Charles the Bold

Charles the Bold (also translated as Charles the Reckless) [1] (French: Charles le Téméraire, Dutch: Karel de Stoute, 10 November 1433 – 5 January 1477), baptised Charles Martin, was Duke of Burgundy from 1467 to 1477. He was the last Duke of Burgundy from the House of Valois.

His early death at the Battle of Nancy at the hands of Swiss mercenaries fighting for René II, Duke of Lorraine was of great consequence in European history. The Burgundian domains, long wedged between the growing powers of France and the Habsburg Empire, were divided, but the precise disposition of the vast and disparate territorial possessions involved was disputed among the European powers for centuries.

Charles the Bold
Charles the Bold 1460
Rogier van der Weyden painted Charles the Bold as a young man in about 1460, wearing the collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece
Duke of Burgundy
Reign15 June 1467 – 5 January 1477
PredecessorPhilip the Good
SuccessorMary
Born10 November 1433
Dijon, Burgundy
Died5 January 1477 (aged 43)
Nancy, Lorraine
Spouse
IssueMary, Duchess of Burgundy
HouseValois-Burgundy
FatherPhilip the Good
MotherIsabella of Portugal
ReligionRoman Catholicism
Karel de Stoute dubbel vuurijzer Brugge 1475
Double Briquet, struck under Charles the Bold in Bruges, 1475

Biography

Early life

Charles the Bold was born in Dijon, the son of Philip the Good and Isabella of Portugal. Before the death of his father in 1467, he bore the title of Count of Charolais; afterwards, he assumed all of his father's titles, including that of "Grand Duke of the West". He was also made a Knight of the Golden Fleece just twenty days after his birth, invested by Charles I, Count of Nevers, and the seigneur de Croÿ.

Charles was brought up under the direction of Jean d'Auxy[2] and early showed great application alike to academic studies and warlike exercises. His father's court was the most extravagant in Europe at the time, and a centre for the arts and commerce. While he was growing up, Charles witnessed his father's efforts to unite his far-flung and ethnically diverse dominions into a single state, and his own later efforts centered on continuing and securing his father's successes in this endeavor.

In 1440, at the age of seven, Charles was married to Catherine, daughter of King Charles VII of France and sister of the Dauphin (later King Louis XI). She was five years older than her husband, and she died in 1446 at the age of 18. They had no children.

Van der weyden miniature
Charles as a boy stands next to his father, Philip the Good. Rogier van der Weyden's frontispiece to the Chroniques de Hainaut, c. 1447–8 (Royal Library of Belgium)

In 1454, at the age of 21, Charles married a second time. He wanted to marry a daughter of his distant cousin Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York (a sister of Kings Edward IV and Richard III of England), but under terms of the Treaty of Arras of 1435, he was required to marry a French princess. His father chose Isabella of Bourbon, who was three years younger than he was. Isabella was the daughter of Philip the Good's sister Agnes and a very distant cousin of Charles VII of France. Isabella died in 1465. Their daughter Mary of Burgundy was Charles' only surviving child; she inherited all the Burgundian domains before her marriage to Maximilian of Habsburg, the son of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III.

Charles was on friendly terms with his brother-in-law Louis, the Dauphin of France, who had been a refugee at the court of Burgundy from 1456 until he succeeded his father as king of France in 1461. But Louis began to pursue some of the same policies as his father, for example Louis's later repurchase of the towns on the Somme River that Louis's father had ceded in 1435 to Charles's father in the Treaty of Arras, which Charles viewed with chagrin. When his father's failing health enabled him to assume the reins of government (which Philip relinquished to him by an act of 12 April 1465), he initiated a policy of hostility toward Louis XI that led to the Burgundian Wars, and he became one of the principal leaders of the League of the Public Weal, an alliance of west European nobles opposed to policies of Louis XI that sought to centralize the royal authority within France.

