Charles Warren

General Sir Charles Warren, GCMG, KCB, FRS (7 February 1840 – 21 January 1927) was an officer in the British Royal Engineers. He was one of the earliest European archaeologists of the Biblical Holy Land, and particularly of the Temple Mount. Much of his military service was spent in British South Africa. Previously he was police chief, the head of the London Metropolitan Police, from 1886 to 1888 during the Jack the Ripper murders. His command in combat during the Second Boer War was criticised, but he achieved considerable success during his long life in his military and civil posts.

General Sir Charles Warren
Charles Warren carbon print portrait by Herbert Rose Barraud of London
Charles Warren carbon print portrait by Herbert Rose Barraud of London
Born7 February 1840
Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales
Died21 January 1927 (aged 86)
Weston-super-Mare, Somerset, England
Churchyard at Westbere, Kent
Allegiance United Kingdom
Service/branch British Army
Years of service1857–c.1905
UnitRoyal Engineers
Commands held5th Division, South African Field Force (1899–00)
Straits Settlements (1889–94)
Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis (1886–88)
Suakim (1886)
Bechuanaland Expedition (1884–85)
Northern Border Expedition (1879)
Griqualand West
Diamond Fields Horse
Battles/warsTranskei War
Bechuanaland Expedition
Second Boer War
AwardsKnight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George
Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath
Mentioned in Despatches
Order of the Medjidie, Third Class (Ottoman Empire)
Other workPalestine Expeditionary Fund
The Scout Association

Education and early military career

Warren was born in Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales, the son of Major-General Sir Charles Warren. He was educated at Bridgnorth Grammar School and Wem Grammar School in Shropshire. He also attended Cheltenham College for one term in 1854, from which he went to the Royal Military College, Sandhurst and then the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich (1855–57). On 27 December 1857, he was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Royal Engineers. On 1 September 1864, he married Fanny Margaretta Haydon (died 1919); they had two sons and two daughters. Warren was a devout Anglican and an enthusiastic Freemason, becoming the third District Grand Master of the Eastern Archipelago in Singapore and the founding Master of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge.

Military career

Gibraltar Model 1865 (4)
A sample photograph showing how the Gibraltar model, on display at the Gibraltar Museum, includes every house and roadway.

From 1861 to 1865, Warren worked on surveying Gibraltar. During this time he surveyed the Rock of Gibraltar using trigonometry and with the support of Major-General Frome, he created two 8 metres (26 ft) long scale detailed models of Gibraltar.[1] One of these was kept at Woolwich, but the other, which survives, is on display at Gibraltar Museum. These models not only depicted the shape of The Rock and harbour but also every road and building. From 1865 to 1867, he was an assistant instructor in surveying at the School of Military Engineering in Chatham. He was promoted captain for this work.

Ottoman Syria

In 1867, Warren was recruited by the Palestine Exploration Fund to conduct Biblical archaeology "reconnaissance" with a view of further research and excavation to be undertaken later in Ottoman Syria, but more specifically the Holy Land or Biblical Palestine. He conducted the first major excavations of Jerusalem's Temple Mount, thereby ushering in a new age of Biblical archaeology. His most significant discovery was a water shaft, now known as Warren's Shaft, and a series of tunnels underneath the Temple Mount.[2] His "Letters" from the expedition would be published later as a journal. In 1870, ill-health forced Warren to return to England.

South Africa

He served briefly at Dover and then at the School of Gunnery at Shoeburyness (1871–73). In 1876, the Colonial Office appointed him special commissioner to survey the boundary between Griqualand West and the Orange Free State. For this work, he was made a Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George (CMG) in 1877. In the Transkei War (1877–78), he commanded the Diamond Fields Horse and was badly wounded at Perie Bush. For this service, he was mentioned in despatches and promoted to brevet lieutenant colonel. He was then appointed special commissioner to investigate "native questions" in Bechuanaland and commanded the Northern Border Expedition troops in quelling the rebellion there. In 1879, he became Administrator of Griqualand West. The town Warrenton in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa is named after him.

Palmer expedition investigation

In 1880, Warren returned to England to become Chief Instructor in Surveying at the School of Military Engineering. He held this post until 1884, but it was interrupted in 1882, when the Admiralty sent him to Sinai to discover what had happened to Professor Edward Henry Palmer's archaeological expedition. He discovered that the expedition members had been robbed and murdered, located their remains, and brought their killers to justice. For this, he was created a Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George (KCMG) on 24 May 1883 and was also awarded a Order of the Medjidie, Third Class by the Egyptian government. In 1883, he was also made a Knight of Justice of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, and in June 1884 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS).

