Charles VII (22 February 1403 – 22 July 1461), called the Victorious (French: le Victorieux) or the Well-Served (French: le Bien-Servi), was King of France from 1422 to his death in 1461, the fifth from the House of Valois.
In the midst of the Hundred Years' War, Charles VII inherited the throne of France under desperate circumstances. Forces of the Kingdom of England and the Duchy of Burgundy occupied Guyenne and northern France, including Paris, the most populous city, and Reims, the city in which the French kings were traditionally crowned. In addition, his father Charles VI had disinherited him in 1420 and recognized Henry V of England and his heirs as the legitimate successors to the French crown instead. At the same time, a civil war raged in France between the Armagnacs (supporters of the House of Valois) and the Burgundian party (supporters of the House of Valois-Burgundy allied to the English).
With his court removed to Bourges, south of the Loire River, Charles was disparagingly called the “King of Bourges”, because the area around this city was one of the few remaining regions left to him. However, his political and military position improved dramatically with the emergence of Joan of Arc as a spiritual leader in France. Joan of Arc and other charismatic figures led French troops to lift the siege of Orléans, as well as other strategic cities on the Loire river, and to crush the English at the battle of Patay. With the local English troops dispersed, the people of Reims switched allegiance and opened their gates, which enabled the coronation of Charles VII in 1429 at Reims Cathedral. This long-awaited event boosted French morale as hostilities with England resumed. Following the battle of Castillon in 1453, the French expelled the English from all their continental possessions except for the Pale of Calais.
The last years of Charles VII were marked by conflicts with his turbulent son, the future Louis XI of France.
|Charles VII the Victorious|
|King of France|
|Reign||21 October 1422 – 22 July 1461|
|Coronation||17 July 1429|
|Born||22 February 1403|
|Died||22 July 1461 (aged 58)|
Marie of Anjou (m. 1422)
|Louis XI of France|
Radegonde of Valois
Yolande, Duchess of Savoy
Magdalena, Princess of Viana
Charles, Duke of Berry
Joan, Duchess of Bourbon
Catherine of Valois
Marie de Valois (illegitimate)
Charlotte de Brézé (illegitimate)
|Father||Charles VI of France|
|Mother||Isabeau of Bavaria|
Born at the Hôtel Saint-Pol, the royal residence in Paris, Charles was given the title of comte de Ponthieu at his birth in 1403. He was the eleventh child and fifth son of Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria. His four elder brothers, Charles (1386), Charles (1392–1401), Louis (1397–1415) and John (1398–1417) had each held the title of Dauphin of France (heir to the French throne) in turn. All died childless, leaving Charles with a rich inheritance of titles.
Almost immediately after his accession to the title of Dauphin, Charles had to face threats to his inheritance, and he was forced to flee from Paris on 29 May 1418 after the partisans of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, had entered the city the previous night. By 1419, Charles had established his own court in Bourges and a Parlement in Poitiers. On 11 July of that same year, Charles and John the Fearless attempted a reconciliation by signing, on a small bridge near Pouilly-le-Fort, not far from Melun where Charles was staying, the Treaty of Pouilly-le-Fort known also under name of Paix du Ponceau (ponceau from French pont, "bridge", is a small one-span bridge thrown over a stream). They also decided that a further meeting should take place the following 10 September. On that date, they met on the bridge at Montereau. The Duke assumed that the meeting would be entirely peaceful and diplomatic, thus he brought only a small escort with him. The Dauphin's men reacted to the Duke's arrival by attacking and killing him. Charles' level of involvement has remained uncertain to this day. Although he claimed to have been unaware of his men's intentions, this was considered unlikely by those who heard of the murder. The assassination marked the end of any attempt of a reconciliation between the two factions Armagnacs and Burgundians, thus playing into the hands of Henry V of England. Charles was later required by a treaty with Philip the Good, the son of John the Fearless, to pay penance for the murder, which he never did.
At the death of his father, Charles VI, the succession was cast into doubt. The Treaty of Troyes, signed by Charles VI in 1420, mandated that the throne pass to the infant King Henry VI of England, the son of the recently deceased Henry V and Catherine of Valois, daughter of Charles VI; however, Frenchmen loyal to the king of France regarded the treaty as invalid on grounds of coercion and Charles VI's diminished mental capacity. For those who did not recognize the treaty and believed the Dauphin Charles to be of legitimate birth, he was considered to be the rightful heir to the throne. For those who did not recognize his legitimacy, the rightful heir was recognized as Charles, Duke of Orléans, cousin of the Dauphin, who was in English captivity. Only the supporters of Henry VI and the Dauphin Charles were able to enlist sufficient military force to press effectively for their candidates. The English, already in control of northern France, were able to enforce the claim of their king in the regions of France that they occupied. Northern France, including Paris, was thus ruled by an English regent, Henry V's brother, John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford, based in Normandy (see Dual monarchy of England and France).