For his third wife, Charles was offered the hand of Louis XI's daughter Anne. The wife he ultimately chose, however, was his second cousin Margaret of York (who was also a great-grandchild of John of Gaunt). Upon the death of his father in 1467, Charles was no longer bound by the terms of the Treaty of Arras, and he decided to ally himself with Burgundy's old ally England. Louis did his best to prevent or delay the marriage with Margaret (he even sent French ships to waylay her as she sailed to Sluys), but in the summer of 1468, it was celebrated sumptuously at Bruges, and Charles was made a Knight of the Garter. The couple had no children, but Margaret devoted herself to her stepdaughter Mary. After Mary's death many years later, she kept Mary's two infant children as long as she was allowed.

Early battles

On 12 April 1465, Philip relinquished control of the government of his domains to Charles, who spent the next summer prosecuting the War of the Public Weal against Louis XI. Charles was left master of the field at the Battle of Montlhéry on 13 July 1465,[3] but this neither prevented the king from re-entering Paris nor did it assure Charles of a decisive victory. He succeeded, however, in forcing upon Louis the Treaty of Conflans of 4 October 1465, by which the king restored to him certain towns on the Somme River, the counties of Boulogne and Guînes, and various other small territories. During the negotiations for the treaty, his wife Isabella died suddenly at Les Quesnoy on 25 September, making a political marriage suddenly possible. As part of the treaty, Louis promised him the hand of his infant daughter Anne, with the territories of Champagne and Ponthieu as a dowry, but no marriage ever took place. In the meanwhile, Charles obtained the surrender of Ponthieu.

Charles' concentration on the affairs of France was diverted by the Revolt of Liège against his father and the bishop of Liège (Louis of Bourbon) and a desire to punish the town of Dinant in the province of Namur. During the wars of the summer of 1465, Dinant celebrated a false rumour that Charles had been defeated at Montlhéry by burning him in effigy and chanting that he was the bastard child of his mother Isabella of Portugal and John of Heinsburg, the previous Bishop of Liège (d. 1455). On 25 August 1466, Charles marched into Dinant, determined to avenge this slur on the honour of his mother, and sacked the city, killing every man, woman and child within. After the death of Charles' father Philip the Good in 1467, the Bishopric of Liège renewed hostilities, but was defeated by Charles at the Battle of Brustem. Charles made a victorious entry into Liège, dismantled its walls and stripped the city of some of its privileges.

Treaty of Péronne

Karte Haus Burgund 4 EN
Territories of the house of Valois-Burgundy during the reign of Charles the Bold.
Emanuel van Meteren Historie ppn 051504510 MG 8647 Carolus Audax
Engraving of Charles the Bold

Alarmed by the early successes of the new Duke of Burgundy and anxious to settle various questions relating to the execution of the Treaty of Conflans, Louis XI requested a meeting with Charles and daringly placed himself in his hands in the town of Péronne in Picardy in October 1468. In the course of the negotiations, the duke was informed of a fresh revolt of the Bishopric of Liège secretly fomented by Louis as part of the Liège Wars. After deliberating for four days on the best way to deal with his adversary, who had foolishly placed himself at his mercy, Charles decided to respect the promise he had given to guarantee Louis's safety and to negotiate with him. At the same time, he forced Louis to assist him in quelling the revolt in Liège. The town was captured and many inhabitants were massacred. Louis chose not to intervene on behalf of his former allies.

At the expiry of the one year's truce that followed the Treaty of Péronne, the French king accused Charles of treason, cited him to appear before the parlement, and seized some of the towns on the Somme in 1471. The duke retaliated by invading France with a large army; he took possession of Nesle and massacred its inhabitants. He failed, however, in an attack on Beauvais and had to content himself with laying waste to the countryside as far as Rouen. He eventually withdrew without attaining any useful result.

Domestic policies

Charles pursued domestic policies that assisted the growth of his military establishment. To this end, he relinquished at least some of the extravagance that had characterized the court of Burgundy under his father, if not the magnificence of ceremonial events. Since the beginning of his reign, he employed himself in reorganizing his army and the administration of his territories. While retaining the principles of feudal recruiting, he endeavored to establish a system of rigid discipline among his troops that was strengthened by the employment of foreign mercenaries, particularly Englishmen and Italians, and the augmentation of his artillery. The economic power that Charles inherited from Philip would lead to an independent judicial system, a sophisticated administration, and the establishment of local estates.[4]

Building a kingdom

Charles constantly sought to expand the territories under his control. In 1469, Archduke Sigismund of Austria sold him the County of Ferrette, the Landgraviate of Alsace, and some other towns, reserving to himself the right to repurchase.