Bechuanaland Expedition

Charles Warren by Elliott & Fry, c1886
Warren circa 1886

In December 1884, by now a lieutenant-colonel,[3] Warren was sent as HM Special Commissioner to command a military expedition to Bechuanaland, to assert British sovereignty in the face of encroachments from Germany and the Transvaal, and to suppress the Boer freebooter states of Stellaland and Goshen, which were backed by the Transvaal and were stealing land and cattle from the local Tswana tribes. Becoming known as the Warren Expedition, the force of 4,000 British and local troops headed north from Cape Town, accompanied by the first three observation balloons ever used by the British Army in the field. The expedition achieved its aims without bloodshed, and Warren was recalled in September 1885 and appointed a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG) on 4 October 1885.

Commissioner of Police

Charles Warren, Vanity Fair, 1886-02-06
Warren by Ape in Vanity Fair, 1886

In 1885, Warren stood for election to Parliament as an independent Liberal candidate in the Sheffield Hallam constituency with a radical manifesto. He lost by 690 votes, and was appointed commander at Suakin in 1886. A few weeks after he arrived, however, he was appointed Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis following Sir Edmund Henderson's resignation.

The exact rationale for the selection of Warren for the post is still unknown. Up to that time, and for some time into the 20th century, the heads of Scotland Yard were selected from the ranks of the military. In Warren's case he may have been selected in part by his involvement in discovering the fate of Professor Palmer's expedition into the Sinai in 1883. If so there may have been a serious error regarding his "police work" in that case, as it was a military investigation and not a civil style police operation.

The Metropolitan Police was in a bad state when Warren took over, suffering from Henderson's inactivity over the past few years. Economic conditions in London were bad, leading to demonstrations. He was concerned for his men's welfare, but much of this went unheeded. His men found him rather aloof, although he generally had good relations with his superintendents. At Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee in 1887, the police received considerable adverse publicity after Miss Elizabeth Cass, an apparently respectable young seamstress, was (possibly) mistakenly arrested for soliciting, and was vocally supported by her employer in the courts.

To make matters worse, Warren, a Liberal, did not get along with Conservative Home Secretary Henry Matthews, appointed a few months after he became Commissioner. Matthews supported the desire of the Assistant Commissioner (Crime), James Monro, to remain effectively independent of the Commissioner and also supported the Receiver, the force's chief financial officer, who continually clashed with Warren. Home Office Permanent Secretary Godfrey Lushington did not get on with Warren either. Warren was pilloried in the press for his extravagant dress uniform, his concern for the quality of his men's boots (a sensible concern considering they walked up to 20 miles a day, but one which was derided as a military obsession with kit), and his reintroduction of drill. The radical press completely turned against him after Bloody Sunday on 13 November 1887, when a demonstration in Trafalgar Square was broken up by 4,000 police officers on foot, 300 infantrymen and 600 mounted police and Life Guards.

In 1888, Warren introduced five Chief Constables, ranking between the Superintendents and the Assistant Commissioners. Monro insisted that the Chief Constable of the Criminal Investigation Department (CID), his deputy, should be a friend of his, Melville Macnaghten, but Warren opposed his appointment on the grounds that during a riot in Bengal Macnaghten had been "beaten by Hindoos", as he put it. This grew into a major row between Warren and Monro, with both men offering their resignation to the Home Secretary. Matthews accepted Monro's resignation, but simply moved him to the Home Office and allowed him to keep command of Special Branch, which was his particular interest. Robert Anderson was appointed Assistant Commissioner (Crime) and Superintendent Adolphus Williamson was appointed Chief Constable (CID). Both men were encouraged to liaise with Monro behind Warren's back.

Jack the Ripper

Warren's biggest difficulty was the Jack the Ripper case. He was criticised for failing to track down the killer and faced press accusations that were frequently baseless. He was accused of failing to offer a reward for information, although in fact he supported the idea and it was blocked by the Home Office. He was accused of not putting enough police officers on the ground, whereas in fact Whitechapel was swamped with them.. He was accused of being more interested in uniformed policing than detective work, which was true, but failed to take into consideration the fact that he allowed his experienced detective officers to conduct their own affairs and rarely interfered in their operations. He was accused of not using bloodhounds, and when he did eventually bring them in, he was accused of being obsessed with them.

