Chase (land)

In the United Kingdom a chase is a type of common land used for hunting to which there are no specifically designated officers and laws but instead reserved hunting rights for one or more persons.[1] Similarly, a Royal Chase is a type of Crown Estate by the same description, but where certain rights are reserved for a member of the British Royal Family.

Malvern Hills - England
Malvern Chase

Examples

Examples of chases in England include the Wyre Forest that straddles the border of Worcestershire and Shropshire, Malvern Chase in Worcestershire, and Pensnett Chase near Dudley.

Cannock Chase in Staffordshire has reverted to a chase (which like most chases has been partly reduced in size by settlements). It was in the Middle Ages a Royal Forest,[2] although it merged with a chase around Beaudesert originally belonging (in most of the Middle Ages) to the Bishop of Lichfield.[3]

Rights and history

The Victoria County History describes a chase as:

like a forest, uninclosed, and only defined by metes [houses and farmsteads within] and bounds [hills, highways, watercourses etc];[4] but it could be held by a subject. Offences committed therein were, as a rule, punishable by the common law and not by forest jurisdiction.[5]

Chases, often with more clearings than forests for hunting purposes, or due to their soil type, such as more heath, faced mass inclosure by Private (specifically local) Acts of Parliament primarily throughout the heyday of that type of privatisation 1600-1850. Inclosure converted from to some extent public to private land many chases. The private land after this has in many areas been converted, in part to residential, commercial, industrial or transport infrastructure use, however the chases listed here (see examples) remain largely undiminished by staying a common or by a gift to a public body whether to avoid inheritance tax or motivated by philanthropy.[6]

Misnomers

A chase to which are attached particular officers and laws is legally a forest. So-called deer forests in Scotland are properly speaking chases as are other public "forests" without their own laws but with apportioned hunting rights over the whole area.

Comparative status

Chases and Royal Chases are beneath the status of forests designated as such and Royal Forests respectively. The word "forest" has since the late medieval period come to mean any large woodland. Virtually all of the National Park or AONB forests and significant other forests have officers and laws that apply only to them, making them forests in every sense of the word.[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ Parrish, J. M.; Crossland, John R. (eds.). The Diamond Dictionary. London: Odhams Press Ltd. p. 93.
  2. ^ Staffordshire Forest Pleas: Introduction, Staffordshire Historical Collections. 5. 1884. pp. 123–135.
  3. ^ a b Richards, Bernard (1996), Beaudesert: The Staffordshire Seat of the Marquess of Anglesey
  4. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File%3AEdward_Coke%2C_The_Fourth_Part_of_the_Institutes_of_the_Laws_of_England_(1st_ed%2C_1644).pdf&page=325 quoted verbatim e.g. in 1797 https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ulE0AAAAIAAJ&vq=hampton%20court%20chase&pg=PA301#v=onepage&q=plainly%20appeareth&f=false
  5. ^ Page, W.H., ed. (1911). A History of the County of Middlesex. Victoria County History. 2. pp. 223–251.
  6. ^ Chambers, J. D.; Mingay, G. E. (1982). The Agricultural Revolution 1750–1850 (Reprinted ed.). Batsford. pp. 95–99.
Ancient woodland

In the United Kingdom, an ancient woodland is a woodland that has existed continuously since 1600 or before in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (or 1750 in Scotland). Before those dates, planting of new woodland was uncommon, so a wood present in 1600 was likely to have developed naturally.In most ancient woods, the trees and shrubs have been cut down periodically as part of the management cycle. Provided that the area has remained as woodland, the stand is still considered ancient. Since it may have been cut over many times in the past, ancient woodland does not necessarily contain very old trees.For many species of animal and plant, ancient woodland sites provide the sole habitat, and for many others, conditions on these sites are much more suitable than those on other sites. Ancient woodland in the UK, like rainforest in the tropics, is home to rare and threatened species. For these reasons ancient woodland is often described as an irreplaceable resource, or 'critical natural capital'.Ancient woodland is formally defined on maps by Natural England and equivalent bodies. Mapping of ancient woodland has been undertaken in different ways and at different times, and the quality and availability of data varies from region to region, although there are some efforts to standardise and update it.

Brookvale Park

Brookvale Park is located in the Stockland Green Ward of Erdington Constituency in England. The park surrounds Brookvale Park Lake. Within the park there is a bowling green, tennis courts, a children's play area and sailing club. Many local residents and groups take an active interest in the park and the lake.