In 1472–1473, Charles bought the reversion of the Duchy of Guelders (i.e. the right to succeed to it) from its duke Arnold, whom he had supported against the rebellion of his son. Not content with being "the Grand Duke of the West," he conceived the project of forming a kingdom of Burgundy or Arles with himself as independent sovereign and even persuaded the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III to assent to crown him a king at Trier. The ceremony, however, did not take place owing to the emperor's precipitate flight by night in September 1473, which was occasioned by his displeasure at the duke's ambitions.

At the close of 1473, the duchy of Burgundy was anchored in France and extended to the edges of the Netherlands. This made Charles the Bold one of the wealthiest and most powerful nobles in Europe. Indeed, his landholdings and revenue base rivalled those of many of the royal families.[5]

Downfall

Peter Paul Rubens 144
Charles the Bold by Peter Paul Rubens (c. 1618).
Eugene Burnand - Die Flucht Karls des Kühnen
Charles' flight after the battle of Grandson, by Eugène Burnand (1894).
MULO-Charles the Bold corpse
The corpse of Charles the Bold discovered after the Battle of Nancy, by Auguste Feyen-Perrin (1862).

In the year 1474, Charles began to involve himself in the series of political struggles that would ultimately bring about his downfall. He first came into conflict with the Archduke Sigismund of Austria, to whom he refused to restore his possessions in Alsace for the stipulated sum. Then, he quarreled with the Swiss, who supported the free towns in the Upper Rhine in their revolt against the tyranny of the ducal governor Peter von Hagenbach (who was condemned by a special international tribunal and executed on 9 May 1474). Finally, he antagonized René II, Duke of Lorraine, with whom he disputed the succession in the Duchy of Lorraine, which bordered many of his territories. All of these enemies readily joined forces against their common adversary Charles.

Charles suffered a first rebuff in endeavouring to protect his kinsman Ruprecht of the Palatinate, Archbishop of Cologne, against his rebel subjects. He spent ten months (July 1474 – June 1475) besieging the little town of Neuss on the Rhine (the Siege of Neuss), but was compelled by the approach of a powerful imperial army to raise the siege. Moreover, the expedition he had persuaded his brother-in-law Edward IV of England to undertake against Louis XI was stopped by the Treaty of Picquigny of 29 August 1475. He was more successful in Lorraine, where he seized Nancy on 30 November 1475.

From Nancy he marched against the Swiss. He saw fit to hang or drown the garrison of Grandson in spite of its capitulation. Grandson was a possession of Jacques of Savoy, Count of Romont, a close ally of Charles, that had been captured recently by the forces of the Swiss Confederacy. Some days later, on 2 March 1476, Charles was attacked outside the village of Concise by the confederate army in the Battle of Grandson and suffered a shameful defeat; he was compelled to flee with a handful of attendants and abandon his artillery along with an immense booty (including his silver bath).

Charles succeeded in raising a fresh army of 30,000 men that he used to fight the Morat on 22 June 1476. He was again defeated by the Swiss army, which was assisted by the cavalry of the Duke of Lorraine. On this occasion, unlike the debacle at Grandson, little booty was lost, but Charles did lose about one third of his entire army. The defeated soldiers were pushed into the nearby lake, where they were drowned or shot at while trying to swim to safety on the opposite shore. On 6 October, Charles lost Nancy, which the Duke of Lorraine was able to recover.

