Charles Wood, 1st Viscount Halifax

Charles Wood, 1st Viscount Halifax, GCB, PC (20 December 1800 – 8 August 1885), known as Sir Charles Wood, 3rd Bt between 1846 and 1866, was a Anglo-Indian Whig politician and Member of Parliament Of The British Empire. He served as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1846 to 1858.


The Viscount Halifax

1stViscountHalifax
Chancellor of the Exchequer
In office
6 July 1846 – 21 February 1852
MonarchVictoria
Prime MinisterLord John Russell
Preceded byHenry Goulburn
Succeeded byBenjamin Disraeli
Personal details
Born20 December 1800
Pontefract, Yorkshire, England, Kingdom of Great Britain
Died8 August 1885 (aged 84)
Hickleton Hall, Doncaster, West Riding of Yorkshire, England, UK
NationalityBritish
Political partyWhig
Spouse(s)Lady Mary Grey (d. 1884)
Children7, including Charles Wood, 2nd Viscount Halifax
Alma materOriel College, Oxford
Memorial to Grey and Wood family members in the Church of the Holy Angels, Hoar Cross
Heraldic memorial window to Grey and Wood family, Church of the Holy Angels, Hoar Cross, Staffordshire

Background

Halifax was the son of Sir Francis Wood, 2nd Baronet, and his wife Anne, daughter of Samuel Buck. He was educated at Eton and Oriel College, Oxford, where he studied classics and mathematics.

Political career

A Liberal and Member of Parliament from 1826 to 1866, Wood served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in Lord John Russell's government (1846 –1852), where he opposed any further help for Ireland during the Great Famine there. The extreme parsimony of the British Government towards Ireland while Wood was in charge of the Treasury greatly enhanced the suffering of those affected by famine. Wood believed in the economic policy of Laissez-faire and preferred to leave the Irish to starve rather than 'undermine the market' by allowing in cheap imported grain.[1] (actually Charles Wood did not prevent grain entering Ireland, and it would not have been laissez faire for him to "prevent it" - the problem was that people had little money to buy it). The British government, with Charles Wood as Chancellor, first tried a program of public works (not "laissez faire") and then, when that failed, tried a policy of soup kitchens and so on (also not "laissez faire"). In his 1851 budget, Sir Charles liberalized trade, reducing import duties and encouraging consumer goods. Disraeli, a former protectionist, would after Peel's death transform the party into a complex party machine that embraced free trade. In a speech on an interim financial statement on 30 April 1852, Disraeli referred to Wood's influence on economic policy, setting a trend for the way budgets are presented in the Commons.[2] Tariff reduction led to a noticeable increase in consumption: the Conservatives moved from Derby-Bentinck protectionism towards a new politics during 1852. For Wood, a dry old stick, Disraeli was 'petulant and sarcastic', qualities he disliked.[3]

Wood later served as President of the Board of Control under Lord Aberdeen (1852–1855), as First Lord of the Admiralty in Lord Palmerston's first administration (1855–1858), and as Secretary of State for India in Palmerston's second government (1859–1866). He succeeded to his father's baronetcy in 1846, and in 1866 he was elevated to the peerage as Viscount Halifax, of Monk Bretton in the West Riding of the County of York.[4] After the unexpected death of Lord Clarendon necessitated a reshuffle of Gladstone's first cabinet, Halifax was brought in as Lord Privy Seal, serving from 1870 to 1874, his last public office.

Wood's despatch

As the President of the Board of Control, Wood took a major step in spreading education in India when in 1854 he sent a despatch to Lord Dalhousie, the then Governor-General of India. It was recommended therein that:

  1. An education department was to be set in every province.
  2. Universities on the model of the London university be established in big cities such as Bombay, Calcutta and Madras.
  3. At least one government school be opened in every district.
  4. Affiliated private schools should be given grant in aid.
  5. The Indian natives should be given training in their mother tongue also.

In accordance with Wood's despatch, Education Departments were established in every province and universities were opened at Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras in 1857, in Punjab in 1882, and at Allahbad in 1887.