He responded to these criticisms by attacking his detractors in the pages of Murray's Magazine, supporting vigilante activity, which the police on the streets knew was a bad idea, and publicly complaining about his lack of control of CID, which brought an official Home Office reprimand for discussing his office publicly without permission. Warren finally had enough and resigned – coincidentally right before the murder of Mary Jane Kelly on 9 November 1888. Every superintendent on the force visited him at home to express their regret. Warren's resignation hindered the investigation. He had given an order that if another murder occurred, nobody was to enter the scene – a strange turn of phrase as the four previous victims had all been found in the open street – until he arrived to direct the investigation. Consequently, when the murder of Kelly was discovered by a rent collector who looked in through the window of her room in a Spitalfields lodging house, the police did not enter the room for some three hours because, unaware of his resignation, they were waiting for Warren to arrive.[4] He returned to military duties.

He was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath (KCB) on 7 January 1888.

Later military career and Boer War

In July of 1891, Warren was sent to command the garrison in Singapore and promoted to the rank of Major-General[5], and continually quarrelled with the Home Secretary.[6] He sited the guns of Singapore and remained there until 1894. Returning to England, he commanded the Thames District from 1895 to 1898, when he was promoted lieutenant general and was moved to the Reserve List.

Royal Engineer Yacht Club

Watermanship being one of the many skills required of the Sapper led to the formation of a sailing club at the School of Military Engineering in 1812 and later to the development of cutter rowing teams. Construction of a canal linking Thames and Medway rivers in 1824 gave the Royal Engineers an inland waterway to practice these skills, with the officer responsible for the canal drawn from the Corps of Royal Engineers. In 1899 as General Officer Commanding the Thames and Medway Canal, General Sir Charles Warren presented a challenge shield for a championship cutter race on the River Medway against the Royal Navy. The Sapper teams were drawn from members of the Submarine Mining School, but when the service was disbanded in 1905, the tradition of cutter rowing was continued by the fieldwork squads. The REYC continues to compete against the Royal Navy Sailing Association annually to this day. The club developed and became the Royal Engineer Yacht Club in 1846, making it one of the most senior yacht clubs in the United Kingdom. The REYC continues to this day, operating three club yachts and competing on behalf of the Corps at races around the world. The club is one of the oldest sports clubs in the British Army.

Second Boer War

On the outbreak of the Boer War in 1899, he returned to the colours to command the 5th Division of the South African Field Force. Farwell described the decision to give command to Warren as "an enigma".[6] In January 1900, Warren bungled the second attempted relief of Ladysmith, which was a west flanking movement over the Tugela River. At the Battle of Spion Kop, on 23–24 January 1900, he had operational command, and his failures of judgment, delay and indecision despite his superior forces culminated in the disaster. Farwell highlighted Warren's fixation with the army's oxen and his view that Hlangwane Hill was the key to Colenso.[7] Farwell suggested Warren was "perhaps the worst" of the British generals in the Boer War and certainly the most "preposterous".[6] He was described by Redvers Buller in a letter to his wife as "a duffer", responsible for losing him "a great chance".

Warren was recalled to Britain in August 1900 and never again commanded troops in the field. He was, however, appointed Honorary Colonel of the 1st Gloucestershire Volunteer Corps of the Royal Engineers in November 1901,[8] promoted general in 1904 and became Colonel-Commandant of the Royal Engineers in 1905. A book by South African author Owen Coetzer attempted "in a small way to vindicate him" for his Boer War actions.[9]

Retirement years

From 1908, Warren became involved with Baden-Powell in the creation of the Boy Scout movement. He had previously authored several books on Biblical archaeology, particularly Jerusalem, and also wrote "On Veldt in the Seventies", and "The Ancient Cubit and Our Weights and Measures". He died of pneumonia, brought on by a bout of influenza, at his home in Weston-super-Mare, Somerset, was given a military funeral in Canterbury, and was buried in the churchyard at Westbere, Kent, next to his wife.