Death at Nancy

Making a last effort, Charles formed a new army and arrived in the dead of winter before the walls of Nancy. Having lost many of his troops through the severe cold, it was with only a few thousand men that he met the joint forces of the Lorrainers and the Swiss, who had come to the relief of the town, at the Battle of Nancy (5 January 1477). He himself perished in the fight, his naked and disfigured body being discovered some days afterward frozen in the nearby river. Charles' head had been cleft in two by a halberd, lances were lodged in his stomach and loins, and his face had been so badly mutilated by wild animals that only his physician was able to identify him by his long fingernails and the old battle scars on his body.

Charles' battered body was initially buried in the ducal church in Nancy, by René II, Duke of Lorraine.[6][7] Later in 1550, his great-grandson, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, ordered it to be moved to the Church of Our Lady in Bruges, next to that of his daughter Mary.[8] In 1562, Emperor Charles V's son and heir, King Philip II of Spain, erected a mausoleum in early renaissance style over his tomb, still extant.[9] Excavations in 1979 positively identified the remains of Mary, in a lead coffin, but those of Charles were never found.[10]

Catherine of France, Isabella of Bourbon & Margaret of York
The wives of Charles the Bold.

Marriage and family

Charles married three times:

1. On 19 May 1440, he married Catherine of France (1428–1446), daughter of Charles VII of France and Marie of Anjou.[11] At the time of the marriage, she was 12 and he 6. She died at 18.

2. On 30 October 1454, he married Isabelle of Bourbon (1437–1465), daughter of Charles I of Bourbon.[11] He would have preferred to marry Anne of York (the daughter of Richard, Duke of York), but his father insisted that he fulfill the conditions of the Treaty of Arras, which committed him to marry a French princess. The marriage was a happy one and produced his only offspring, Mary of Burgundy 13 February 1457.[11]

3. On 3 July 1468, Charles married Anne's sister, Margaret of York (1446–1503);[11] her siblings also included Edward IV of England, George, Duke of Clarence, and Richard III of England. The marriage was solemnized at Damme, near Bruges, by the bishop of Salisbury.

The Burgundian possessions passed into the Habsburg empire on the marriage of his one child and heiress Mary to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor.

Byname

Burgundian chroniclers described the personality of the duke as austere, virtuous but without pity, pious and chaste, and with an exacerbated sense of honour. His contemporaries named him le Hardi or der Kühne ("the Bold") or le Guerrier ("the Warrior") or le Terrible ("the Terrible"),[12] among others, and the epithet that would become his byname in history, le Téméraire ("the Reckless"), is already found in Thomas Basin, bishop of Lisieux, who wrote around 1484. These bynames, however, in the 15th century were used as qualifications of his character, but not yet in any systematic fashion, the duke being simply known as Charles de Bourgogne.[13] The process of the epithet le Téméraire acquiring the nature of a byname was gradual. In the 17th century, the Grand Dictionnaire Historique of Louis Moreri mentions Charles de Bourgogne, surnommé le Guerrier, le Hardi ou le Téméraire. In the 18th century, Dom Plancher still mentions him as Charles le Hardi. In the 19th century, the byname of le Téméraire became standard in France and Belgium.

Legacy

Map France 1477-en
Map of France in 1477; the Burgundian territories are shown in orange

Charles left his unmarried nineteen-year-old daughter, Mary, as his heir; clearly her marriage would have enormous implications for the political balance of Europe. Both Louis and the Emperor had unmarried eldest sons; Charles had made some movements towards arranging a marriage between Mary and the Emperor's son, Maximilian, before his own death. Louis unwisely concentrated on seizing militarily the border territories, in particular the Duchy of Burgundy (a French fief). This naturally made negotiations for a marriage difficult. He later admitted to his councillor Philippe de Commynes that this was his greatest mistake. In the meantime the Habsburg Emperor moved faster and more purposefully and secured the match for his son Maximilian, with the aid of Mary's stepmother, Margaret.

Due to this marriage, much of the Burgundian territories passed to the Holy Roman Empire. Throughout the early modern Wars of Religion and down to 1945, the border between the Holy Roman Empire and the kingdom of France, and later between France and Germany (specifically, concerning Alsace, Lorraine and Flanders), would be a matter of dispute.

