Charmed is an American fantasy drama television series created by Constance M. Burge and produced by Aaron Spelling and his production company Spelling Television, with Brad Kern serving as showrunner. The series was originally broadcast by The WB for eight seasons from October 7, 1998, until May 21, 2006. The series narrative follows a trio of sisters, known as The Charmed Ones, the most powerful good witches of all time, who use their combined "Power of Three" to protect innocent lives from evil beings such as demons and warlocks. Each sister possesses unique magical powers that grow and evolve, while they attempt to maintain normal lives in modern-day San Francisco. Keeping their supernatural identities separate and secret from their ordinary lives often becomes a challenge for them, with the exposure of magic having far-reaching consequences on their various relationships and resulting in a number of police and FBI investigations throughout the series. The series initially focuses on the three Halliwell sisters, Prue (Shannen Doherty), Piper (Holly Marie Combs) and Phoebe (Alyssa Milano). Following Prue's death in the third-season finale, their long-lost half sister Paige Matthews (Rose McGowan) assumes her place within the "Power of Three" from season four onwards.
Charmed achieved a cult following and popularity on The WB with its first episode "Something Wicca This Way Comes" garnering 7.7 million viewers, breaking the record for the network's highest-rated debut episode. The show's ratings, although smaller than rival shows on the "big four" networks (ABC, CBS, NBC, and Fox), were a success for the relatively new and smaller WB network. Charmed went through several timeslot changes during its eight-season run. For its first three seasons in the Wednesday/Thursday 9:00 pm timeslot, Charmed was the second-highest rated series on The WB, behind 7th Heaven. During its fifth season, the show moved to the Sunday 8:00 pm timeslot, where it became the highest-rated Sunday night program in The WB's history. At 178 episodes, Charmed was the second-longest drama broadcast by The WB, behind 7th Heaven. In 2006, it became the longest running hour-long television series featuring all female leads, before being surpassed by Desperate Housewives in 2012.
The series has also received numerous awards and nominations. In 2010, The Huffington Post and AOL TV ranked Charmed within their joint list of "The Top 20 Magic/Supernatural Shows of All Time," while in 2013, TV Guide listed the series as one of "The 60 Greatest Sci-Fi Shows of All Time." Charmed has also become a source of pop culture references in film and television and has influenced other succeeding television series in the same subgenre. The show's success has led to its development in other media, including a video game, board games, soundtracks, novels, and a comic book series which served as a continuation of its narrative. According to data research from The NPD Group in 2012, Charmed was the second-most binge watched television series on subscription video-on-demand services, such as Netflix. A reboot premiered on The CW on October 14, 2018.
|Created by||Constance M. Burge|
|Opening theme||"How Soon Is Now?" performed by Love Spit Love|
|Country of origin||United States|
|No. of seasons||8|
|No. of episodes||178 (list of episodes)|
|Camera setup||Panavision, Single-camera|
|Running time||40–45 minutes|
|Original network||The WB|
|Audio format||Dolby Digital|
|Original release||October 7, 1998 –|
May 21, 2006
|Related shows||Charmed (2018–)|
The series starts when Phoebe Halliwell (Alyssa Milano) returns from New York and moves back into the family's Halliwell Manor in San Francisco to live with her sisters Prue (Shannen Doherty) and Piper (Holly Marie Combs). When Phoebe discovers the family's Book of Shadows in the attic, she learns that she and her sisters are the most powerful witches ever known, destined to protect both innocents and the world at large from demons, warlocks, and other evil creatures. Phoebe, reasonably suspecting the book to be a novelty, reads its initial inscription—unaware that it also happens to be an incantation activating the sisters' supernatural powers once all three are reunited in their ancestral home.
By the end of the first episode, each sister learns that she has a unique magical power and that they can each cast spells and brew potions. Prue, the eldest, has the power of telekinesis (the ability to move objects with her mind), and in season two she develops the power of astral projection (the ability to be in two places at once). Piper, the middle sister, has the power to effectively "freeze" people and objects in time. As she grows more proficient, she learns how to freeze only certain people or objects or body parts, as she wishes. In season three, her powers evolve further, as she is able to cause evil beings or objects to explode using her hands. Phoebe, the youngest of the three, initially possesses the power of premonition allowing her to receive visions of the future and later of the past. She later develops the powers of levitation in season three, and empathy in season six, the latter allowing her to sense and tap into others' emotions and, sometimes, powers. In accordance with the series' mythology, witches' powers are tied to their emotions.
During the first two seasons, the sisters face various evil beings from week to week. However, in the third season, they discover that their ultimate enemy is The Underworld's demonic ruler, The Source of All Evil. Eventually, Prue is killed in the season three finale by The Source's personal assassin, Shax (Michael Bailey Smith). While grieving for their older sister, Piper and Phoebe discover that they also have a younger half-sister, Paige Matthews (Rose McGowan), who had been the secret love child of their witch mother, Patty (Finola Hughes), and her whitelighter (guardian angel) Sam Wilder (Scott Jaeck). Paige's magical abilities represent her dual heritage as both a witch and whitelighter; like Prue, she possesses a form of telekinesis, but she has to verbally call for objects to orb (or, teleport) them to their intended destination. As she attempts to control the two sides of her ancestry, Paige also learns how to orb herself and others, and to heal others with the touch of her hand; she eventually receives her own whitelighter charges to train and protect as they learn witchcraft. Paige can also glamour, shapeshifting into a different human appearance.
The Source, responsible for the majority of attacks on the sisters, becomes the main villain during season four until he is finally vanquished. After his demise, an annual season-long storyline and several antagonists are introduced in subsequent seasons (occasionally following the "Big Bad" television format). These include Phoebe's demonic ex-husband, Cole Turner (Julian McMahon), until mid-season five; the scheming, misguided Elder, Gideon (Gildart Jackson), throughout season six; The Avatars until mid-season seven; the demon Zankou (Oded Fehr) until the season seven finale; and, in season eight, powerful sister witches Billie (Kaley Cuoco) and Christy Jenkins (Marnette Patterson), who fall under the influence of the demonic Triad (who earlier feature as early-season three antagonists). In addition to the supernatural themes explored in Charmed, the characters contend with serious issues in their day-to-day lives such as relationships, careers, marriage, childbirth, illness and the deaths of loved ones. The sisters also fight to prevent the exposure of the existence of magic to the human community at large, contending with several police and FBI investigations. Often through the assistance of their long-term ally, Darryl Morris (Dorian Gregory) of the San Francisco Police Department, they are able to avoid police suspicion, including the investigation of the most-recurring human antagonist, Inspector Sheridan (Jenya Lano), in the sixth and seventh seasons.