Fictional portrayals

Warren was played by Basil Henson in the 1973 miniseries Jack the Ripper. He was played by Anthony Quayle in the 1979 film Murder by Decree, which features the characters of Sherlock Holmes and Doctor Watson in a dramatization of a conspiracy theory concerning the Ripper case. In the 1988 made for TV mini-series Jack the Ripper, which followed the same conspiracy theory as Murder by Decree, he was played by Hugh Fraser. The mini-series shows his final act as commissioner ordering lead detective Fred Abberline to suppress his findings on the investigation in order to protect the royal family from scandal. In the 2001 film From Hell he was played by Ian Richardson.


Works by Charles Warren

  • Warren, Charles; Wilson, Charles William; Stanley, Arthur Penrhyn (1871). Morrison, Walter, ed. The recovery of Jerusalem: a narrative of exploration and discovery in the city and the Holy Land. New York: D. Appleton.
  • Underground Jerusalem (1876)
  • The Temple or the Tomb (1880)
  • Warren, Sir Charles; Conder, Claude Reignier (1884). The survey of Western Palestine. London: Palestine Exploration Fund.
  • Plans, elevations, sections, &c., shewing the results of the excavations at Jerusalem (1884)
  • On the Veldt in the Seventies (1902)
  • The Ancient Cubit and Our Weights and Measures (1903)
  • The Early Weights and Measures of Mankind (1914)

Works on Charles Warren


  1. ^ Beckett, Ian (2006). Victorians at War p.53. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 272.
  2. ^ Rossner, Rena (26 January 2006). "The once and future city". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
  3. ^ Keith Surridge, ‘Warren, Sir Charles (1840–1927)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, May 2006 accessed 4 Dec 2015
  4. ^ Kendell, Colin 'Jack the Ripper – The Theories and The Facts' Amberley Publishing 2010
  5. ^ Report, Annual (30 June 1891). "Perak in 1890". The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  6. ^ a b c Farwell, p.159
  7. ^ Farwell, pp. 159–61
  8. ^ "No. 27379". The London Gazette. 22 November 1901. p. 7655.
  9. ^ Coetzer, p. 1


  • Austin, Ron. The Australian Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Zulu and Boer Wars, Slouch Hat Publication, McCrae, 1999. ISBN 0-9585296-3-9
  • Bloomfield, Jeffrey, The Making of the Commissioner: 1886, R.W.Stone, Q.P.M. (ed.), The Criminologist, Vol.12, No.3, p. 139–155; reprinted, Paul Begg (Exec. ed.), The Ripperologist, No. 47, July 2003, p. 6–15.
  • Coetzer, Owen. The Anglo-Boer War: The Road to Infamy, 1899–1900, Arms and Armour, 1996. ISBN 1-85409-366-5
  • Farwell, Byron, The Great Boer War, Allen Lane, London, 1976 (plus subsequent publications) ISBN 0-7139-0820-3
  • Fido, Martin and Keith Skinner, The Official Encyclopedia of Scotland Yard (Virgin Books, London:1999)
  • Grena, G.M. (2004). LMLK—A Mystery Belonging to the King vol. 1. Redondo Beach, California: 4000 Years of Writing History. ISBN 0-9748786-0-X.
  • Kruger, Rayne. Goodbye Dolly Gray: The Story of the Boer War, 1959
  • Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
  • Pakenham, T.The Boer War(1979)

External links

Police appointments
Preceded by
Sir Edmund Henderson
Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis
Succeeded by
James Monro
2004 Nationwide Tour

The 2004 Nationwide Tour season ran from February 5 to October 31. The season consisted of 31 official money golf tournaments; five of which were played outside of the United States. The top 20 players on the year-end money list earned their PGA Tour card for 2005.

C. W. Thornthwaite

Charles Warren Thornthwaite (March 7, 1899 – June 11, 1963) was an American geographer and climatologist. He is best known for devising a climate classification system in 1948 that is still in use worldwide, and also for his detailed water budget computations of potential evapotranspiration.

He was Professor of Climatology at Johns Hopkins University, adjunct professor at Drexel University, President of the Commission for Climatology of the World Meteorological Organization, a recipient of the Outstanding Achievement Award of the Association of American Geographers, and the Cullum Geographical Medal from the American Geographical Society.