Capital Crescent Trail

The Capital Crescent Trail (CCT) is an 11-mile (18 km) long, shared-use rail trail that runs from Georgetown in Washington, D.C., to Silver Spring, Maryland. The portion from Bethesda to Silver Spring was called the Georgetown Branch Trail but is currently closed to build the Purple Line light rail project and to extend the Capital Crescent Trail.

The Capital Crescent Trail is one of the most heavily used rail trails in the United States and is used by more than 1 million walkers, joggers, bikers, skateboarders and rollerbladers each year. In 2005, it was named one of the "21 great places that show how transportation can enliven a community" by The Project for Public Spaces.

Chesterfield Towne Center

Chesterfield Towne Center is an enclosed shopping mall in Richmond, Virginia. It opened in 1975 and features five anchor stores: At Home, JCPenney, Macy's, Sears and a combination TJ Maxx/HomeGoods.

Chevy Chase, Maryland

Chevy Chase is the name of both a town and an unincorporated census-designated place (Chevy Chase (CDP), Maryland) that straddle the northwest border of Washington, D.C. and Montgomery County, Maryland. Several settlements in the same area of Montgomery County and one neighborhood of Washington, D.C. include "Chevy Chase" in their names. These villages, the town, and the CDP share a common history and together form a larger community colloquially referred to as "Chevy Chase".

Primarily a residential suburb, Chevy Chase adjoins Friendship Heights, a popular shopping district. It includes the National 4-H Youth Conference Center, which hosts the National Science Bowl annually in either late April or early May.The name "Chevy Chase" is derived from "Cheivy Chace", the name of the land patented to Colonel Joseph Belt from Charles Calvert, 5th Baron Baltimore on July 10, 1725. It has historic associations to a 1388 battle between Lord Percy of England and Earl Douglas of Scotland, the subject of the ballad entitled "The Ballad of Chevy Chase". At issue in this "chevauchée" (a French word describing a border raid) were hunting grounds or a "chace" in the Cheviot Hills of Northumberland and Otterburn.

Chevy Chase (Washington, D.C.)

Chevy Chase is a neighborhood in northwest Washington, D.C. It borders Chevy Chase, Maryland, a collection of similarly affluent neighborhoods.

Chevy Chase (town), Maryland

Chevy Chase is an incorporated town in Montgomery County, Maryland, United States. The population was 2,824 at the 2010 census.

Chevy Chase Village, Maryland

Chevy Chase Village, Maryland is an incorporated municipality in Montgomery County, Maryland, bordering Washington, D.C. It is made up of sections 1, 1a, and 2 of Chevy Chase, Maryland, as originally designated by The Chevy Chase Land Company. The United States Census Bureau estimates its population to be 2,062 as of July 1, 2016. The town is the richest in Maryland, with a median income of "over $250,000", the highest income bracket listed by the census bureau, and a median home value of $1,823,800.Chevy Chase Village includes 721 homes. It is known for its speed limit enforcement actions, which produce 24% of its annual revenue. The population has historically been over 95% white, while the non-white residents are mostly transient. Chevy Chase Village also includes Chevy Chase Club, a private country club with an initiation fee of over $50,000.

Columbia Country Club

The Columbia Country Club, located in Chevy Chase, Maryland, is the successor of the Columbia Golf Club, which was organized on September 29, 1898 by nine men. Originally there were twenty members. The golf course, which opened in 1911, was designed by Herbert Barker. The first location of the Club was on the east side of Brightwood Avenue, afterwards known as Georgia Avenue, in the neighborhood of Schuetzen Park. It stands as one of the oldest and most prestigious country clubs in the United States. Through its history, the club has counted among its members two Five Star Generals, Omar Bradley and Hap Arnold, along with countless politicians, most notably Barack Obama, journalists, CEOs and lobbyists.

Deer park (England)

In medieval and Early Modern England, a deer park was an enclosed area containing deer. It was bounded by a ditch and bank with a wooden park pale on top of the bank, or by a stone or brick wall. The ditch was on the inside increasing the effective height. Some parks had deer "leaps", where there was an external ramp and the inner ditch was constructed on a grander scale, thus allowing deer to enter the park but preventing them from leaving.

Forest

A forest is a large area dominated by trees. Hundreds of more precise definitions of forest are used throughout the world, incorporating factors such as tree density, tree height, land use, legal standing and ecological function. According to the widely used Food and Agriculture Organization definition, forests covered 4 billion hectares (9.9×109 acres) (15 million square miles) or approximately 30 percent of the world's land area in 2006.Forests are the dominant terrestrial ecosystem of Earth, and are distributed around the globe. Forests account for 75% of the gross primary production of the Earth's biosphere, and contain 80% of the Earth's plant biomass. Net primary production is estimated at 21.9 gigatonnes carbon per year for tropical forests, 8.11 for temperate forests, and 2.69 for boreal forests.Forests at different latitudes and elevations form distinctly different ecozones: boreal forests near the poles, tropical forests near the equator and temperate forests at mid-latitudes. Higher elevation areas tend to support forests similar to those at higher latitudes, and amount of precipitation also affects forest composition.

