554)

Siege of Naples 536

Siege of Rome 537-538

Battle of Treviso 541

Siege of Verona 541

Battle of Faventia 542

Battle of Mucellium 542

Siege of Naples 543

Sack of Rome 546

Siege of Rome 549-550

Battle of Sena Gallica 551

Battle of Taginae 552

Battle of Mons Lactarius 553

Battle of the Volturnus 554

Byzantine–Lombard wars 568–750


Gudensberg is a small town in northern Hesse, Germany. Since the municipal reform in 1974, the nearby villages of Deute, Dissen, Dorla, Gleichen, Maden and Obervorschütz have become parts of the municipality.

Habib Chatty

Habib Chatty (9 August 1916 – 6 March 1991) was a Tunisian politician and diplomat. He served as the fourth Secretary-General of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) from 1979 to 1984.

Hari Parbat

Hari Parbat is a hill overlooking Srinagar, the largest city and summer capital of Jammu and Kashmir. It is the site of famous Sharika Devi temple dedicated to goddess Jagadamba Sharika Bhagwati who is regarded as the presiding deity (`isht`-Devi) of Srinagar city. Hari Parbat also has other notable places of worship.


The Hermunduri, Hermanduri, Hermunduli, Hermonduri, or Hermonduli were an ancient Germanic tribe, who occupied an area near the Elbe river, around what is now Thuringia, Bohemia, Saxony (in East Germany), and Franconia in northern Bavaria, from the first to the third century. At times, they apparently moved to the Danube frontier with Rome. The Thuringii may have been the descendants of the Hermunduri. Claudius Ptolemy mentions neither tribe in his geography but instead the Teuriochaemae, who may also be connected to both.


The Irminones, also referred to as Herminones or Hermiones (Ancient Greek: Ἑρμίονες), were a large group of early Germanic tribes settling in the Elbe watershed and by the 1st century AD expanding into Bavaria, Swabia and Bohemia. Notably this included the large sub-group of the Suevi, that itself contained many different tribal groups, but the Irminones also for example included the Chatti.

Irminonic or Elbe Germanic is also therefore a term for one of the unattested dialect groups ancestral to the West Germanic language family, especially the High German languages, which include modern Standard German.


A karahi (; Bengali: কড়াই korai, Hindi: कड़ाही kaṛāhī, Urdu: کڑاہی‬‎; also kadai, kerahi, korai, karai, kadhi, kadahi, kadhai or cheena chatti) is a type of thick, circular, and deep cooking pot (similar in shape to a wok but with a flat base) that originated in the Indian subcontinent. It is used in Pakistani, Indian, Afghan, Bangladeshi, and Nepalese cuisines. Traditionally press-formed from mild steel sheet or made of wrought iron, karahi look like woks with steeper sides. Today, they can be made of stainless steel, copper, and nonstick surfaces, both round and flat-bottomed, or of the traditional materials.

Legio I Adiutrix

Legio prima adiutrix ("Rescuer First Legion"), was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded in AD 68, possibly by Galba when he rebelled against emperor Nero (r. 54-68). The last record mentioning the Adiutrix is in 344, when it was stationed at Brigetio (modern Szőny), in the Roman province of Pannonia. The emblem of the legion was a capricorn, used along with the winged horse Pegasus, on the helmets the symbol used by I Adiutrix legionaries was a dolphin.

Legio I Minervia

Legio I Minervia ("Minerva's First Legion", i.e., "devoted to the goddess Minerva") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded in AD 82 by emperor Domitian (r. 81–96), for his campaign against the Germanic tribe of the Chatti. Its cognomen refers to the goddess Minerva, the legion's protector. There are still records of the I Minervia in the Rhine border region in the middle of the 4th century. The legion's emblem is an image of goddess Minerva.

Legio I Minervia first, and main, camp was in the city of Bonna (modern Bonn), in the province of Germania Inferior. In 89, they suppressed a revolt of the governor of Germania Superior. Due to this, Domitian gave them the cognomen Pia Fidelis Domitiana (loyal and faithful to Domitian) to acknowledge their support.


Vishnuprayag is one of the Panch Prayag (five confluences) of Alaknanda River, and lies at the confluence of Alaknanda River and Dhauliganga River, in Chamoli district in the Indian state of Uttarakhand.

Vishnuprayag derives its name from Vishnu, According to Hindu scriptures, it is the place where Sage Narada meditated, after which Vishnu appeared before him. It is near to Kagbhusandi Lake.

Yamunotri Temple

Yamunotri Temple is situated in the western region of Garhwal Himalayas at an altitude of 3,291 metres (10,797 ft) in Uttarkashi district, Uttarakhand. The temple is dedicated to Goddess Yamuna and has a black marble idol of the goddess. The Yamunotri temple is a full day's journey from Uttarakhand's main towns — Rishikesh, Haridwar or Dehradun. The actual temple is only accessible by a 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) trek from the town of Hanuman Chatti and a 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) walk from Janki Chatti; horses or palanquins are available for rent. The hike from Hanuman Chatti to Yamunotri is very picturesque with beautiful views of a number of waterfalls. There are two trekking routes from Hanuman Chatti to Yamunotri, the one along the right bank proceeds via the Markandeya Tirth, where the sage Markandeya wrote the Markandeya Purana, the other route which lies on the left bank of the river goes via Kharsali, from where Yamunotri is a five or six hours climb away.

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