The sisters also face romantic storylines. Prue's love interests include her high school sweetheart, Inspector Andy Trudeau (Ted King), who dies in the season one finale in an attempt to save the sisters, and a brief co-worker, Jack Sheridan (Lochlyn Munro), in season two. Piper's central love interest throughout the series is the sisters' whitelighter Leo Wyatt (Brian Krause); their early relationship is problematic due to the forbidden nature of witch-whitelighter relationships, and so in season two a love triangle forms with Piper, Leo and her neighbor, Dan Gordon (Greg Vaughan). Eventually, the two manage to marry and consecrate their union in season three, producing a son named Wyatt in season five. The couple separate due to supernatural circumstances at the end of the fifth season; however, they reconnect in the subsequent season, resulting in a second son named Chris. The final episode of Charmed shows them to have a daughter, many grandchildren, and to grow old together in the future. Phoebe's romantic history involves a tortured relationship with half-demon Cole Turner in the show's third, fourth and fifth seasons; they have a turbulent marriage in the fourth, and in the fifth, following their divorce, she is compelled to vanquish him. Phoebe has a number of multi-episode human boyfriends in subsequent seasons, including her boss, Jason Dean (Eric Dane), before meeting a cupid named Coop (Victor Webster) in the eighth season, whom she marries. Paige, like Phoebe, has several multi-episode boyfriends, including fellow-witch and magic "addict" Richard Montana (Balthazar Getty) in season six, and an unstable FBI agent-turned-whitelighter Kyle Brody (Kerr Smith) in season seven. In the eighth season, she becomes committed to a human parole officer, Henry Mitchell (Ivan Sergei), whom she marries. The final episode's flashforward montage reveals Piper, Phoebe, and Paige to have three children each with their respective husbands.
In 1998, when The WB began looking for a new drama series for the 1998–99 season, they approached Spelling Television (which had produced the network's then-most successful series, 7th Heaven) to create it. Expanding on the popularity of supernatural-themed dramas such as The Craft (1996) and Practical Magic (1998), the production company explored different forms of mythology to find characters they could realize with contemporary storytelling.
Constance M. Burge was hired to create the series as she was under contract with 20th Century Fox and Spelling Television after conceiving the drama series Savannah (1996–97). When the theme of witchcraft was first pitched to her, she was aware of stereotypes of witches (flying brooms, black cats, and warts). After researching Wicca, she changed her perspective and aimed at telling a story of good witches who looked and acted like ordinary people. With this, her initial concept was a series set in Boston, Massachusetts about three friends and roommates who were all witches. However, executive producer E. Duke Vincent lacked confidence, asking "Why would anybody want to watch a show about three witches?" He proposed that the series should focus on family values and developed the series-long mantra of it being about "three sisters who happen to be witches, not three witches who happen to be sisters." Spelling warmed to Burge's ideas and, after the concept was re-crafted to be a series about three sisters (now living in San Francisco) descended from a line of witches, it was pitched to The WB's President of Entertainment, Susanne Daniels, who liked it, allowing the series to begin development.
The series was retitled Charmed after Spelling's suggestion of House of Sisters was dropped. Burge wrote the pilot script. A 28-minute version was filmed (the "unaired pilot," never aired on network television) with which the series was picked up by The WB. Upon its debut, Charmed received the largest audience for a series premiere in the network's history. The first season of 22 episodes was picked up by The WB after only two episodes had aired.
Former Beverly Hills, 90210 actress Shannen Doherty was cast as the eldest sister Prue Halliwell, while her best friend and former Picket Fences actress Holly Marie Combs played the role of the middle sister Piper Halliwell. Lori Rom was originally cast as the youngest sister Phoebe Halliwell in the 28-minute unaired pilot episode. However, Rom quit the series, and a new pilot was filmed with former Who's the Boss? actress Alyssa Milano in the role of Phoebe. Doherty departed Charmed at the end of the third season and was replaced in the fourth season by film actress Rose McGowan, who played the long-lost younger half-sister Paige Matthews.
In season one, Ted King was cast as the inspector Andy Trudeau, Dorian Gregory was cast as his inspector partner Darryl Morris, and Brian Krause was cast as the Halliwell sisters' whitelighter Leo Wyatt. King departed Charmed at the end of the first season, while Gregory remained on the show until the seventh season. In season two, Greg Vaughan joined the series as the Halliwell sisters' new next-door neighbor Dan Gordon, while Karis Paige Bryant was cast as his niece Jenny Gordon. Bryant left her role midway through the second season, while Vaughan left at the end of the season. Australian actor Julian McMahon joined the cast of Charmed in season three as the half-demon Cole Turner. He departed the show midway through season five. Drew Fuller joined Charmed at the end of the fifth season as Piper and Leo's second son from the future, Chris Halliwell. Fuller left his role at the end of season six. In the eighth and final season, Kaley Cuoco joined the show as the young witch Billie Jenkins.
Executive producers Aaron Spelling and E. Duke Vincent maintained their roles until the series ended. Constance M. Burge became an executive producer when she was hired to create the series and write the pilot. After the short "unaired pilot" was shown to The WB and the series was picked up by the network, Brad Kern was recruited as the fourth executive producer and as the show runner in order to decipher how the series would develop over the course of its run. While Kern remained with the show until its end, between the second and third seasons Burge was not an executive producer. She remained as executive consultant until the end of season four when she left Charmed.
Scripting was done by a large number of writers. Brad Kern did the most writing, with a total of 26 episodes, as well as directing one of them. The writers with the most writing credits other than Kern include Daniel Cerone, Curtis Kheel, Zack Estrin, Chris Levinson, Krista Vernoff, Sheryl J. Anderson, Monica Owusu-Breen, Alison Schapker, Cameron Litvack, and Jeannine Renshaw. Constance M. Burge wrote seven episodes for the first and second seasons before leaving her position as executive producer. Scripting was carried out after group brainstorms took place, discussing the events of the episodes, the emotions of the characters, and the mythology involved. Robert Masello, an executive story editor for the series, credits himself as the only demonologist hired for a series, in order to add his experience to the storyline.
Charmed is the only show that has a licensed fully bonded demonologist, which is me, on staff and as a result because I've written books about demonology and the occult of witchcraft, I'm there to answer questions about how a demon would behave.
However, as Holly Marie Combs revealed in The Women of Charmed documentary, the series aimed at following a mythology created by fantasy, and not adhering to Wiccan rules too closely, for fear of coming under criticism for either not being "technically correct enough" or missing the truth completely. Between the second and the third season, Burge left, leaving her former position to executive producer Kern. She remained as creative consultant until season four. Burge's departure resulted in changes in the story structure of the show, from a "demon of the week" system to using third or half-season-long story arcs. In addition, more importance was given to the protagonists' personal lives. The serial connection of episodes culminated in the second half of season four. Despite the ratings increasing during season four's final story arc from 4.19 to 4.21, The WB asked Kern to abandon the serial system. This led to the largely episodic structure of season five, and resulted in the two systems being balanced from the sixth season onwards.
The first six seasons of Charmed were filmed at Ray-Art Studios in Canoga Park, Los Angeles on four of the studio's sound stages. After Ray-Arts Studio was sold in 2003, production for Charmed moved to the Paramount Studios lot for seasons seven and eight. Executive producer Brad Kern revealed that the show's eighth and final season was shot only on the Paramount Studios lot as they could not go out on location anymore due to budget cuts. The Innes House located at 1329 Carroll Avenue in Los Angeles was used as the exterior for the show's fictional Halliwell Manor, and has become popular with tourists over the years.