Human society and forests influence each other in both positive and negative ways. Forests provide ecosystem services to humans and serve as tourist attractions. Forests can also affect people's health. Human activities, including harvesting forest resources, can negatively affect forest ecosystems.

Little Forest Park

Little Forest Park, formerly Francis G. Newlands Park, an undeveloped park located in the District of Columbia neighborhood of Chevy Chase; North of Military Rd., between 28th & 30th Sts., NW. This 8.78 acre (3.55 hectares) site is administered by the National Park Service as a part of Rock Creek Park

Louise Lasser

Louise Lasser (born April 11, 1939) is an American actress and television writer. She is known for her portrayal of the title character on the soap opera satire Mary Hartman, Mary Hartman. She was married to Woody Allen and appeared in several of his early films.

Martin's Additions, Maryland

Martin's Additions is a village in Montgomery County, Maryland, United States. It was established as a Special Tax District in 1916 and incorporated as a village in 1985. The population was 933 at the 2010 census.

Return of the Jedi (soundtrack)

Return of the Jedi (The Original Motion Picture Soundtrack) is the film score to the 1983 film Return of the Jedi, composed and conducted by John Williams and performed by the London Symphony Orchestra. The score was recorded at the Abbey Road Studios in January and February 1983. Again, John Williams served as producer. Orchestrator Herbert W. Spencer, engineer Eric Tomlinson, music editor Kenneth Wannberg, and record supervisor Lionel Newman again reprised their respective duties. The score earned another Academy Award nomination for Williams. Return of the Jedi, which is the original trilogy's longest score, was only released on a single-LP instead of a double-set like the Star Wars and The Empire Strikes Back soundtracks before it.

The 1983 original version was remastered by Sony Classical and released on LP in 2015. A remastered version of the soundtrack was released by Walt Disney Records on May 4, 2018. This remaster was newly assembled from the highest-quality tapes available, rather than sourced from the existing 1983 album masters.

The Collection at Chevy Chase

The Collection is a curated anthology of shops and restaurants steps from the Friendship Heights Metro located on Wisconsin Avenue in Chevy Chase, Maryland, along the Washington, D.C.- Maryland border. Starting in the spring of 2016, The Collection was due to undergo renovations to become a vibrant new focal point in Chevy Chase. Uniting existing food and fashion destinations with a curated mix of new neighborhood shops and cafes, the redevelopment plans for The Collection include sweeping public spaces, activated sidewalks, and vibrant storefronts. Metro connectivity will be enhanced and pedestrian and vehicular access will be improved.

The center was developed by private developer the Chevy Chase Land Company, a company founded in 1890 by U.S. Senator Francis G. Newlands, who acquired a great deal of property in the D.C. area. In the 1950s, two of suburban Maryland's first strip shopping centers were built. One of these shopping centers was Chevy Chase Center Stores, now known as The Collection.

West Potomac Park

West Potomac Park is a U.S. national park in Washington, D.C., adjacent to the National Mall. It includes the parkland that extends south of the Lincoln Memorial Reflecting Pool, from the Lincoln Memorial to the grounds of the Washington Monument. The park is the site of many national landmarks, including the Korean War Veterans Memorial, Jefferson Memorial, Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial, George Mason Memorial, and the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial.

The park includes the surrounding land on the shore of the Tidal Basin, an artificial inlet of the Potomac River which was created in the 19th century, an inlet that links the Potomac with the northern end of the Washington Channel.

West Potomac Park is administered by the National Park Service.

Woodland

A woodland (listen) or wood (or in the U.S., the plurale tantum woods) is a low-density forest forming open habitats with plenty of sunlight and limited shade. Woodlands may support an understory of shrubs and herbaceous plants including grasses. Woodland may form a transition to shrubland under drier conditions or during early stages of primary or secondary succession. Higher density areas of trees with a largely closed canopy that provides extensive and nearly continuous shade are referred to as forests.

Extensive efforts by conservationist groups have been made to preserve woodlands from urbanization and agriculture: the woodlands of Northwest Indiana being an example, having been preserved as part of the Indiana Dunes.

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