In literature

He is a main character in Sir Walter Scott's 1823 novel Quentin Durward.[14] He is portrayed as intelligent, though brash. The timeline was manipulated by the author for dramatic purposes. He is also a principal character in Scott's later novel Anne of Geierstein.[15][16]

In film

Titles

See also

References

  1. ^ Baker, Ernest. Cassall's New French Dictionary (5th ed.). Funk & Wagnalls Company. p. 362.
  2. ^ Steven J. Gunn and A. Janse, The Court As a Stage: England And the Low Countries in the Later Middle Ages, (Boydell Press, 2006), 121.
  3. ^ Richard Vaughan, Charles the Bold, (Boydell Press, 2002), 251.
  4. ^ Jones, Colin. The Cambridge Illustrated History of France (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 124. ISBN 0-521-43294-4.
  5. ^ Great Events from History,The Renaissance & Early Modern Era, Vol. 1 (1454–1600), article author-Clare Callaghan, ISBN 1-58765-214-5
  6. ^ E. William Monter, A Bewitched Duchy: Lorraine and Its Dukes, 1477-1736, (Librairie Droz S.A., 2007), 22.
  7. ^ Commemoration of Battles and Warriors, Philip Morgan, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Vol. 1, (Oxford University Press, 2010), 413.
  8. ^ A. C. Duke, Dissident Identities in the Early Modern Low Countries, Ed. Judith Pollman and Andrew Spicer, (Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2009), 29 (note 88).
  9. ^ "Oeuvre of the Art in the Museum" (in French).
  10. ^ The Rough Guide to Belgium and Luxembourg, by Martin Dunford and Phil Lee, December 2002, p. 181, ISBN 978-1-85828-871-0
  11. ^ a b c d Chrétien de Troyes, Les Manuscrits de Chrétien de Troyes, Vol. 2, edited by Keith Busby, Terry Nixon, Alison Stones, and Lori Walters, (Rodopi, 1993), 106.
  12. ^ a title derived from his savage behaviour against his enemies, and particularly from a war with France in late 1471. Frustrated by the refusal of the French to engage in open battle, and angered by French attacks on his unprotected borders in Hainault and Flanders, Charles marched his army back from the Ile-de-France to Burgundian territory, burning more than 2000 towns, villages and castles on his way—Taylor, Aline S, Isabel of Burgundy, pp. 212–213
  13. ^ Anne Le Cam, Charles le Téméraire, un homme et son rêve, éditions In Fine, 1992, pp. 11, 87.
  14. ^ [1]
  15. ^ Author's Introduction
  16. ^ Curthoys, Ann, and John Docker. 'Leopold von Ranke and Sir Walter Scott', in Is History Fiction? (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2005), pp. 50-68., in Articles and Chapters on Sir Walter Scott Published in 2005 - An Annotated Bibliography, website of The Walter Scott Digital Archive, Centre for Research Collections, Edinburgh University Library
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n de Sousa, Antonio Caetano (1735). Historia genealogica da casa real portugueza [Genealogical History of the Royal House of Portugal] (in Portuguese). 2. Lisbon: Lisboa Occidental. p. 147.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h Armitage-Smith, Sydney (1905). John of Gaunt: King of Castile and Leon, Duke of Aquitaine and Lancaster, Earl of Derby, Lincoln, and Leicester, Seneschal of England. Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 21, 308. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  19. ^ a b John I, King of Portugal at the Encyclopædia Britannica
  20. ^ a b Peter I, King of Portugal at the Encyclopædia Britannica
  21. ^ a b de Sousa, Antonio Caetano (1735). Historia genealogica da casa real portugueza [Genealogical History of the Royal House of Portugal] (in Portuguese). 2. Lisboa Occidental. p. 4.

Sources

Further reading

  • Vaughan, Richard (1973), Charles the Bold: The Last Valois Duke of Burgundy, London: Longman Group, ISBN 0-582-50251-9.