The opening credits for Charmed was used to introduce the main and supporting cast members in each season. It consisted of various scenes from episodes and individual footages of the cast that were mostly updated from season to season. The opening began with images of the Golden Gate Bridge and flashing shots of the triquetra symbol in a circle. The show's title card then appeared, featuring the triquetra symbol and Book of Shadows. After the title card shot in the seasons 1–3 opening, scenes from the pilot episode were shown, which included an overhead view of the sisters casting a spell at a round table and a shot of them coming downstairs. A scene of the sisters reciting a spell was then shown with the word "starring." This was followed by the individual footages and names of each lead actress; Shannen Doherty's appeared first, then Holly Marie Combs' and Alyssa Milano's, followed by the individual footages and names of each supporting cast member. The last few scenes in the opening showed the sisters' cat, a San Francisco cable car, and lastly the sisters walking upstairs into their home, with Doherty's character closing the door using her telekinetic powers.
Following Doherty's departure at the end of season three, the season four opening credits had to be recreated to remove all footage of Doherty and to include her replacement, Rose McGowan. The beginning of the opening remained the same. However, after the title card was shown, scenes were changed to include images of the Golden Gate Bridge, a gargoyle, talisman, scrying crystal, tattoo of the triquetra symbol, and candles. The order in which each lead actresses individual footage and name appeared in the opening was also changed; Milano's was moved up first, McGowan's was put in second, and Combs' was moved down third and listed "as Piper." The last few scenes in the opening were also changed to include a cemetery, exterior shots of the Halliwell Manor, and pages in the Book of Shadows. A five-second opening was used for the two-part premiere episodes of seasons four and five; it featured flashing shots of the triquetra symbol and the show's title in large blue letters.
The opening theme song used in the television airings of all eight seasons was Love Spit Love's cover version of "How Soon Is Now?" by The Smiths. The song had previously appeared on the soundtrack of The Craft. In the shortened five-second opening for the two-part premiere episodes of seasons four and five, the song was replaced by instrumental music. "How Soon Is Now?" was also replaced by hard-rock instrumental music in the season eight DVD because the music license to use it had expired. This hard-rock instrumental music was also used in the opening of all eight seasons on Netflix.
The earlier seasons of Charmed received mostly favorable reviews from television critics, with its first season scoring a Metacritic score of 61 out of 100. During the first season, Entertainment Weekly writer Ken Tucker, speaking on the comparisons between Charmed and rival series, argued: "spike-heeled where Buffy is fleet-footed, Charmed is Charlie's Angels with an Ouija board." As well as the show's action sequences—describing the Halliwells as "superheroes"—he noted that the series "plays up the stars' separate-but-equal charms" and admired both its "casting and pop-culture timing." Vanessa Thorpe of The Guardian agreed with Alyssa Milano's description of Charmed as "perfect post-feminist girl-power," praising the balance between action and emotion as the "three sibling sorceresses know mischief, but are accessibly feminine." Entertainment Weekly critic Karyn L. Barr labelled Charmed a "crafty cult classic" and in her retrospective review of the first season, wrote that it "remains spellbinding thanks to its proper balance of quirky humor, Buffy-esque drama" and Shannen Doherty's character Prue. Angelica Bastien of Bustle magazine commended the "strong female characters" and felt that the show resembled Xena: Warrior Princess more than Buffy due to its "mix of drama, wacky humor, intensely layered mythology, and feminism-lite vibe."
During the third season, Michael Abernethy of PopMatters praised the "well-choreographed action sequences, respectable acting" and "believable" sisterly relationship between Milano, Doherty, and Holly Marie Combs. Abernethy credited Charmed as "more enjoyable than most shows in the good vs evil genre" largely due to the strength of the performers, and noted that despite the monster of the week format, "the writers tend to explore the sibling dynamics to keep the show from growing redundant." Christel Loar also from PopMatters agreed that "episodes go beyond the demon-of-the-week formula to tap into the relationships of the characters and their...flaws. Charmed...succeeded by combining sisterhood with the supernatural." Loar also claimed that the Halliwells' struggle for normal lives, "stability, and a sense of self is one of the reasons Charmed strikes such a chord with its viewers." The A.V. Club's Kayla Kumari Upadhyaya described the fourth season as "one of the grimmest seasons of Charmed," following Doherty's departure and her character's death "informing the overall tone." Upadhyaya also praised the "smart decisions" the writers made of how they introduced a new sister into the series, calling the transition "Charmed's greatest accomplishment" that "opened up whole new avenues for grounded, emotional storytelling." During the sixth season, Gillian Flynn of Entertainment Weekly described Charmed as "a guilty-pleasure fantasy" that is "inherently cute and incredibly simple." Flynn also praised the comedic acting between Milano, Combs and Rose McGowan, adding that "selling this kind of comedy takes a certain gameness, and the actresses have got it."
The latter seasons of Charmed also received a mixed reception from some critics. Bustle's Bastien felt that after Doherty's departure, "Charmed got pretty bad" and noted that the show "lost track of its core theme" of witchcraft and sisterhood by introducing mystical beings, focusing more on "soapy plots and the sisters' love lives." Similarly, BuzzFeed writer Jarett Wieselman agreed that "After Doherty's exit, Charmed veered into slightly-absurd-yet-no-less-entertaining territory," noting that McGowan's addition "ushered in a wave of increasingly campy episodes." The A.V. Club's Upadhyaya felt that the latter seasons "got too complicated" and campy by focusing too much on the magic "and not enough about the themes that grounded the show earlier on." Becca James also from The A.V. Club felt that the show "should have died the same time" Doherty's character did. Hugh Armitage of Digital Spy believed that Charmed "began to feel very self-indulgent towards its stars" in the latter seasons, noting that character-driven storylines were replaced with gimmicks such as the revealing costumes worn by the sisters, particularly Milano's character. Nick Romano of Screen Crush wrote that "the storylines became wicca ridiculous and the dialogue became too cheesy," particularly in season eight. Jon Langmead of PopMatters believed that Charmed "slipped markedly" in seasons seven and eight, noting that the final season lost appealing elements such as "smart casting" and "attention to relationship drama" of the show's earlier seasons. Langmead also disliked the introduction of Kaley Cuoco and Marnette Patterson in the eighth season, and felt that Cuoco was "consistently painful to watch." DVD Verdict's Ryan Keefer also felt that Cuoco joining the show was a "poor choice" by the producers, and commented that season eight "failed to recapture the glory days of the first few seasons."
Charmed has gathered several awards and nominations. The show was nominated for one TV Guide Award, two International Horror Guild Awards, three Teen Choice Awards, three Wand Awards and seven RATTY Awards, with Holly Marie Combs winning "Best Science Fiction Lead Actress" in 2003. It was also nominated for three Saturn Awards, including one "Best Network Television Series" nomination for its first season and two "Best Actress on Television" nominations for Shannen Doherty in 1999 and 2000. In 2001, Charmed won a Cable Guide Award in the United Kingdom for "Favorite Sci-Fi/Fantasy Series." The series also won a "Certificate of Merit" at the 2003 EDGE Awards for the season four episode "Muse to My Ears."
