Charter township

A charter township is a form of local government in the U.S. state of Michigan. Townships in Michigan are organized governments. A charter township has been granted a charter, which allows it certain rights and responsibilities of home rule that are generally intermediate between those of a city (a semi-autonomous jurisdiction in Michigan) and a village. Unless it is a home-rule village, the latter is subject to the authority of any township in which it is located.

History

Seeing the pressure of suburbanization in many post-war communities, in 1947, the state legislature created a special charter township status, which grants additional powers and streamlined administration in order to provide greater protection against annexation of a township's land by cities and villages. As of November 2014, there were 118 charter townships in Michigan (Alpena Township became chartered in February 26, 2018).[1] A township with a population of 2,000 or more may incorporate as a charter township and become a municipal corporation, which possesses all the powers of a non-charter township, in addition to those specified by the Charter Township Act of 1947.

Government

Legislative authority is exercised by an elected township board of seven members, consisting of the supervisor, the township clerk, the township treasurer, and four trustees, who are eligible to vote in elections and are residents of the township. All members of the board serve four-year terms. Unlike the boards for general law townships, which may have either five or seven members, a charter township must have seven members. If a general law township with a five-member board elects to become a charter township, two additional members are to be elected in the next general election.[2]

Charter townships may appoint either a township superintendent or township manager, who can be assigned responsibilities for managing township functions (this is comparable to cities that hire a city manager to oversee the day-to-day operations of the city). Otherwise, executive authority lies with the supervisor, and various committees.

Privileges

A charter township may establish a variety of municipal services, such as a police force, fire department, assessors and also acquire property. It may also borrow money and issue bonds, with the approval of a majority of township voting in an election. Similarly, a charter township cannot levy taxes without the approval of a majority of the township population voting in an election. This is one significant difference from home-rule municipalities, in which the municipal authority can levy taxes without specific approval from voters.

Requirements

A charter township is mostly exempt from annexation from contiguous cities or villages providing that the township meets certain requirements:

  • Has state equalized valuation of at least $25,000,000
  • Has a minimum population density of 150 people per square mile (58/km²)
  • Provides fire protection service by contract or otherwise
  • Is governed by a comprehensive zoning ordinance or master plan
  • Provides solid waste disposal services to township residents, within or without the township, by contract, license, or municipal ownership
  • Provides water or sewer services, or both, by contract or otherwise
  • Provides police protection through contract with the sheriff in addition to normal sheriff patrol, through an intergovernmental contract, or through its own police department

Annexation and 425 Agreements

A charter township may still be subject to annexation under certain conditions, such as for the purpose of eliminating isolated islands of township or by vote of a majority of the residents of a portion of township. Temporary land transfers, which can involve charter townships, have provision under Public Act 425 of 1984. Under this statute, a charter township, for example, can have land transferred to a city in exchange for revenue sharing of the transferred parcels. These agreements, known as 425 Agreements, can last up to 50 years, and the land can either be completely transferred to the city or returned to the township upon fulfillment of the agreement.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Townships in Michigan". Michigan Township Association. Retrieved 2014-11-05.
  2. ^ General Law or Charter Township? The Decision is Yours... Prepared by the Michigan Townships Association, February 2005 Archived May 7, 2007, at the Wayback Machine

External links

Bloomfield Township, Oakland County, Michigan

Bloomfield Township, officially the Charter Township of Bloomfield, is a charter township of Oakland County in the U.S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the township population was 41,070. This area often referred to simply as "Bloomfield" by residents and visitors alike. This Metro Detroit township was organized in 1827, the first township to be established in Oakland County. It almost completely surrounds the city of Bloomfield Hills. In 2014, Bloomfield Township was ranked the most expensive community in which to live in the state of Michigan.The main branch of the Rouge River rises in Bloomfield Township in Oakland County.

Canton, Michigan

Canton, officially the Charter Township of Canton, is a charter township of Wayne County in the U.S. state of Michigan. It is located about 8 miles (13 km) west of the city limits of Detroit and 8 miles (13 km) east of the city limits of Ann Arbor. As of the 2010 census, the township had a population of 90,173, making it Michigan's second largest township and eleventh largest community. Canton is ranked as 96th highest-income place in the United States with a population of 50,000 or more. Canton Township is also consistently ranked as one of the safest cities in the United States, as well as in the state of Michigan. In 2015, the township was ranked as the 29th safest city in the U.S. Canton is one of Michigan's fastest growing communities.

Clinton Township, Macomb County, Michigan

Clinton Charter Township is a charter township and a census-designated place (CDP) of Macomb County in the U.S. state of Michigan. It is a part of Metro Detroit. As of the 2010 census, the township had a total population of 96,796, and is Michigan's most populous township. It is also the tenth largest municipality in Michigan. The township sports relatively wide socioeconomic diversity; for the most part, it is a mix of middle class communities, but it includes many upscale, exclusive areas that many notable people, such as Eminem, call home. Clinton Township is home to many parks, notably George George Memorial Park. The main branch of the Clinton River, for which the township was named, runs through Clinton Township.