External links

Charles the Bold
Cadet branch of the House of Valois
Born: 10 November 1433 Died: 5 January 1477
Preceded by
Philip the Good
Duke of Burgundy, Brabant,
Limburg, Lothier and Luxemburg;
Margrave of Namur;
Count of Artois, Flanders,
Hainaut, Holland and Zeeland;
Count Palatine of Burgundy

15 July 1467 – 5 January 1477
Succeeded by
Mary
Count of Charolais
August 1433 – 5 January 1477
Preceded by
Arnold
Duke of Guelders
Count of Zutphen

23 February 1473 – 5 January 1477
1433 in France

Events from the year 1433 in France

1446 in France

Events from the year 1446 in France

1467 in France

Events from the year 1467 in France

1476 in France

Events from the year 1476 in France

Battle of Nancy

The Battle of Nancy was the final and decisive battle of the Burgundian Wars, fought outside the walls of Nancy on 5 January 1477 by Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, against René II, Duke of Lorraine, and the Swiss Confederacy.

René's forces won the battle, and Charles' mutilated body was found three days later.

Burgundian Wars

The Burgundian Wars (1474–1477) were a conflict between the Dukes of Burgundy and the Old Swiss Confederacy and its allies. Open war broke out in 1474, and in the following years the Duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold, was defeated three times on the battlefield and killed in the Battle of Nancy in 1477. The Duchy of Burgundy and several other Burgundian lands then became part of France, while the Burgundian Netherlands and the Franche-Comté were inherited by Charles's daughter Mary of Burgundy, and eventually passed to the House of Habsburg upon her death because of her marriage to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor.

Frederick of Naples

Frederick (April 19, 1452 – November 9, 1504), sometimes called Frederick IV or Frederick of Aragon, was the last King of Naples of the Neapolitan branch of the House of Trastámara, ruling from 1496 to 1501. He was the second son of Ferdinand I, younger brother of Alfonso II, and uncle of Ferdinand II, his predecessor.

A combination of King Louis XII of France and Frederick's famous cousin King Ferdinand II of Aragon had continued the claim of Louis's predecessor, King Charles VIII of France, to Naples and Sicily. In 1501 they deposed Frederick; Naples initially went to Louis, but by 1504 a falling-out led to Naples' seizure by Ferdinand, after which it remained part of the Spanish possessions until the end of the War of the Spanish Succession.

Habsburg Netherlands

Habsburg Netherlands (Dutch: Habsburgse Nederlanden; French: Pays-Bas des Habsbourg), also referred to as Flanders during the early modern period, is the collective name of Holy Roman Empire fiefs in the Low Countries held by the House of Habsburg. The rule began in 1482, when after the death of the Valois-Burgundy duke Charles the Bold the Burgundian Netherlands fell to the Habsburg dynasty by the marriage of Charles's daughter Mary of Burgundy to Archduke Maximilian I of Austria. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor was born in the Habsburg Netherlands and made the Low Countries (primarily Brussels) the core of his "empire on which the sun never sets".Becoming the Seventeen Provinces in 1549, they were held by the Spanish Empire from 1556, and are therefore also known as the Spanish Netherlands from that time on. In 1581, the Seven United Provinces seceded to form the Dutch Republic; the remaining Spanish Southern Netherlands eventually passed on to Habsburg Austria. Finally, the Austrian Netherlands were annexed by the French First Republic in 1795.

House of Valois-Burgundy

The House of Valois-Burgundy (French: Maison de Valois-Bourgogne), or the Younger House of Burgundy, was a noble French family deriving from the royal House of Valois. It is distinct from the Capetian House of Burgundy, descendants of King Robert II of France, though both houses stem from the Capetian dynasty. They ruled the Duchy of Burgundy from 1363 to 1482 and later came to rule vast lands including Artois, Flanders, Luxembourg, Hainault, the county palatine of Burgundy (Franche-Comté), and other lands through marriage.

The term "Valois Dukes of Burgundy" is employed to refer to the dynasty which began after King John II of France granted the French Duchy of Burgundy to his youngest son, Philip the Bold in 1363.