In 2004, Alyssa Milano was nominated for a Spacey Award in Canada for "Favorite Female TV Character" and in 2005, she was nominated for "Favorite Television Actress" at the Nickelodeon Kids' Choice Awards. That same year, Rose McGowan won the award for "Favorite Sister" at the Family Television Awards. Charmed also received recognition for its young guest actors, having been nominated for five Young Artist Awards, with Alex Black winning once for his role in the season four episode "Lost and Bound."
In the United States, Charmed premiered on The WB on October 7, 1998 and ended on May 21, 2006. The first season aired on Wednesday nights at 9:00 pm. For its second, third and fourth seasons, Charmed moved to Thursday nights. For the fifth season, the series moved to Sunday nights at 8:00 pm and remained there until its eighth and final season. By the end of season eight, Charmed had aired a total of 178 episodes and became the longest running hour-long television series featuring all female leads. Most seasons consisted of 22 episodes, except for the fifth and sixth seasons, which contained 23 episodes, including their double-episode premieres and double-episode finales.
TNT airs reruns of Charmed with three repeat episodes every weekday morning at 7:00 am, 8:00 am and 9:00 am. Full episodes of Charmed are also available for viewing on TNT's official website. In 2010, WE tv aired two repeat episodes each weeknight at 6:00 pm and 7:00 pm. Subscription video-on-demand service Netflix released the full series in July 2011 via their Instant Streaming Service. According to data research from The NPD Group in 2012, Charmed was the second-most binge watched television series on subscription video-on-demand services, such as Netflix.
In Australia, Charmed was originally broadcast on Network Ten. Reruns of the series have aired on Network Ten's digital channel 10 Peach and in high definition on Syfy. In Austria, the show was titled Charmed – Zauberhafte Hexen (Charmed – Magical Witches) and aired on ProSieben Austria. In Belgium, reruns of Charmed have aired each weekday on 2BE. In Brazil, People+Arts aired reruns of the series on weekdays in 2009. In Canada, reruns of Charmed were broadcast on Cosmopolitan TV. In Denmark, Charmed was titled Heksene fra Warren Manor (The Witches from Warren Manor) and aired on TV3 Denmark. In Finland, Charmed was titled Siskoni On Noita (My Sister Is Witch) and aired on Nelonen. In France, the series was broadcast on M6. In Germany, the show was titled Charmed – Zauberhafte Hexen (Charmed – Magical Witches) and aired on ProSieben Germany. In Greece, Charmed was called Οι Μάγισσες (The Witches) and originally aired on the Star Channel. In Ireland, the series was originally broadcast on TV3 Ireland. In Italy, Charmed was titled Streghe (Witches) and aired on Rai Due. In Lithuania, Charmed was titled San Francisko Raganos (San Francisco Witches) and aired on LNK. In the Netherlands, Charmed was broadcast on NET 5 and in New Zealand, it was originally broadcast on TV3 NZ. In the Philippines, the series aired on the now defunct Studio 23 network. In Poland, Charmed was titled Czarodziejki and aired on TVP1 and Polsat. In Portugal, Charmed was called As Feiticeiras (The Witches) and aired on AXN Portugal. In Saudi Arabia, reruns of the series aired on MBC 4. In Slovakia, Charmed was titled Čarodejnice (The Witches) and aired on Markíza. In Mexico, the series was called "Hechiceras" ("Witches") and aired weekdays on Canal 5 (Mexico). In Spain, the series was called Embrujadas (Charmed) and reruns aired on Cosmopolitan TV. In South Africa, the show was originally aired on SABC1 before moving to SABC3 after its third season. In Switzerland, the show was called Charmed – Zauberhafte Hexen (Charmed – Magical Witches) and reruns aired on SRF zwei. In Turkey, Charmed was originally broadcast on DiziMax. In the United Kingdom, Charmed was originally broadcast on Living TV and Channel 5. Reruns of the series have aired weekdays on E4, 4Music and Pick.
Charmed's first episode "Something Wicca This Way Comes" broke the record for the highest-rated debut episode for The WB, with 7.7 million viewers. The show's ratings, although smaller than rival shows on the "big four" networks (ABC, CBS, NBC, and Fox), were a success for the relatively new and smaller WB network. Charmed's premiere in 1998 helped ratings rise for The WB, with TV Guide's Mark Schwed noting that the network's viewing figures were way up than the previous year. For its first three seasons, Charmed was the second-highest rated series on The WB, behind 7th Heaven. During its fifth season, the series became the highest-rated Sunday night program in The WB's history.
|Season||Episodes||Timeslot (ET)||Premiered||Ended||TV season||Rank||Network
|1||22||Wednesday 9:00 pm||October 7, 1998||7.7||May 26, 1999||5.6||1998–99||#118||#2||5.4|
|2||22||Thursday 9:00 pm||September 30, 1999||5.1||May 18, 2000||4.5||1999–2000||#120||#2||5.2|
|3||22||October 5, 2000||7.7||May 17, 2001||5.3||2000–01||#117||#2||4.9|
|4||22||October 4, 2001||6.0||May 16, 2002||5.2||2001–02||#129||#6||4.2|
|5||23||Sunday 8:00 pm||September 22, 2002||6.3||May 11, 2003||4.9||2002–03||#128||#6||4.5|
|6||23||September 28, 2003||6.3||May 16, 2004||4.7||2003–04||#154||#4||4.3|
|7||22||September 12, 2004||5.5||May 22, 2005||3.4||2004–05||#132||#7||3.5|
|8||22||September 25, 2005||4.2||May 21, 2006||4.5||2005–06||#132||#7||3.5|
Charmed was the first primetime television show about a coven of witches. Following the broadcast of the season eight episode "Payback's a Witch" in January 2006, Charmed became the longest running hour-long series in American television history featuring all female leads. However, this accolade was surpassed in 2012 by Desperate Housewives, which also lasted for eight seasons but aired two more episodes than Charmed. In 2000, Cult TV placed Charmed at number forty-four on its list of the "Top 100 Cult TV Shows." In 2007, AOL TV ranked each Charmed One on its list of the "Top TV Witches"—Piper third, Phoebe seventh, Prue ninth and Paige twelfth. In 2010, HuffPost TV and AOL TV ranked Charmed at number ten on their joint list of "The Top 20 Magic/Supernatural Shows of All Time" and in 2013, TV Guide placed the series on its list of "The 60 Greatest Sci-Fi Shows of All Time."
In 2012, six years after its original broadcasting, Charmed was found by The NPD Group to be the second-most binge watched television series on subscription video-on-demand services, such as Netflix. After Charmed ended, there were never any other long-running shows about witches to rival shows about vampires and zombies. In 2013, Joe Rhodes of The New York Times referred to Charmed as "the last successful witch TV series," while BuzzFeed writer Jarett Wieselman wrote that "no subsequent [witch] series have been able to replicate Charmed's success." Many witch-themed shows after Charmed have been cancelled after one or two seasons. The 2013–14 season saw a resurgence of witches in new shows The Originals, Witches of East End, Salem, and in the third season of American Horror Story titled Coven. In an interview with E! Online, cast member Alyssa Milano stated that she believed the success of Charmed helped pave the way for these witch-themed shows, saying "I feel like networks are trying to replicate that." The growing trend of witches on television that year as well as Charmed's success on Netflix prompted CBS to develop a reboot of Charmed, which later did not go past the development stage. However, a new reboot series, featuring a different cast and different characters, premiered on The CW network in October 2018.