In his adolescent years, Charles was noted for his bravery and flamboyant style of leadership. At one point after becoming Dauphin, he led an army against the English dressed in the red, white, and blue that represented his family; his heraldic device was a mailed fist clutching a naked sword. However, in July 1421, upon learning that Henry V was preparing from Mantes to attack with a much larger army, he withdrew from the siege of Chartres in order to avoid defeat. He then went south of the Loire River under the protection of Yolande of Aragon, known as "Queen of the Four Kingdoms" and, on 22 April 1422, married her daughter, Marie of Anjou, to whom he had been engaged since December 1413 in a ceremony at the Louvre Palace.
Charles, unsurprisingly, claimed the title King of France for himself, but he failed to make any attempts to expel the English from northern France out of indecision and a sense of hopelessness Instead, he remained south of the Loire River, where he was still able to exert power, and maintained an itinerant court in the Loire Valley at castles such as Chinon. He was still customarily known as "Dauphin," or derisively as "King of Bourges," after the town where he generally lived. Periodically, he considered flight to the Iberian Peninsula, which would have allowed the English to advance their occupation of France.
Political conditions in France took a decisive turn in the year 1429 just as the prospects for the Dauphin began to look hopeless. The town of Orléans had been under siege since October 1428. The English regent, the Duke of Bedford (the uncle of Henry VI), was advancing into the Duchy of Bar, ruled by Charles's brother-in-law, René. The French lords and soldiers loyal to Charles were becoming increasingly desperate. Then in the little village of Domrémy, on the border of Lorraine and Champagne, a teenage girl named Joan of Arc (French: Jeanne d'Arc), demanded that the garrison commander at Vaucouleurs, Robert de Baudricourt, collect the soldiers and resources necessary to bring her to the Dauphin at Chinon, stating that visions of angels and saints had given her a divine mission. Granted an escort of five veteran soldiers and a letter of referral to Charles by Lord Baudricourt, Joan rode to see Charles at Chinon. She arrived on 23 February 1429.
What followed would become famous. When Joan appeared at Chinon, Charles wanted to test her claim to be able to recognise him despite never having seen him, and so he disguised himself as one of his courtiers. He stood in their midst when Joan entered the chamber in which the court was assembled. Joan identified Charles immediately. She bowed low to him and embraced his knees, declaring "God give you a happy life, sweet King!" Despite attempts to claim that another man was in fact the king, Charles was eventually forced to admit that he was indeed such. Thereafter Joan referred to him as "Dauphin" or "Noble Dauphin" until he was crowned in Reims four months later. After a private conversation between the two (Charles later stated that Joan knew secrets about him that he had voiced only in silent prayer to God), Charles became inspired and filled with confidence.
After her encounter with Charles in March 1429, Joan of Arc set out to lead the French forces at Orléans. She was aided by skilled commanders such as Étienne de Vignolles, known as La Hire, and Jean Poton de Xaintrailles. They compelled the English to lift the siege on 8 May 1429, thus turning the tide of the war. The French won the Battle of Patay on 18 June, at which the English field army lost about half its troops. After pushing further into English and Burgundian-controlled territory, Charles was crowned King Charles VII of France in Reims Cathedral on 17 July 1429.
Joan was later captured by Burgundian troops under John of Luxembourg at the siege of Compiègne on 24 May 1430. The Burgundians handed her over to their English allies. Tried for heresy by a court composed of pro-English clergy such as Pierre Cauchon, who had long served the English occupation government, she was burned at the stake on 30 May 1431.
Nearly as important as Joan of Arc in the cause of Charles was the support of the powerful and wealthy family of his wife Marie d'Anjou, particularly his mother-in-law, Queen Yolande of Aragon. But whatever affection he may have had for his wife, or whatever gratitude he may have felt for the support of her family, the great love of Charles VII's life was his mistress, Agnès Sorel.
Charles VII and Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, then signed the 1435 Treaty of Arras, by which the Burgundian faction rejected their English alliance and became reconciled with Charles VII, just as things were going badly for their English allies. With this accomplishment, Charles attained the essential goal of ensuring that no Prince of the Blood recognised Henry VI as King of France.