C. Warren Hollister

Charles Warren Hollister (November 2, 1930 – September 14, 1997) was an American author and historian. He was one of the founding members of the University of California Santa Barbara history department. He specialized in English medieval history, especially studies that emphasized the interrelationship of England within the Anglo-Norman realm and the development of administrative kingship. His colleague Jeffrey Burton Russell called Hollister "one of the best medieval generalists in the world."Hollister was born in Los Angeles, the son of Nathan and Carrie (Cushman) Hollister. He graduated with honors from Harvard University in 1951, served in the United States Air Force during the Korean War, and received his Ph.D from UCLA in 1958.

Hollister spent his academic career at the University of California, Santa Barbara, officially retiring in 1994. During his tenure the History Department at the University of California, Santa Barbara expanded massively, with the hire of scholars such as Frank J. Frost, Joachim Remak, Leonard Marsak, and Alfred Gollin. He was elected as a fellow of the Medieval Academy of America in 1981 and was also a fellow of the Royal Historical Society and the Medieval Academy of Ireland. In May 1982, Hollister and his graduate students founded the Charles Homer Haskins Society, dedicated to the study of Viking, Anglo-Saxon, Anglo-Norman, and early Angevin history.Hollister's research centered on the career of Henry I of England. However, his biography of that monarch was delayed by the loss of the manuscript, note cards and research library in the Santa Barbara wildfire of 1990. Hollister's Henry I biography was incomplete at the time of his death, but his doctoral student, Amanda Clark Frost, finished and published it with the Yale University Press in 2001.

Charles W. Fairbanks

Charles Warren Fairbanks (May 11, 1852 – June 4, 1918) was an American politician who served as the 26th vice president of the United States from 1905 to 1909 and a senator from Indiana from 1897 to 1905. He was also the Republican vice presidential nominee in the 1916 presidential election.

Born in Unionville Center, Ohio, Fairbanks moved to Indianapolis after graduating from Ohio Wesleyan University. He became an attorney and railroad financier, working under railroad magnate Jay Gould. Fairbanks delivered the keynote address at the 1896 Republican National Convention and won election to the Senate the following year. In the Senate, he became an advisor to President William McKinley and served on a commission that helped settle the Alaska boundary dispute.

The 1904 Republican National Convention selected Fairbanks as the running mate for President Theodore Roosevelt. As vice president, Fairbanks worked against Roosevelt's progressive policies. Fairbanks unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination at the 1908 Republican National Convention and backed William Howard Taft in 1912 against Roosevelt. Fairbanks sought the presidential nomination at the 1916 Republican National Convention, but was instead selected as the vice presidential nominee, serving on a ticket with Charles Evans Hughes. In the 1916 election, the Republican ticket lost to the Democratic ticket of President Woodrow Wilson and Vice President Thomas R. Marshall.

Charles W. Lippitt

Charles Warren Lippitt (October 8, 1846 – April 4, 1924) was an American politician and the 44th Governor of Rhode Island.

Charles Warren (MP)

Charles Warren (19 March 1764 – 12 August 1829) was an English barrister and politician, judge and amateur cricketer.

Charles Warren (U.S. author)

Charles Warren (March 9, 1868 – August 16, 1954) was an American lawyer and legal scholar who won a Pulitzer Prize for his book The Supreme Court in United States History (1922).

Charles Warren (engraver)

Charles Turner Warren (4 June 1762 – 21 April 1823) was an English line engraver.

Charles Warren (golfer)

Charles Otis Warren (born June 21, 1975) is an American professional golfer.

Warren is currently a member of the Tour. He was a member of the Nike Tour in 1998, the Nationwide Tour in 2000–04 and 2011–12, and a member of the PGA Tour in 1999 and 2005–10.

Warren won the NCAA Division I Championship in 1997 while attending Clemson University.

Charles Warren Eaton

Charles Warren Eaton (1857–1937) was an American artist best known for his tonalist landscapes. He earned the nickname "the pine tree painter" for his numerous depictions of Eastern White Pine trees.

Charles Warren Stoddard

Charles Warren Stoddard (1843–1909) was an American author and editor best known for his travel books about Polynesian life.

Charles Warren Stone

Charles Warren Stone (June 29, 1843 – August 15, 1912) was a Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania and the second Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania.