Witches of East End (2013–14) was noted by critics for its strong resemblance to Charmed, as both shows are about a sisterhood of witches battling evil and live in similar houses, which its executive producer Maggie Friedman has acknowledged. Other witch-themed shows that have been compared to Charmed include The Secret Circle (2011–12) and Hex (2004–05), which has been described as "the U.K.'s edgier, oversexed response to Charmed." Eastwick (2009) was noted for its surface similarities to Charmed as it also focused on a trio of female witches, which led to the show's pilot director David Nutter to say that Eastwick was not a clone of Charmed. The season four episode of Smallville titled "Spell" also received comparisons to Charmed as it focused on three of its main female characters, who get possessed by a trio of 16th Century witches.
The depiction of witchcraft in Charmed has had a significant impact on popular culture. In 2008, the religious organisation Beliefnet ranked The Charmed Ones at number eight on their list of the "Top 10 Witches in Pop Culture." Beliefnet praised the cultural image of Charmed for its female empowerment, mythology and how the sisters "managed to solve their cases" week-on-week. In 2011, Seventeen magazine named The Charmed Ones ninth in its list of the top fictional witches of all time, while E! Online ranked Piper at number six on their list of "Pop Culture's Top 10 Most Bitchin' Witches." In 2012, the Chicago Tribune placed The Charmed Ones at number seven on their list of "The Top Pop Culture Witches of All Time." In 2014, The Charmed Ones were ranked at number six on the "Pop Culture's Favorite Witches" list by MSN's Wonderwall. In 2016, Piper was also ranked at number six in The Huffington Post's list of "The Top 10 Greatest Witches of All Time."
Charmed has also become a pop culture reference in television shows and films. In the 2000 parody film, Shriek If You Know What I Did Last Friday the Thirteenth, Barbara Primesuspect (Julie Benz) is said to be yelling "Charmed my ass!" at Shannen Doherty, who does not appear on-screen. The series is also mentioned in the episode "Ur-ine Trouble" of teen comedy-drama series Popular, when Josh Ford (Bryce Johnson) tells Brooke McQueen (Leslie Bibb) to go home and watch Charmed. In another episode of Popular, entitled "The Shocking Possession of Harrison John," Josh asks George Austin (Anthony Montgomery) who is Michael Bernardino's (Ron Lester) "favorite hottie witch" on Charmed and George says it is Prue. In the episode "Faith" of Third Watch, Fred Yokas (Chris Bauer) mentions to his wife Faith (Molly Price) that their daughter was upset she could not watch Charmed. In the 2002 teen comedy film Big Fat Liar, Kaylee (Amanda Bynes) recalls watching an episode of Charmed on The WB where Alyssa Milano's character Phoebe was about to put a spell on her demon boyfriend.
In a 2003 episode of the Australian soap opera Neighbours, Serena Bishop (Lara Sacher) and Erin Perry (Talia Zucker) find out they have a lot in common like their love for Charmed. In a 2005 episode of Neighbours, Bree Timmins (Sianoa Smit-McPhee) mentions that The O.C. is the best show on television since Charmed. In the episode "Plucky" of sitcom So Notorious, Aaron Spelling tells his daughter Tori Spelling that "there's always room for another witch on Charmed" after hearing of her latest cable telemovie role. In another episode of So Notorious, entitled "Cursed," Tori and Sasan (Zachary Quinto) discuss who has put a curse on her and Sasan says, "It's Shannen [Doherty]! She knows all that witchcraft from Charmed." In the season four episode "Me and the Devil" of True Blood, Sookie Stackhouse (Anna Paquin) tells a witch named Marnie Stonebrook (Fiona Shaw) that one of her favorite television shows she watched as a child was Charmed. In the episode "Boy Parts" of American Horror Story: Coven, a witch named Queenie (Gabourey Sidibe) mentions that she grew up watching Charmed. Both the show and character Piper were referenced in the episode "Sorry for Your Loss" of The Tomorrow People, when Piper Nichols (Aeriél Miranda) introduces herself to Russell Kwon (Aaron Yoo), who responds by saying "Charmed, Piper." Critics noted references of Charmed in the witchcraft-themed music video for British girl group Little Mix's song "Black Magic" (2015).
Since Charmed ended in 2006, academics have appropriated its content and published essays and articles regarding Charmed. It has been the subject of several collective books such as Investigating Charmed: The Magic Power of TV edited by Karin and Stan Beeler, which adopts a gender perspective to carry out an in-depth analysis of third-wave feminism as shown in the series. Between 2012 and 2015, French academic and essayist Alexis Pichard delivered a set of three lectures on Charmed. In 2012, he spoke about intertexuality and postmodernism in the series at the Université de Rouen. In 2014, he explored Charmed's transmedia storytelling at the Université Paris 3. In 2015, he investigated the show's postfeminist subversion of fairy tales at the University of Lorient, a presentation which was followed,two years later, by the publication in French academic journal TV/Series of an article entitled "'When you said sea hag, did you mean like old woman hag or evil magic hag?' : Imbrication du conte de fées et du (post)féminisme dans Charmed" ('The embedding of fairy tales and (post)feminism in Charmed'). The journal's editor summarises Pichard's work as follows: "Alexis Pichard examines gender norms as they appear on the small screen, scrutinizing the relationship between supernatural soap Charmed (The WB, 1998-2006) and the fairy tale. He describes a complex relationship where literary associations are a way of subverting traditions and expectations on the one hand – and ultimately succumbing to them on the other, with a problematic post-feminist emphasis on 'having it all'".
The Charmed novels are a series of books that accompany the television series. Between 1999 and 2008, forty-three novels were published by Simon & Schuster and were roughly set during the same period as the events of the television series. The first novel, The Power of Three, was released in November 1999 as a novelization of the series premiere episode, "Something Wicca This Way Comes." All subsequent novels – apart from Charmed Again (2001) which narrates the events of the two-part episode of the same name – are original stories revolving around the Halliwell sisters and their allies. The first ten novels involve the original Charmed Ones, Prue, Piper, and Phoebe Halliwell, while the remaining thirty-three are set after both Prue's murder and the introduction of Paige Matthews as the youngest, new Charmed One. Two novels, Seasons of the Witch (2003) and The Warren Witches (2005), are anthologies of short stories. Writers of the series include Diana G. Gallagher and Paul Ruditis who also co-authored two volumes of the official guidebook, The Book of Three (2004; 2006).
In 2015, HarperCollins acquired the rights to publish a second series of Charmed novels from CBS Consumer Products. The first novel, The War on Witches, was published in May 2015 and its narrative is set between the events of Seasons 9 and 10 of the comic book series. It is written by Ruditis, who previously authored Season 9 and edited Season 10, and follows the younger Charmed Ones' reunions with Prue and Cole Turner after their resurrections.