Over the following two decades, the French recaptured Paris from the English and eventually recovered all of France with the exception of the northern port of Calais.
Charles' later years were marked by hostile relations with his heir, Louis, who demanded real power to accompany his position as the Dauphin. Charles consistently refused him. Accordingly, Louis stirred up dissent and fomented plots in attempts to destabilise his father's reign. He quarrelled with his father's mistress, Agnès Sorel, and on one occasion drove her with a bared sword into Charles' bed, according to one source. Eventually, in 1446, after Charles' last son, also named Charles, was born, the king banished the Dauphin to the Dauphiny. The two never met again. Louis thereafter refused the king's demands to return to court, and he eventually fled to the protection of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, in 1456.
In 1458, Charles became ill. A sore on his leg (an early symptom, perhaps, of diabetes or another condition) refused to heal, and the infection in it caused a serious fever. The king summoned Louis to him from his exile in Burgundy, but the Dauphin refused to come. He employed astrologers to foretell the exact hour of his father's death. The king lingered on for the next two and a half years, increasingly ill, but unwilling to die. During this time he also had to deal with the case of his rebellious vassal John V of Armagnac.
Finally, however, there came a point in July 1461 when the king's physicians concluded that Charles would not live past August. Ill and weary, the king became delirious, convinced that he was surrounded by traitors loyal only to his son. Under the pressure of sickness and fever, he went mad. By now another infection in his jaw had caused an abscess in his mouth. The swelling caused by this became so large that, for the last week of his life, Charles was unable to swallow food or water. Although he asked the Dauphin to come to his deathbed, Louis refused, instead waiting at Avesnes, in Burgundy, for his father to die. At Mehun-sur-Yèvre, attended by his younger son, Charles, and aware of his elder son's final betrayal, the King starved to death. He died on 22 July 1461, and was buried, at his request, beside his parents in Saint-Denis.
Although Charles VII's legacy is far overshadowed by the deeds and eventual martyrdom of Joan of Arc and his early reign was at times marked by indecisiveness and inaction, he was responsible for successes unprecedented in the history of the Kingdom of France. He succeeded in what four generations of his predecessors (namely his father Charles VI, his grandfather Charles V, his great-grandfather John II and great-great grandfather Philip VI) failed to do — the expulsion of the English and the conclusion of the Hundred Years' War.
He had created France's first standing army since Roman times. In The Prince, Niccolo Machiavelli asserts that if his son Louis XI had continued this policy, then the French would have become invincible.
Charles VII secured himself against papal power by the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges. He also established the University of Poitiers in 1432, and his policies brought some economic prosperity to his subjects.
Charles married his second cousin Marie of Anjou on 18 December 1422. They were both great-grandchildren of King John II of France and his first wife Bonne of Bohemia through the male line. They had fourteen children:
|Louis||3 July 1423||30 August 1483||King of France. Married firstly Margaret of Scotland, no issue. Married secondly Charlotte of Savoy, had issue.|
|John||19 September 1426||Lived for a few hours.|
|Radegonde||after 29 August 1428||19 March 1444||Betrothed to Sigismund, Archduke of Austria, on 22 July 1430.|
|Catherine||after 29 August 1428||13 September 1446||Married Charles the Bold, no issue.|
|James||1432||2 March 1437||Died aged five.|
|Yolande||23 September 1434||23/29 August 1478||Married Amadeus IX, Duke of Savoy, had issue.|
|Joan||4 May 1435||4 May 1482||Married John II, Duke of Bourbon, no issue.|
|Philip||4 February 1436||11 June 1436||Died in infancy.|
|Margaret||May 1437||24 July 1438||Died aged one.|
|Joanna||7 September 1438||26 December 1446||Twin of Marie, died aged eight.|
|Marie||7 September 1438||14 February 1439||Twin of Joanna, died in infancy.|
|Magdalena||1 December 1443||21 January 1495||Married Gaston of Foix, Prince of Viana, had issue.|
|Charles||12 December 1446||24 May 1472||Died without legitimate issue.|
Charles VII of France
Cadet branch of the Capetian dynastyBorn: 22 February 1403 Died: 22 July 1461
| King of France
disputed with Henry VI of England, 1422–29
21 October 1422 – 22 July 1461
John of Valois
| Dauphin of Viennois|
5 April 1417 – 3 July 1423
| Duke of Touraine
Count of Poitou
1417 – 21 October 1422
Merged in the crown
| Duke of Berry
1417 – 21 October 1422
Merged in the crown
Title next held byCharles II
| Count of Ponthieu
1417 – 21 October 1422
Merged in the crown
Title next held byCharles II