During the Hundred Years' War, the dukes rivalled with their royal cousins uniting a great number of French and Imperial fiefs under their rule. However, their plans to establish an autonomous kingdom ultimately failed when the last duke, Charles the Bold, sparked the Burgundian Wars and was killed in the Battle of Nancy in 1477. The final ruler of the dynasty, Mary, Duchess of Burgundy, attempted to assert her authority within her domains, but failed. Her lands outside of France passed to her eldest son, Philip, to become the Habsburg Netherlands, while the Duchy of Burgundy itself returned to the kingdom of France. Mary died in 1482, thus ending the House of Valois-Burgundy.

Jacques of Savoy, Count of Romont

Jacques of Savoy (12 November 1450 – 30 January 1486) was Count of Romont and Lord of Vaud.

Louis XI of France

Louis XI (3 July 1423 – 30 August 1483), called "Louis the Prudent" (French: le Prudent), was King of France from 1461 to 1483, the sixth from the House of Valois. He succeeded his father Charles VII.

Louis entered into open rebellion against his father in a short-lived revolt known as the Praguerie in 1440. The king forgave his rebellious vassals, including Louis, to whom he entrusted the management of the Dauphiné, then a province in southeastern France. Louis's ceaseless intrigues, however, led his father to banish him from court. From the Dauphiné, Louis led his own political establishment and married Charlotte of Savoy, daughter of Louis, Duke of Savoy, against the will of his father. Charles VII sent an army to compel his son to his will, but Louis fled to Burgundy, where he was hosted by Philip the Good, the Duke of Burgundy, Charles' greatest enemy.

When Charles VII died in 1461, Louis left the Burgundian court to take possession of his kingdom. His taste for intrigue and his intense diplomatic activity earned him the nicknames "the Cunning" (Middle French: le rusé) and "the Universal Spider" (Middle French: l'universelle aragne), as his enemies accused him of spinning webs of plots and conspiracies.

In 1472, the subsequent Duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold, took up arms against his rival Louis. However, Louis was able to isolate Charles from his English allies by signing the Treaty of Picquigny (1475) with Edward IV of England. The treaty formally ended the Hundred Years' War. With the death of Charles the Bold at the Battle of Nancy in 1477, the dynasty of the dukes of Burgundy died out. Louis took advantage of the situation to seize numerous Burgundian territories, including Burgundy proper and Picardy.

Without direct foreign threats, Louis was able to eliminate his rebellious vassals, expand royal power, and strengthen the economic development of his country. He died on 30 August 1483, and was succeeded by his minor son Charles VIII.

Margaret of York

Margaret of York (3 May 1446 – 23 November 1503)—also by marriage known as Margaret of Burgundy—was Duchess of Burgundy as the third wife of Charles the Bold and acted as a protector of the duchy after his death. She was a daughter of Richard, 3rd Duke of York, and Cecily Neville, and the sister of two kings of England, Edward IV and Richard III. She was born at Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire, in the Kingdom of England, and she died at Mechelen in the Low Countries.

Mary of Burgundy

Mary (French: Marie; Dutch: Maria; 13 February 1457 – 27 March 1482), Duchess of Burgundy, reigned over many of the territories of the Duchy of Burgundy, now mainly in France and the Low Countries, from 1477 until her death. As the only child of Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, and his wife Isabella of Bourbon, she inherited the duchy upon the death of her father in the Battle of Nancy on 5 January 1477. Owing to the great prosperity of many of her territories, Mary was often referred to as Mary the Rich.

Passport to Pimlico

Passport to Pimlico is a 1949 British comedy film made by Ealing Studios and starring Stanley Holloway, Margaret Rutherford and Hermione Baddeley. It was directed by Henry Cornelius and written by T. E. B. Clarke. The story concerns the unearthing of treasure and documents that lead to a small part of Pimlico to be declared a legal part of the House of Burgundy, and therefore exempt from the post-war rationing or other bureaucratic restrictions active in Britain at the time.