The Charmed comic books serve as a continuation of the television series and were originally published by Zenescope Entertainment. The first comic book series, Charmed: Season 9, was released in June 2010 and is set eighteen months after the events of the televised show's final episode, "Forever Charmed." Author Paul Ruditis was the lead writer of the first series and Raven Gregory helped him co-write the first three issues. The second and final comic book series by Zenescope, Charmed: Season 10, debuted at the New York Comic Con during the weekend of October 9, 2014. Pat Shand was the lead writer of the second series while Ruditis assumed the role of editor. In 2017, Dynamite Entertainment acquired the rights to publish a new comic book series titled Charmed: A Thousand Deaths. It was written by Erica Schultz and illustrated by Maria Sanapo.
Four soundtrack albums of Charmed have been released and feature music that were used in the show. The first soundtrack album, Charmed: The Soundtrack, was released in September 2003. The second soundtrack, Charmed: The Book of Shadows, was released in January 2005 and the third, Charmed: The Final Chapter, was released in May 2006. A retrospect of songs compiled from all eight seasons of the show, Charmed: The Final Chapter was positively received by Heather Phares of AllMusic, who praised it for "feel[ing] like a late '90s/early 2000s time capsule". The fourth soundtrack, Charmed: Score from the Television Series, was released as a limited edition in June 2013 and featured a selection of cues from the show by composer J. Peter Robinson.
Several official board games of Charmed have been published by Clash of Arms and Tilsit. The show's first board game, Charmed: The Book of Shadows, was released in 2001 and the second board game, Charmed: The Source, was released in 2003. Other board games include Charmed: The Power of Three and Charmed: The Prophecy, both of which were released in 2005. An action, platform video game of Charmed was developed by DC Studios and published by In-Fusio. The game was released for mobile phones in Europe in 2003 and North America in 2004. Titan Magazines began publishing the Charmed Magazine in 2004, which was issued bi-monthly and featured interviews with the cast and crew, the latest news and developments, and behind-the-scenes information on the show. The 24th and final issue of Charmed Magazine was released in 2008.
All eight seasons of Charmed were released individually on DVD in Regions 1, 2 and 4 between February 2005 and September 2007. A new packaging of the Region 4 DVDs for all seasons were released in April 2011. A limited Book of Shadows box set edition was released in Region 4 on November 16, 2006 and featured seasons 1–7. A limited Magic Chest box set edition was released in Region 2 on March 5, 2007 and included all eight seasons. An ultimate box set was released in Region 2 on October 27, 2008 and Region 4 on November 6, 2008. The set includes all seasons, with a cover that features all four Halliwell sisters together. Two complete series box sets were released in Region 1 on November 18, 2008. Both sets are styled after the show's Book of Shadows, with one set being a regular release and the other being a limited deluxe edition. The complete series box set was re-released in the United States on November 11, 2014 and features a brand new cover of all four sisters.
In June 2018, CBS Studios (who own the rights to Charmed) announced that the whole series was in the process of being remastered to high-definition with a completion date of September 2019. The remastered version of season one was released on high-definition blu-ray in the US on October 30, 2018.
On October 25, 2013, it was announced that CBS was developing a reboot of Charmed. Party of Five co-creator Christopher Keyser and Sydney Sidner were going to executive produce and write the pilot script for CBS Television Studios (who own the rights to Charmed) and The Tannenbaum Company. The reboot was described as a "re-imagining of the original series centered around four sisters who discover their destiny – to battle against the forces of evil using their witchcraft." CBS only ordered a script for a pilot, however; no commitment to filming was made.
Following the announcement, the original cast of Charmed shared their opinions of the reboot through Twitter. Rose McGowan tweeted, "They really are running out of ideas in Hollywood," followed up by another tweet, "lame lame lame lamertons." Alyssa Milano tweeted, "The thing about them doing a #charmed reboot is ... it just ... it feels like yesterday. It feels too close." Holly Marie Combs tweeted, "Here's the thing. Everything is a reboot. If you think otherwise you haven't read enough Shakespeare yet. At least they had the decency to call it what it is. Instead of ripping it off and then pretending to not be ripping it off." Shannen Doherty tweeted to a fan, "I don't know yet. It's strange to think about a reboot. I guess I'm still processing the idea." However, on August 12, 2014, TVLine's Michael Ausiello revealed that CBS were not moving forward with the reboot.
On January 25, 2018, The CW network officially ordered a pilot of a new Charmed reboot, developed by Jane the Virgin showrunner Jennie Snyder Urman, for the 2018–19 television season. The reboot was described by The CW as being "fierce, funny," and "feminist." Set in the fictional college town of Hilltowne, it centers on three sisters — Macy, Mel and Maggie — who, after the death of their mother, discover they are The Charmed Ones, the most powerful trio of witches. Together they possess the "Power of Three", which they use to protect innocents and vanquish supernatural demons. The pilot was written by Jane the Virgin writers Jessica O'Toole and Amy Rardin, and was based on a story by Urman. All three women are also executive producers of the reboot alongside Ben Silverman, Carter Covington, and Brad Silberling.
The eldest sister Macy is a "practical, driven, and brilliant geneticist" with the power of telekinesis. The middle sister Mel is "a passionate, outspoken activist" and lesbian with the power of time-freezing, while the youngest Maggie is "a bubbly college freshman" with the power to hear people's thoughts. Madeleine Mantock was cast as Macy, Melonie Diaz was cast as Mel, and Sarah Jeffery was cast as Maggie. Rupert Evans plays the trio's whitelighter Harry, while Ser'Darius Blain plays Macy's love interest Galvin. Additionally, Charlie Gillespie plays Maggie's former high school boyfriend Brian, while Ellen Tamaki plays Mel's detective girlfriend Niko. Charmed premiered on The CW on October 14, 2018, 20 years after the original series' premiere. It airs on Sunday nights at 9:00 pm, returning The CW to original programming on Sunday evenings for the first time since the 2008–09 television season.
The charm quark, charmed quark or c quark (from its symbol, c) is the third most massive of all quarks, a type of elementary particle. Charm quarks are found in hadrons, which are subatomic particles made of quarks. Examples of hadrons containing charm quarks include the J/ψ meson (J/ψ), D mesons (D), charmed Sigma baryons (Σc), and other charmed particles.
It, along with the strange quark is part of the second generation of matter, and has an electric charge of +2/3 e and a bare mass of 1.275+0.025−0.035 GeV/c2. Like all quarks, the charm quark is an elementary fermion with spin 1/2, and experiences all four fundamental interactions: gravitation, electromagnetism, weak interactions, and strong interactions. The antiparticle of the charm quark is the charm antiquark (sometimes called anticharm quark or simply anticharm), which differs from it only in that some of its properties have equal magnitude but opposite sign.