Family

Lord Halifax married Lady Mary Grey (3 May 1807 – 6 July 1884), fifth daughter of Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey, on 29 July 1829. They had four sons and three daughters:[5]

  • Hon Blanche Edith Wood (d. 21 July 1921) married 21 September 1876, Col Hon Henry William Lowry-Corry (30 June 1845 – 6 May 1927).
  • Hon Alice Louisa Wood (d. 3 June 1934)
  • Charles Lindley Wood, 2nd Viscount Halifax (7 January 1839 – 19 January 1934)
  • Hon Emily Charlotte Wood (1840 – 21 December 1904) married Hugo Francis Meynell-Ingram (1822 – 26 May 1871)
  • Capt Hon Francis Lindley Wood, RN (17 October 1841 – 14 October 1873)
  • Lt Col Hon Henry John Lindley Wood (12 January 1843 – 5 January 1903)
  • Fredrick George Lindley Wood (later Meynell) (4 June 1846 – 4 November 1910)

Lady Halifax died in 1884. Lord Halifax survived her by just over a year and died in August 1885, aged 84. He was succeeded in his titles by his eldest son Charles, who was the father of Edward Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax.

References

  1. ^ Woodham Smith, Cecil, (1962) The Great Hunger. Penguin Books ISBN 9780140145151
  2. ^ Hurd & Young, p.116.
  3. ^ Hurd & Young, p.121.
  4. ^ Charles Wood, 1st Viscount Halifax of Monk Bretton.
  5. ^ The Peerage, entry for 1st Viscount Halifax
Charles Wood, 1st Viscount Halifax by Anthony de Brie (Bree)
An 1873 portrait of Lord Halifax by Anthony de Brie.

Bibliography

External links

Parliament of the United Kingdom
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Lord Privy Seal
1870–1874
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Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Viscount Halifax
1866–1885
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Charles Lindley Wood
Baronetage of Great Britain
Preceded by
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1846–1885
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Charles Wood
1800 in Great Britain

Events from the year 1800 in Great Britain.

1854

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12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1885 in the United Kingdom

Events from the year 1885 in the United Kingdom.

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Charles Lindley Wood, 2nd Viscount Halifax (7 June 1839 – 19 January 1934) was a British ecumenist who served as president of the English Church Union from 1868 to 1919, and from 1927 to 1934.

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It was first laid out in 1831, and includes a number of listed buildings.

Chesham Place and nearby Chesham Street take their name from the town of Chesham in Buckinghamshire, and were named by William Lowndes who owned the leases on this and nearby land.

It gives its name to Chesham Amalgamations, founded at number 36 in 1962.

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Earl of Halifax

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The first three creations were for closely related male members of the Montagu family, landed gentry since the Norman Conquest, and spanned most of the years 1689-1771.

The fourth creation was in 1944 for Lord Halifax, the former Viceroy of India (who was before his elevation to the earldom the 3rd Viscount Halifax). He was a prominent 1930s minister, to whom the office of prime minister was offered on the resignation of Chamberlain, which he declined in favour of Churchill.

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Halifax Street, Adelaide

Halifax Street is a street in the south-eastern sector of the centre of Adelaide, South Australia. It runs east–west between East Terrace and King William Street, crossing Hutt Street and Pulteney Street and passing through Hurtle Square. It was named after Sir Charles Wood (later Charles Wood, 1st Viscount Halifax), British Member of Parliament for Halifax.

Halifax Street is one of the intermediate-width streets of the Adelaide grid, at 1 1⁄2 chains (99 ft; 30 m) wide.

Circa 1844 Halifax Street became the location of one of Adelaide's first breweries, founded by William Henry Clark who later built a flour mill close by. The brewery and mill were sited on city acres 564 and 603 between Halifax and Gilles streets which, from 1909 to 1950, housed Adelaide's rubbish incinerator.

Henry Lowry-Corry (1845–1927)

Colonel Henry William Lowry-Corry DL, JP (30 June 1845 – 6 May 1927), styled The Honourable from birth, was a British Army officer and Conservative politician.

Hoar Cross Hall

Hoar Cross Hall is a 19th-century country mansion situated near the villages of Hoar Cross and Hamstall Ridware, Staffordshire which is operated as a hotel and spa, together with facilities for conferences and weddings. It is a Grade II listed building.

The original Hoar Cross estate comprised 490 acres and was bought for 18 pence in 1450 during Henry VI’s reign, including a moat and a drawbridge common in Tudor estate houses. It is reported that onlookers would simply turn up, just to set eyes on the building. It survived for nearly 300 years before being demolished in 1740.