Commerce Township, Michigan

Commerce Township, officially the Charter Township of Commerce, is a charter township of Oakland County, and suburb of Detroit, located in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 40,186 at the 2010 census. The terrain is rolling hills with large expanses of flat farmland and suburban development. The Huron River runs mostly north-south through the township. Commerce was formerly a weekend and summer resort for Detroiters because of the area's small inland lakes and peaceful seclusion, but due to recent development the cottages are now all permanent homes. There has been a sharp increase in population in the last few years, mostly on or near the several lakes and golf courses. Much of Proud Lake State Recreation Area is within the township. The northern terminus of M-5 is in Commerce. The busy highway would have continued north to Interstate 75, but because of the area's high property value and the many lakes that dot the landscape such a project would have been far too costly.

In 1994, David Hahn, a 17-year-old Eagle Scout, constructed a makeshift nuclear reactor in his backyard in Commerce Township, exposing himself and his neighbors—and maybe even as many as 40,000 people in the area—to radioactive materials, and drawing the attention of the EPA. The event became a short-lived media sensation, and a book by Ken Silverstein called The Radioactive Boy Scout was written about the incident and published in 2004.

Delta Charter Township, Michigan

Delta Charter Township, officially known as the Charter Township of Delta and commonly known as simply Delta Township, is a charter township of Eaton County in the U.S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, it had a population of 32,408 making it the most populous municipality in Eaton County. The township operates its own fire department, but contracts with the Eaton County Sheriff Department for police protection. The township is a major community in metropolitan Lansing.

Georgetown Township, Michigan

Georgetown Charter Township is a charter township of Ottawa County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 46,985 at the 2010 census. The city of Hudsonville is adjacent to the township and the unincorporated community of Jenison is within the township, which includes about half the township's population.

Grand Blanc Township, Michigan

Grand Blanc Charter Township is a charter township of Genesee County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 37,508 at the 2010 census, a significant increase from 29,827 at the 2000 census. The city of Grand Blanc was formed out of part of the township's survey area.

Holland Charter Township, Michigan

Holland Charter Township is a charter township of Ottawa County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was at the 35,636 2010 census. As of the 2017 Census estimates, the population stood at 37,979.

The City of Holland is adjacent to the south and is administratively autonomous.

Independence Township, Michigan

Independence Township is a charter township of Oakland County, in the U.S. state of Michigan.

The City of the Village of Clarkston, autonomous and incorporated in 1992, is completely surrounded by the township.

The township is home to Pine Knob Ski Resort, and DTE Energy Music Theater.Independence Township was named by one of its earliest settlers, Joseph Van Sycle, who came to the area in 1834 from Independence Township, New Jersey.

List of municipalities in Michigan (by population)

This is a list of the 300 most populous municipalities in Michigan ordered by 2010 population, from the 2010 United States Census.

Meridian Charter Township, Michigan

Meridian Township is a charter township of Ingham County in the U.S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census the township had a population of 39,688. Meridian Township is the local government unit that includes the unincorporated communities and census-designated places of Okemos and Haslett. Meridian Township is the third largest municipality in the Lansing-East Lansing Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Meridian Township takes its name from the fact that the Michigan meridian, the prime north-south survey line, comprises the eastern border of the township. It is from this line that all townships were surveyed and measured.

Orion Township, Michigan

Orion Charter Township ( ORR-ee-ən) is a charter township of Oakland County, Michigan, United States. The population was 35,394 at the 2010 census.The official motto of the township and village is "Where living is a vacation". "Lake Orion" is often used to describe both the village and the township. The area hosts General Motors' Orion Assembly plant which produces small cars.

Redford, Michigan

Redford, officially the Charter Township of Redford, is a charter township in Wayne County in the U.S. state of Michigan and a suburb of Detroit. The population was 48,362 at the 2010 census.

Rochester Hills, Michigan

Rochester Hills (formerly Avon Township) is a city in northeast Oakland County in the U.S. state of Michigan, in the northern outskirts of the Metro Detroit area. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 70,995.

Saginaw Charter Township, Michigan

Saginaw Charter Township is a charter township of Saginaw County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 40,840 at the 2010 census. The city of Saginaw is adjacent to the township to the southeast, but is administratively autonomous.

For statistical reporting, two census-designated places are defined within the township: Saginaw Township North and Saginaw Township South. The township is also a component of the Saginaw Metropolitan Statistical Area and the greater Saginaw-Midland-Bay City Combined Statistical Area in the Mid/Central Michigan region.

Shelby Charter Township, Michigan

Shelby Charter Township, officially the Charter Township of Shelby, is a charter township and census-designated place located in Macomb County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The township, an affluent northern suburb of Detroit, is located roughly 15 miles north of the city. As of the 2000 census, the township had a total population of 65,159. The 2010 Census places the population at 73,804. Shelby Charter Township is one of the fastest growing communities in Metro Detroit.

Waterford Township, Michigan

Waterford Township is a charter township in the geographic center of Oakland County, Michigan, United States.

In 2012, the population of Waterford Township was 72,166.

West Bloomfield Township, Michigan

West Bloomfield Township, officially the Charter Township of West Bloomfield, is a charter township in Oakland County in the U.S. state of Michigan, within the Detroit metropolitan area. It is one of the most expensive places to live in Oakland County. As of the 2010 census, the township had a population of 64,690.

Ypsilanti Charter Township, Michigan

Ypsilanti Township, officially the Charter Township of Ypsilanti, is a charter township in Washtenaw County in the U.S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the township population was 53,362. The city of Ypsilanti is mostly surrounded by the township, but the two are administered autonomously.

Designations for types of administrative territorial entities

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