Passport to Pimlico explores the spirit and unity of wartime London in a post-war context and offers an examination of the English character. Like other Ealing comedies, the film pits a small group of British against a series of changes to the status quo from an external agent. The story was an original concept by the screenwriter T. E. B. Clarke. He was inspired by an incident during the Second World War, when the maternity ward of Ottawa Civic Hospital was temporarily declared extraterritorial by the Canadian government so that when Princess Juliana of the Netherlands gave birth, the baby was not born on Canadian territory, and would not lose her right to the throne.

Passport to Pimlico was well-received on its release. The film was released in the same year as Whisky Galore! and Kind Hearts and Coronets, leading to 1949 being remembered as one of the peak years of the Ealing comedies. Passport to Pimlico was nominated for the British Academy Film Award for Best British Film and the Academy Award for Writing (Story and Screenplay). There have since been two BBC Radio adaptations: the first in 1952, the second in 1996.

Quentin Durward

Quentin Durward is a historical novel by Walter Scott, first published in 1823. The story concerns a Scottish archer in the service of the French King Louis XI (1423–1483).

The Adventures of Quentin Durward

The Adventures of Quentin Durward, known also as Quentin Durward, is a British-American 1955 historical film released by MGM. It was directed by Richard Thorpe and produced by Pandro S. Berman. The screenplay was by Robert Ardrey, adapted by George Froeschel from the novel Quentin Durward by Sir Walter Scott.

It was the third in an unofficial trilogy made by the same director and producer and starring Robert Taylor. The first two were Ivanhoe (1952) and Knights of the Round Table (1953). All three were made at MGM's British Studios at Elstree, near London. The film had the distinction of a soundtrack composed by studio music mainstay Bronislau Kaper rather than Miklos Rozsa, who was busy on other projects at the time the film was ready for scoring.

It was the first big-budget film for the British actress Kay Kendall, and it featured a large contingent of distinguished British players, including Robert Morley.

Varennes, Somme

Varennes-en-Croix is a commune in the Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.

Wars of Liège

The Wars of Liège were a series of three rebellions by the Prince-Bishopric of Liège, in the town of Liège in modern-day Belgium, against the expanding Duchy of Burgundy between 1465 and 1468. On each occasion, the rebels were defeated by Burgundian forces commanded by Charles the Bold and the city was twice burned to the ground.

Yolanda (film)

Yolanda is a 1924 silent film historical film drama produced by William Randolph Hearst (through his Cosmopolitan Productions) and starring Marion Davies. Robert G. Vignola directed as he had Enchantment (1921) and several other Davies costume films. The film is extant at Cinematheque de Belgique and the Museum of Modern Art and a trailer survives at the Library of Congress. The film began production as a Metro-Goldwyn film, with the company becoming Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in May 1924.This was the second Marion Davies vehicle produced by Cosmopolitan from a Charles Major novel, the first being the phenomenally successful (and expensive) When Knighthood Was in Flower in 1922. Unlike Knighthood, Yolanda was not financially successful.

Ancestors of Charles the Bold
16. John II of France[17]
8. Philip II, Duke of Burgundy[17]
17. Bonne of Bohemia[17]
4. John I, Duke of Burgundy[17]
18. Louis II, Count of Flanders[17]
9. Margaret III, Countess of Flanders[17]
19. Margaret of Brabant[17]
2. Philip III, Duke of Burgundy
20. Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor[17]
10. Albert I, Duke of Bavaria[17]
21. Margaret II, Countess of Hainaut[17]
5. Margaret of Bavaria[17]
22. Louis I, Duke of Brzeg[17]
11. Margaret of Brzeg[17]
23. Agnes of Głogów[17]
1. Charles, Duke of Burgundy
24. Afonso IV of Portugal[20]
12. Peter I of Portugal[19]
25. Beatrice of Castile[20]
6. John I of Portugal[18]
26. Lourenço Martins[21]
13. Teresa Lourenço[19]
27. Sancha Martins[21]
3. Isabella of Portugal
28. Edward III of England[18]
14. John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster[18]
29. Philippa of Hainault[18]
7. Philippa of Lancaster[18]
30. Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster[18]
15. Blanche of Lancaster[18]
31. Isabel of Beaumont[18]
Dukes
Events
Domains
Institutions

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