Charles Williams Nash

Charles Williams Nash (January 28, 1864 – June 6, 1948) was an American automobile entrepreneur who served as an executive in the automotive industry. He played a major role in building up General Motors. In 1916, he bought Thomas B. Jeffery Company, makers of the popular Rambler automobile, renamed it Nash Motors, and played an independent role in an automobile industry increasingly dominated by the Big Three: General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler. His profits came from focusing on one well-designed car in the upper medium price range. He bought several distressed companies in Wisconsin, merging them and installing advanced managerial accounting procedures while cutting costs and focusing on long-term growth. He retired as president in 1932 but remained chairman of the board. His major acquisition was the merger in 1937 with the Kelvinator Company, which made refrigerators. During World War II, Nash-Kelvinator greatly expanded to manufacture aircraft engines and parts.

Greg Warren (politician)

Gregory Charles Warren (born 6 November 1973) is an Australian politician who was elected to the New South Wales Legislative Assembly as the Labor Party member for Campbelltown at the 2015 New South Wales state election.Warren was a Camden Councillor, having served as mayor from 2011 to 2012, and worked in business logistics. His preselection was the first community preselection held by the New South Wales Australian Labor Party.

Palestine Exploration Fund

The Palestine Exploration Fund is a British society based in London. It was founded in 1865 and is the oldest known organization in the world created specifically for the study of the Levant region, also known as Palestine. Often simply known as the PEF, its initial object was to carry out surveys of the topography and ethnography of Ottoman Palestine with a remit that fell somewhere between an expeditionary survey and military intelligence gathering. Consequently, it had a complex relationship with Corps of Royal Engineers, and its members sent back reports on the need to salvage and modernise the region.

Postage stamps and postal history of British Bechuanaland

This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of British Bechuanaland.

Quatuor Coronati Lodge

Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 2076 (its Latin title meaning Four Crowned Ones) is a Masonic lodge in London dedicated to Masonic research. Founded in 1886, the lodge meets at Freemasons' Hall, Great Queen Street.

The name of the Lodge is taken from lines 497 - 534 of the Regius Poem. This poem from circa 1390 is one of the oldest Masonic documents.

Nine masons (Charles Warren, William Harry Rylands, Robert Freke Gould, The Revd Adolphus Frederick Alexander Woodford, Walter Besant, John Paul Rylands, Major Sisson Cooper Pratt, William James Hughan, and George William Speth), dissatisfied with the way the history of Freemasonry had been expounded in the past, founded the lodge, obtaining a warrant in 1884. Due to the absence of the first Master, Sir Charles Warren, on a diplomatic mission in Southern Africa, the lodge was not formally inaugurated until two years later. They insisted on using an evidence-based approach to the study of masonic history. As such, their approach was new and unusual, and they intended that the results should "replace the imaginative writings of earlier authors on the history of Freemasonry." This began what is now called the "authentic school" of Masonic research.In addition to quarterly meetings where papers are delivered and the presenters questioned, the lodge publishes yearly transactions titled Ars Quatuor Coronatorum and maintains the Quatuor Coronati Correspondence Circle (QCCC) to allow participation from masons all over the world.

Warren's Gate

Warren's Gate, first described by the nineteenth century surveyor Charles Warren, is an ancient entrance into the Temple platform in Jerusalem which lies about 150 feet (46 m) into the Western Wall Tunnel. In the Second Temple period, the gate led to a tunnel and staircase onto the Temple Mount.

After the Rashidun Caliphate conquest of Jerusalem from the Byzantines, Jews were allowed to pray inside the tunnel. The synagogue was destroyed in the First Crusade in the Siege of Jerusalem in 1099. The tunnel then became a water cistern, thus its name Cistern 30.The area is surrounded by a vaulted 18-foot (5.5 m) tunnel.

Rabbi Yehuda Getz, the late official Rabbi of the Western Wall, believed that the Gate represented the point west of the Wall closest to the Holy of Holies. An underground dispute broke out in July 1981 between Jewish explorers inside Warren's gate and Arab guards who came down to meet them through surface cistern entries. A small underground riot ensued which was only stopped when the Jerusalem police came in to restore the peace.

Warren Bonython

Charles Warren Bonython, AO (11 September 1916 – 2 April 2012) was an Australian conservationist, explorer, author, and chemical engineer. A keen bushwalker, he is perhaps best known for his role, spanning many years, of working towards the promotion, planning and eventual creation of the Heysen Trail. His work in conservation has been across a range of issues, but especially those connected with South Australian arid landscapes.

Canonical victims
Doctors and coroners
Letters and clues

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