Agnès Sorel (1422 – 9 February 1450), known by the sobriquet Dame de beauté (Lady of Beauty), was a favourite, and chief mistress, of King Charles VII of France, by whom she bore four daughters. She is considered the first officially recognized royal mistress. She was the subject of several contemporary paintings and works of art, including Jean Fouquet's Virgin and Child Surrounded by Angels.Anne of Savoy
Not to be confused with Anna of SavoyAnne of Savoy, Princess of Squillace, Altamura, and Taranto (1 June 1455 – February 1480) was the first wife of King Frederick IV. She died 16 years before he succeeded to the Neapolitan throne, so she was never queen consort. Anne was a member of the House of Savoy, and through her mother Yolande of France, she was a granddaughter of King Charles VII of France.Catherine of France, Countess of Charolais
Catherine of France (1428 – 13 July 1446) was a French princess and a countess of Charolais, the first spouse to Charles I, Duke of Burgundy. She was the fourth child and second daughter of Charles VII of France and Marie of Anjou.Charles, Count of Maine
Charles du Maine (1414–1472) was a French prince of blood and an advisor to Charles VII of France, his brother-in-law, during the Hundred Years' War. He was the third son of Louis II, Duke of Anjou and King of Naples, and Yolande of Aragon.In 1434, he married Cobella Ruffo (d. 1442), Countess of Montalto and Corigliano. They had one son, named Jean Louis Marin, who died as an infant.
In 1437, he took up arms on behalf of King Charles VII of France, participating in the capture of Montereau, and that of Pontoise, in 1441. At this time, his brother, René of Anjou, ceded to him the County of Maine. He continued to take part in King Charles' campaigns.
By his second marriage, in 1443, to Isabelle of Luxembourg (d. 1472), daughter of Peter I of Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Pol, he had two children:
Louise of Anjou (1445–1477, Carlat), married in 1462 at Poitiers, Jacques d'Armagnac, Duke of Nemours (d. 1477).
Charles IV, Duke of Anjou (1446–1481)A dispute over the county of Guise between Charles and Isabelle's brother, Louis of Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Pol, was settled by settling it upon Isabelle as a dowry.
Charles also had an illegitimate daughter, Mary of Anjou, who married Thomas Courtenay, 6th Earl of Devon.He led the rearguard for King Louis XI of France at the Battle of Montlhéry.Charles II of Albret
Charles II d'Albret (1407–1471) was a French magnate, administrator, and soldier.
He was the son of Charles I of Albret and Marie de Sully. His father died in 1415 at the Battle of Agincourt, leaving the younger Charles as lord of Albret and titular Count of Dreux, titular count since after Agincourt the lands of the county of Dreux were in English hands. As a member of the Armagnac faction, Charles was a supporter of the Dauphin Charles, future Charles VII of France.
His links to the Armagnacs were strengthened by his marriage in 1417 to Anne of Armagnac, daughter of Bernard VII, Count of Armagnac, from whom the faction took its name, and Bonne de Berry.
Charles served on the royal council of Dauphin Charles and in 1427 joined with Richemont and Yolande of Aragon in removing the Dauphin's unpopular favourite Pierre de Giac. De Giac was soon afterwards executed by drowning. He took part in the campaigns of Joan of Arc, and was named lieutenant of the province of Berry. He was confirmed in possession of the county of Dreux in 1441 by King Charles VII.Charles VII
Charles VII may refer to:
Charles VII of Sweden (1130–1167), actually Charles I of Sweden (1161–1167)
Charles VII of France (1403–1461), "the Victorious"
Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor (1697–1745)
Charles III of Spain (1716–1788), and Charles VII of Naples
Carlos María de los Dolores (1848–1909), pretender to the throne of Spain, styled "Charles VII" by Carlists
Charles VII, Archduke of AustriaGaston, Prince of Viana
Gaston, Prince of Viana, also called Gaston de Foix (1445 – 23 November 1470), was the son of Gaston IV of Foix and Eleanor of Navarre, and was the heir of both. As a Prince of Navarre, he was called Prince of Viana.He married Magdalena of Valois, a daughter of Charles VII of France and Marie of Anjou on 7 March 1461 at Lescar. They had two children:
Francis I of Navarre, 1467–1483, King of Navarre 1479–1483
Catherine I of Navarre, 1470–1517, Queen-regnant of Navarre 1483–1517Gaston died in 1470 from wounds received in a jousting tournament in Libourne, Aquitaine, before his accession to the throne of Navarre. Consequently, Francis I and Catherine I rose to the throne successively, but it was Gaston's wife Magdalena who actually pulled the strings of the crown all the way to Catherine's marriage to John III of Albret in 1494, and her death in 1495.Joan of Arc at the Coronation of Charles VII
Joan of Arc at the Coronation of Charles VII (French: Jeanne d’Arc au sacre du roi Charles VII) is an 1854 painting by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres. It is now in the Louvre Museum in Paris.