From the early 17th century, Hoar Cross had been the first seat of the Ingram family whose principal residence was Temple Newsam, Leeds, West Riding of Yorkshire. In 1661 Henry Ingram was brought up as Baron Ingram and Viscount of Irvine. On the death of the 9th Viscount in 1778 the Viscountcy became extinct. The estates descended to his daughters and in 1841 to Hugo Charles Meynell (grandson of Hugo Meynell and son of Sir Hugo Meynell who had married Elizabeth Ingram in 1782). Upon inheritance Meynell incorporated "Ingram" into his surname to become Meynell Ingram.

In 1793 Hugo Meynell built what was to be called the ‘Old Hall’, a manor house for use as an occasional hunting lodge in the glorious Needwood Forest. This provides a real link to today’s property, which still features the Meynell Room.

When he died in 1808, Hugo’s eldest son, Hugo Francis Meynell Ingram inherited the estate. Not much changed at Hoar Cross until 1863 when he set about an ambitious construction plan for a new hall to celebrate his marriage to Lady Charlotte Wood,

She was the daughter of Charles Wood, 1st Viscount Halifax, who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1846 to 1852. The Meynells were moving in august circles and Hugo appointed renowned architect Henry Clutton to oversee an ambitious building project to match their status.

The brief was to design an Elizabethan style house, with Jacobean overtones. Its lofty gables, cupolas, 48 chimneys and mullioned windows are good examples of the period style. Two large weather vanes were designed, overlooking the halls’ turrets, in the shape of the letters M and I, for Meynell Ingram.

The 114 ft Long Gallery runs along the north side of the house, and was typical in Tudor homes, as a place where the family, particularly during bad weather, could walk, play music, or sit and talk.

The private chapel is at the east end of the Long Gallery, off which came the private chapel, built in memory of Meynell’s son, by his widow, Charlotte Wood. The private chapel was designed again by Bodley, and completed in 1897, at of cost of almost £1,000.

Meynell Ingram died in 1871 and Lady Charlotte built the church in his memory. She remained in occupation of the hall until her death in 1904 when her nephew Frederick George Lindley Wood (later Meynell) inherited the estate. In 1952 or 1954 the Meynell family moved to a smaller house in the neighbouring village of Newborough, leaving only a caretaker and his family.

In 1970 the Hall was purchased by William Bickerton-Jones and his wife Gwyneth. In 1989, businessman Damien Porter inherited the Hall and refurbished it, creating a new health spa in the Hall. In 2012, the business received an investment to create hotel amenities alongside the existing spa. The Business is a credit to Damien Porter and The Porter Family From the 21st Century who have developed the tudor galleries into a monumental leisure activity for all to visit, enjoy and relax.

Hugo Meynell-Ingram

Hugo Francis Meynell-Ingram (1822 – 26 May 1871) was a Conservative Party politician in the United Kingdom. He was Member of Parliament (MP) for Staffordshire West from 1868 to 1871.

Meynell-Ingram was the son of Hugo Meynell and his wife Georgina Pigou. His father, proprietor of Hoar Cross Hall and Temple Newsam changed his name to Meynell-Ingram. His mother was a lady of brilliance and charm who was friendly with such men as Sydney Smith, Lord Brougham, Walter Savage Landor and Charles Young.

He was elected Member of Parliament for Staffordshire West in 1868 and inherited Temple Newsam and Hoar Cross from his father in 1869.

He married Emily Charlotte Wood, daughter of Charles Wood, 1st Viscount Halifax, and of Mary daughter of Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey. After his death, Emily built the church of the Holy Angels at Hoar Cross as a memorial to him. The church was designed by George Frederick Bodley and Thomas Garner. Mrs. Meynell Ingram was a Lady of Grace of the Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem in England, and on 8 May 1902 was promoted to a Lady of Justice (DStJ) in the same order. She died in 1904.

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William Heneage Legge, 6th Earl of Dartmouth (6 May 1851 – 11 March 1936), styled Viscount Lewisham between 1853 and 1891, was a British peer and Conservative politician. He served as Vice-Chamberlain of the Household between 1885 and 1886 and again between 1886 and 1891.

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