The existence of a fourth quark had been speculated by a number of authors around 1964 (for instance by James Bjorken and Sheldon Glashow), but its prediction is usually credited to Sheldon Glashow, John Iliopoulos and Luciano Maiani in 1970 (see GIM mechanism). The first charmed particle (a particle containing a charm quark) to be discovered was the J/ψ meson. It was discovered by a team at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), led by Burton Richter, and one at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), led by Samuel Ting.The 1974 discovery of the J/ψ (and thus the charm quark) ushered in a series of breakthroughs which are collectively known as the November Revolution.Charmed (2018 TV series)
Charmed is an American fantasy drama television series developed by Jennie Snyder Urman, Jessica O'Toole, and Amy Rardin. It is a reboot of The WB series of the same name, created by Constance M. Burge, which originally aired from 1998 to 2006. Charmed was ordered to pilot in January 2018 by The CW and received a series order in May 2018. The series, which premiered in the United States on October 14, 2018, follows the lives of three sisters—Macy (Madeleine Mantock), Mel (Melonie Diaz) and Maggie (Sarah Jeffery)—who, after the death of their mother, discover they are The Charmed Ones, the most powerful witches, and together they possess the "Power of Three". Each sister has a magical power, which they use to help protect humankind from supernatural demons in their fictional college town of Hilltowne, Michigan. On November 8, 2018, The CW ordered a 22-episode full season. In January 2019, The CW renewed the series for a second season.Charmed (season 1)
The first season of Charmed, an American supernatural drama television series created by Constance M. Burge, originally aired in the United States on The WB from October 7, 1998 through May 26, 1999. Paramount Home Entertainment released the complete first season in a six-disc DVD box set on February 1, 2005, and was released as a high-definition blu-ray on October 30, 2018.Charmed (season 2)
The second season of Charmed, an American supernatural drama television series created by Constance M. Burge, originally aired in the United States on The WB from September 30, 1999 through May 18, 2000. Airing on Thursdays at 9:00 pm. Paramount Home Entertainment released the complete second season in a six-disc box set on September 6, 2005.Charmed (season 3)
The third season of Charmed, an American supernatural drama television series created by Constance M. Burge, originally aired in the United States on The WB from October 5, 2000 through May 17, 2001. Paramount Home Entertainment released the complete third season in a six-disc box set on November 15, 2005.
The series follows the adventures of Prue (Shannen Doherty), Piper (Holly Marie Combs) and Phoebe Halliwell (Alyssa Milano), three sisters who discover they are the Charmed Ones, the most powerful good witches of all time who use their combined Power of Three to protect innocents from evil beings. Other regular cast members include Brian Krause as Leo Wyatt and Dorian Gregory as Darryl Morris, both of whom return from the previous season as well as Julian McMahon as Cole Turner, who is introduced in the premiere.
It is the last season to feature original cast member Shannen Doherty, as she left the series at the end of the season.Charmed (season 4)
The fourth season of Charmed, an American supernatural drama television series created by Constance M. Burge, originally aired in the United States on The WB from October 4, 2001 through May 16, 2002. Airing on Thursdays at 9:00 pm. Paramount Home Entertainment released the complete fourth season in a six-disc boxed set on February 28, 2006. This season also saw the introduction of Rose McGowan as Paige Matthews half-sister to Prue, Piper and Phoebe and a slight alteration of the opening credits, due to the third season departure of Shannen Doherty as Prue.Charmed (season 5)
The fifth season of Charmed, an American supernatural drama television series created by Constance M. Burge, originally aired in the United States on The WB from September 22, 2002 through May 11, 2003. Airing on Sundays at 8:00 pm. Paramount Home Entertainment released the complete fifth season in a six-disc box set on June 6, 2006.Charmed (season 6)
The sixth season of Charmed, an American supernatural drama television series created by Constance M. Burge, originally aired in the United States on The WB from September 28, 2003 through May 16, 2004. Airing on Sundays at 8:00 pm. Paramount Home Entertainment released the complete sixth season in a six-disc box set on October 17, 2006.Charmed (season 7)
The seventh season of Charmed, an American supernatural drama television series created by Constance M. Burge, premiered in the United States on The WB from September 12, 2004 through May 22, 2005. Airing on Sundays at 8:00 pm. Paramount Home Entertainment released the complete seventh season in a six-disc box set on February 2, 2007.Charmed (season 8)
The eighth and final season of Charmed, an American supernatural drama television series created by Constance M. Burge, premiered in the United States on The WB from September 25, 2005 through May 21, 2006. Airing on Sundays at 8:00 pm. Only four months before The WB shut down to merge with UPN to form The CW.
Paramount Home Entertainment released the complete final season in a six-disc box set on September 11, 2007.Holly Marie Combs
Holly Marie Combs (born December 3, 1973) is an American actress and television producer. She is known for her roles as Kimberly Brock in the CBS series Picket Fences (1992–1996), Piper Halliwell in The WB series Charmed (1998–2006) and Ella Montgomery in the Freeform series Pretty Little Liars (2010–2017).Lambda baryon
The Lambda baryons are a family of subatomic hadron particles containing one up quark, one down quark, and a third quark from a higher flavour generation, in a combination where the quantum wave function changes sign upon the flavour of any two quarks being swapped (thus differing from a Sigma baryon). They are thus baryons, with total isospin of 0, and have either neutral electric charge or the elementary charge +1.
Lambda baryons are usually represented by the symbols Λ0, Λ+c, Λ0b, and Λ+t. In this notation, the superscript character indicates whether the particle is electrically neutral (0) or carries a positive charge (+). The subscript character, or its absence, indicates whether the third quark is a strange quark (Λ0) (no subscript), a charm quark (Λ+c), a bottom quark (Λ0b), or a top quark (Λ+t). Physicists do not expect to observe a Lambda baryon with a top quark because the Standard Model of particle physics predicts that the mean lifetime of top quarks is roughly 5×10−25 seconds; that is about 1/20 of the mean timescale for strong interactions, which indicates that the top quark would decay before a Lambda baryon could form a hadron.List of Charmed characters
Charmed is an American television series that was originally broadcast by The WB for eight seasons from October 7, 1998, until May 21, 2006. The series narrative follows a trio of sisters, known as The Charmed Ones, the most powerful good witches of all time, who use their combine Power of Three to protect innocent lives from evil beings such as demons and warlocks. Each sister possesses unique magical powers that grow and evolve, while they attempt to maintain normal lives in modern-day San Francisco. The main characters of the first three seasons were Prue (Shannen Doherty), Piper (Holly Marie Combs) and Phoebe Halliwell (Alyssa Milano). After Doherty departed from the series in 2001, resulting in her character's death, she was replaced by Rose McGowan as the long-lost younger half-sister Paige Matthews from the fourth season onwards. The following list only contains characters that appeared in five or more episodes.List of Charmed episodes
Charmed is an American television series created by Constance M. Burge. In the United States, Charmed premiered on The WB on October 7, 1998 and ended on May 21, 2006, with 178 episodes. Charmed originally aired on Wednesday nights at 9:00 pm, before moving to Thursday nights for its second, third and fourth seasons. For the fifth season, the series moved to Sunday nights at 8:00 pm and remained there until its eighth and final season.The first episode, "Something Wicca This Way Comes", garnered 7.7 million viewers and broke the record for the highest-rated debut episode for The WB. For its first three seasons, Charmed was the second-highest rated series on The WB, behind 7th Heaven. During its fifth season, Charmed became the highest-rated Sunday night program in The WB's history. By the end of its eighth season, Charmed had become the second-longest drama broadcast by The WB and broke the record for the longest running hour-long television series featuring all female leads, later overtaken in 2012 by Desperate Housewives.Omega baryon
The omega baryons are a family of subatomic hadron (a baryon) particles that are represented by the symbol Ω and are either neutral or have a +2, +1 or −1 elementary charge. They are baryons containing no up or down quarks. Omega baryons containing top quarks are not expected to be observed. This is because the Standard Model predicts the mean lifetime of top quarks to be roughly 5×10−25 s, which is about a twentieth of the timescale for strong interactions, and therefore that they do not form hadrons.