The work merges the style of Ingres' teacher Jacques-Louis David with that of the troubador style. He began with a nude model, adding the clothes and armour.The painting was first commissioned by the director of the Academie des Belles Artes in Orléans to commemorate Joan of Arc. It shows her at the coronation of Charles VII of France in Reims Cathedral, victorious and looking up to heaven, which she felt had given France the victory. To her right are three pages, the monk Jean Paquerel, and a servant. The servant is a self-portrait of the artist. The scene is marked by ambient light, sumptuous objects and rich colours.Joan of France, Duchess of Bourbon
Joan of France (French: Jeanne de Valois; 4 May 1435 – 1482) was the seventh child and fourth daughter of Charles VII of France and Marie of Anjou. She married John II, Duke of Bourbon, in 1447. They had no children.John Langdon (bishop)
John Langdon (died 30 September 1434) was a medieval Bishop of Rochester.
Langdon was admitted a monk of Christ Church, Canterbury, in 1398. Afterwards he studied at Oxford, and is said to have belonged to Gloucester Hall. He was one of twelve Oxford scholars appointed at the suggestion of convocation in 1411 to inquire into the doctrines of Wycliffe. On 17 November 1421 he was appointed by papal provision to the see of Rochester, and was consecrated on 7 June 1422 at Canterbury by Archbishop Chicheley. After his consecration he appears among the royal councillors, and after 1430 his name constantly occurs among those present at the meetings. In February 1432 he was engaged on an embassy to Charles VII of France. On 18 February 1434 he had licence to absent himself from the council if sent on a mission by the pope or cardinals, and on 3 November of that year was appointed to treat for the reformation of the church and peace with France. Langdon had, however, died at Basle on 30 September.It is commonly alleged that Langdon's body was brought home for burial at the Charterhouse, Loudon, but in reality he was interred in the choir of the Carthusian monastery at Basle.John VIII, Count of Vendôme
John VIII de Bourbon (1425 - 6 January 1477) was Count of Vendôme from 1466 until his death. A member of the House of Bourbon, he was the son and successor of Louis, Count of Vendôme. As a courtier of King Charles VII of France, he fought the English in Normandy and Guyenne. He attached himself to King Louis XI, but was not in royal favor. He withdrew to the Château of Lavardin and completed its construction.
In 1454, he married Isabelle de Beauvau, daughter of Louis de Beauvau, Marshal of Provence and Marguerite de Chambley. They had eight children:
Jeanne, married Louis, Count of Grandpré
Catherine, married Gilbert de Chabannes
Jeanne, married at first John II, Duke of Bourbon and later John III, Count of Auvergne
Renée, Abbess of Fontevraud
François, Count of Vendôme (1470–1495), from whom the later royal Bourbons descend.
Louis, Prince of La Roche-sur-Yon
Charlotte, married Engelbert, Count of Nevers
Isabelle, Abbess of la Trinité de CaenJean also had two illegitimate sons:
Louis, Bishop of Avranches
Jacques, Governor of Valois and the Vendomois (1455 - 1524) was the father of Catherine de Bourbon, paternal grandmother of Gabrielle d'Estrées, mistress of Henry IV of France.Lewis of Luxembourg
Lewis of Luxembourg (or Louis II de Luxembourg; died 1443) was an Archbishop of Rouen, Bishop of Ely, and Cardinal.He was a younger son of John of Luxembourg, Lord of Beauvoir and Marguerite of Enghien.
Lewis was elected archbishop of Rouen in 1436. He was the leading native administrator/collaborator with the Lancastrian regime in France. As its position weakened, his own fortunes and even personal safety became precarious. Although the city of Rouen did not fall to Charles VII of France until late 1449, well after Luxembourg's death, Henry VI's government had long ago decided he needed and deserved remuneration and status based more securely in England. Thus he was provided to Ely 'in commendam' on 27 September 1437. This was the fifth wealthiest see in England, yet also amongst the smallest in terms of size or burden. He is not known ever to have visited it. He died on 18 September 1443.Louis de Brézé
Louis de Brézé, Seigneur d'Anet and Comte de Maulevrier (died 23 July 1531) was a French nobleman, the grandson of King Charles VII of France by his natural daughter with his mistress Agnès Sorel.Marie de Valois
Marie Marguerite de Valois (1444–1473) was the natural daughter of King Charles VII of France and his mistress Agnès Sorel.
She had two sisters, Charlotte de Valois (1446–1477) and Jeanne de Valois (born 1448).
Marie married Olivier de Coétivy, Count of Taillebourg.Moncrivello
Moncrivello is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Vercelli in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 35 kilometres (22 mi) northeast of Turin and about 35 km west of Vercelli.
It is home to a medieval castle which was a residence of Yolande of Valois, duchess of Savoy and daughter of Charles VII of France, in the 15th century.Old Zürich War
The Old Zurich War (Alter Zürichkrieg), 1440–46, was a conflict between the canton of Zurich and the other seven cantons of the Old Swiss Confederacy over the succession to the Count of Toggenburg.
In 1436, Count Friedrich VII of Toggenburg died, leaving neither heir nor will. The canton of Zurich, led by burgomaster Rudolf Stüssi, claimed the Toggenburg lands; the cantons of Schwyz and Glarus made counter-claims, backed by the other cantons. In 1438 Zurich occupied the disputed area and cut off grain supplies to Schwyz and Glarus. In 1440, the other cantons expelled Zurich from the confederation and declared war. Zurich retaliated by making an alliance with Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor of the house of Habsburg.
The forces of Zurich were defeated in the Battle of St. Jakob an der Sihl on 22 July 1443 and Zurich was besieged. Frederick appealed to Charles VII of France to attack the confederates and the latter sent a force of about 30,000 Armagnac mercenaries under the command of the Dauphin via Basel to relieve the city. In the Battle of St. Jakob an der Birs near Basel on 26 August 1444 a blocking force of roughly 1,600 Swiss confederates were wiped out, but inflicted such heavy losses on the French (8,000 killed) that the Dauphin decided to retreat. The confederacy and the Dauphin concluded a peace in October 1444, and his mercenary army withdrew from the war altogether.In May 1444, the confederacy laid siege to Greifensee, and captured the town after four weeks, on May 27, beheading all but two of the 64 defenders on the next day, including their leader, Wildhans von Breitenlandenberg, the so-called Murder of Greifensee. Even in this time of war, such a mass execution was widely considered a cruel and unjust deed.
By 1446, both sides were exhausted, and a preliminary peace was concluded. The confederation had not managed to conquer any of the cities of Zurich except Greifensee; Rapperswil and Zurich itself withstood the attacks. In 1450, the parties made a definitive peace and Zurich was admitted into the confederation again, but had to dissolve its alliance with the Habsburgs.
The significance of the war is that it showed that the confederation had grown into a political alliance so close that it no longer tolerated separatist tendencies of a single member.Siege of Paris
The Siege of Paris may refer to:
Siege of Paris (845), the Viking siege by Ragnar Lodbrok
Siege of Paris (885–886), the Viking siege by Rollo
Siege of Paris (1429), by Charles VII of France and Joan of Arc
Siege of Paris (1465), by the League of the Public Weal
Siege of Paris (1590), the Protestant siege by Henry IV of France
Siege of Paris (1870–71), the German siege in the Franco–Prussian WarSiege of Paris (1429)
The siege of Paris was an assault undertaken in September 1429 during the Hundred Years' War by the troops of the recently crowned King Charles VII of France, with the notable presence of Joan of Arc, to take the city held by the English and their Burgundian partisans. King Charles's French troops failed to enter Paris, defended by the governor Jean de Villiers de L'Isle-Adam and the provost Simon Morhier, with the support of much of the city's population.Vaucouleurs
Vaucouleurs is a commune in the Meuse department of France, located approximately 300 km (190 mi) from Paris.
Joan of Arc stayed in Vaucouleurs for several months during 1428 and 1429 while she sought permission to visit the royal court of Charles VII of France.
|Ancestors of Charles VII of France|
* Count through marriage
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