The first omega baryon discovered was the Ω−, made of three strange quarks, in 1964. The discovery was a great triumph in the study of quark processes, since it was found only after its existence, mass, and decay products had been predicted in 1961 by the American physicist Murray Gell-Mann and, independently, by the Israeli physicist Yuval Ne'eman. Besides the Ω−, a charmed omega particle (Ω0c) was discovered, in which a strange quark is replaced by a charm quark. The Ω− decays only via the weak interaction and has therefore a relatively long lifetime. Spin (J) and parity (P) values for unobserved baryons are predicted by the quark model.Since omega baryons do not have any up or down quarks, they all have isospin 0.Phoebe Halliwell
Phoebe Halliwell is a fictional character from the American television series Charmed, played by Alyssa Milano from October 7, 1998 until May 21, 2006. The character was originally played by Lori Rom in the unaired pilot episode. However, Rom quit the series, and a new pilot was filmed with Milano in the role of Phoebe. The character was created by Constance M. Burge and is based on Burge herself. Phoebe is introduced into Charmed as the youngest sister to Prue (Shannen Doherty) and Piper Halliwell (Holly Marie Combs). She is one of the original featured leads and, more specifically, a Charmed One – one of the most powerful witches of all time. Phoebe initially possesses the power of premonition, which enables her to see into the future and the past. To make up for initially only having a passive power, Phoebe develops martial arts skills in order to better assist her sisters when they fight evil beings. As the series progresses, she also gains the active powers of levitation and empathy.
Phoebe was originally portrayed as the "free-spirited", "carefree", and most rebellious sister. However, Phoebe's progression as a witch helps her become more responsible and grow as a person. She later becomes the middle sister from season four onwards, after Prue dies and the series introduces their younger half-sister Paige Matthews (Rose McGowan). Phoebe's various romantic relationships have been central to most of her storylines. Her longest on-screen relationship is with half-demon Cole Turner (Julian McMahon); they have a turbulent marriage in the fourth season, and in the fifth, following their divorce, she is compelled to vanquish him. In subsequent seasons, Phoebe has romantic relationships with her boss Jason Dean (Eric Dane), fellow employee Leslie St. Claire (Nick Lachey), and artist Dex Lawson (Jason Lewis). In the eighth and final season, she marries a cupid named Coop (Victor Webster).
The character was mostly well received by television critics, who praised Phoebe's comedic side and felt that Milano was a better fit for the role than Rom. They also commented on the outfits worn by Phoebe in the later seasons, with some critics describing them as "revealing and ridiculous costumes", "sexy" and "skimpy." Milano's portrayal of Phoebe earned her several awards and nominations; she was nominated for a Spacey Award, Nickelodeon Kids' Choice Award, and a Teen Choice Award. In 2007 and 2008, AOL TV ranked Phoebe at number seven on their list of the Top TV Witches. In addition to the television series, the character has also appeared in numerous expanded universe material, such as the Charmed novels and its comic book adaptation.Prue Halliwell
Prudence "Prue" Halliwell is a fictional character from the American television series Charmed, played by Shannen Doherty from October 7, 1998 until May 17, 2001. The character was created by Constance M. Burge, who based Prue on her older sister. Prue is introduced into the series as the eldest sister to Piper (Holly Marie Combs) and Phoebe Halliwell (Alyssa Milano). She is one of the first original featured leads and, more specifically, a Charmed One – one of the most powerful witches of all time. Prue initially possesses the power to move objects with her mind by chanelling telekinesis through her eyes. As the series progresses, she learns how to channel her telekinesis through her hands and gains the power of astral projection, the ability to be in two places at once. Prue also develops martial arts skills and becomes an effective hand-to-hand fighter like Phoebe.
Prue is portrayed as the oldest, responsible, strong, "kick-ass sister" and "leader of the group." During her three seasons on Charmed, she is regarded as the strongest and most powerful witch of the Halliwell sisters. Prue's storylines have mostly revolved around her protecting innocents and defeating the forces of evil in San Francisco with her sisters, as well as leading a normal life as an appraiser for an auction house and later as a professional photographer for a magazine company. She also has romantic relationships with her old high school flame Inspector Andy Trudeau (Ted King) in season one, and fellow auction house employee Jack Sheridan (Lochlyn Munro) in season two. In the third season, Prue is forced to marry the warlock Zile (Tom O'Brien) in a dark marriage ceremony, but their marriage soon ends after he is vanquished. In the season three finale "All Hell Breaks Loose", Prue is attacked by Shax, a powerful demonic assassin sent by The Source of All Evil, ending the season on a cliffhanger. After Doherty departed the series, this attack was revealed to be fatal. She was replaced in season four by Rose McGowan, who played the long-lost younger half-sister Paige Matthews.
The character received a positive reception from television critics, who praised her strong persona and Doherty's performance. Doherty received two Saturn Award nominations in 1999 and 2000, for Best Actress on Television for her portrayal of Prue. In 2007, AOL TV ranked Prue at number nine on their list of the Top TV Witches. In addition to the television series, the character has also appeared in numerous expanded universe material, such as the Charmed novels and its comic book adaptation.Sigma baryon
The Sigma baryons are a family of subatomic hadron particles which have two quarks from the first flavour generation (up and/or down quarks), and a third quark from higher flavour generations, in a combination where the wavefunction does not swap sign when any two quark flavours are swapped. They are thus baryons, with total Isospin of 1, and can either be neutral or have an elementary charge of +2, +1 or −1. They are closely related to the Lambda baryons, which differ only in the wavefunction's behaviour upon flavour exchange.
The third quark can hence be either a strange (symbols Σ+, Σ0, Σ−), a charm (symbols Σ++c, Σ+c, Σ0c), a bottom (symbols Σ+b, Σ0b, Σ−b) or a top (symbols Σ++t, Σ+t, Σ0t) quark. However, the top Sigmas are not expected to be observed as the Standard Model predicts the mean lifetime of top quarks to be roughly 5×10−25 s. This is about 20 times shorter than the timescale for strong interactions, and therefore it does not form hadrons.Xi baryon
The Xi baryons or cascade particles are a family of subatomic hadron particles which have the symbol Ξ and may have an electric charge (Q) of +2 e, +1 e, 0, or −1 e, where e is the elementary charge. Like all conventional baryons, they contain three quarks. Xi baryons, in particular, contain one up or down quark plus two more massive quarks: either strange, charm or bottom. They are historically called the cascade particles because of their unstable state; they decay rapidly into lighter particles through a chain of decays. The first discovery of a charged Xi baryon was in cosmic ray experiments by the Manchester group in 1952. The first discovery of the neutral Xi particle was at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in 1959. It was also observed as a daughter product from the decay of the omega baryon (Ω−) observed at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1964. The Xi spectrum is important to nonperturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD), such as Lattice QCD.
Works produced by Aaron Spelling