Charles Nodier

Jean Charles Emmanuel Nodier (April 29, 1780 – January 27, 1844) was an influential French author and librarian who introduced a younger generation of Romanticists to the conte fantastique, gothic literature, and vampire tales. His dream related writings influenced the later works of Gérard de Nerval.

Charles Nodier
Charles Nodier, Carnavalet
Portrait formerly thought to be of Charles Nodier (date and artist unknown)
Born
Jean Charles Emmanuel Nodier

29 April 1780
Died27 January 1844 (aged 63)
Paris
OccupationWriter
Librarian

Early years

He was born at Besançon in France, near the border with Switzerland. His father, on the outbreak of the French Revolution, was appointed mayor of Besançon and consequently chief police magistrate, and seems to have become an instrument of the tyranny of the Jacobins without sharing their principles. But his son was for a time an ardent citizen, and is said to have been a Jacobin Club member at the age of twelve. In 1793 Charles saved the life of a lady guilty of sending money to an émigré, declaring to his father that if she were condemned he would take his own life. He was sent to Strasbourg, where he lived in the house of Eulogius Schneider, the notorious Jacobin governor of Alsace, but a good Greek scholar.

Activism and wanderings

During the Reign of Terror his father put him under the care of Justin Girod-Chantrans, with whom he studied English and German. His love of books began very early, and he combined with it a strong interest in nature, which Girod-Chantrans was able to foster. He became librarian in his native town, but his exertions in the cause of suspected persons brought him under suspicion. An inspection of his papers by the police, however, revealed nothing more dangerous than a dissertation on the antennae of insects. Entomology continued to be a favourite study with him, but he varied it with philology and pure literature and even political writing. For a skit on Napoleon, in 1803, he was imprisoned for some months.

He then left Paris, where he had gone after losing his position at Besançon, and for some years lived a very unsettled life at Besançon, Dole, and in other places in the Jura. During these wanderings he wrote his novel, Le peintre de Salzbourg, journal des émotions d'un coeur souffrant, suivi des Meditations du cloître[1](1803). The hero, Charles, who is a variation of the Werther type, desires the restoration of the monasteries, to afford a refuge from the woes of the world. At Dole in 1808, on August 31, he married Désirée Charve. Nodier was working as a secretary to the elderly Sir Herbert Croft, 5th Baronet and his platonic friend Lady Mary Hamilton. During this time he translated Hamilton's book Munster Village and helped her write La famille du duc de Popoli or The Duc de Popoli which was published in 1810.[2]

In December 1812 Nodier moved to Ljubljana, then the capital of the newly established French Illyrian Provinces, and was in 1813 the last editor of a multilingual newspaper, the Official Telegraph of the Illyrian Provinces (Télégraphe officiel des Provinces Illyriennes) published in French, German and Italian.[3] It was there that Nodier composed, in 1812, the first draft of his novel Jean Sbogar.[4] The story about a love between a brigand and a daughter of a rich merchant was finally published in 1818.[5] After the evacuation of French forces from the Illyrian provinces in 1813 he returned to Paris, and the Restauration found him a royalist, though he retained something of republican sentiment. In 1824 he was appointed librarian of the Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal, a position that he kept for the rest of his life. He was elected a member of the Académie française in 1833, also of the Société Entomologique de France when this was formed in 1832, and he was made a member of the Legion of Honour.[6] He died, aged, 63, in Paris.

The twenty years at the Arsenal were the most important and fruitful of Nodier's career. He had the advantage of a settled home in which to collect and study rare and unusual books; and he was able to establish a celebrated literary salon, known as Le Cénacle, rallying a knot of young literary men to romanticism (the so-called Romanticists of 1830), some of whom would achieve great renown themselves. Victor Hugo, Alfred de Musset and Sainte-Beuve all acknowledged their obligations to him, and Alexander Dumas incorporated his recollections of Nodier into his novelette La Dame au Collier de Velours. The group included Alphonse de Lamartine and Gérard de Nerval. Nodier was a passionate admirer of Goethe, Laurence Sterne and Shakespeare, and himself contributed to the literature that was one of the leading traits of the Romantic school.

Works

David d'Angers - Nodier
Bust of Charles Nodier by David d'Angers (1845).

His best and most characteristic work, which is exquisite in its kind, consists partly of short tales of a more or less fantastic character, partly of nondescript articles, half bibliographic, half narrative, the nearest analogue to which in English is to be found in some of the papers of Thomas De Quincey. The best examples of the latter are to be found in the volume entitled Mélanges tirés d'une petite bibliothèque, published in 1829 and afterwards continued. Of his tales the best are Infernaliana (1822); Smarra, ou les démons de la nuit (1821); Trilby, ou le lutin d'Argail (1822); Histoire du roi de Bohême et de ses sept châteaux (1830); La Fée aux miettes (1832); Inès de las Sierras (1837); Les quatre talismans et la légende de soeur Béatrix (1838),[7] together with some fairy stories published in the year of his death, and Franciscus Columna, which appeared after it. The Souvenirs de jeunesse (1832) are interesting but untrustworthy, and the Dictionnaire universel de la langue française (1823), which, in the days before Littré, was one of the most useful of its kind, is said to have been not wholly or mainly Nodier's. There was a so-called collection of Œuvres complêtes published in 12 vols. in 1832, but at that time much of the author's best work had not yet appeared, and it included but a part of what was previously published. Nodier found an indulgent biographer in Prosper Mérimée on the occasion of the younger man's admission to the academy.

During the 1820s, after adapting Dr. John William Polidori's short story "The Vampyre" successfully for the stage in France (Le Vampire, 1820), Nodier involved himself in the theatre for a few years. Among these works were Bertram ou le Pirate (1822), based on a play by Charles Maturin in England (Bertam, or The Castle of St. Aldobrand), and Le Monstre et le Magicien (1826), which adapted an English play based on Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein. Nodier also translated and adapted an Italian play by Carmillo Frederici (Le Delateur-The Informer) in 1821. Despite the success of these works, he lost interest in the theatre, and by the late eighteen twenties devoted himself entirely to literature, mostly to the conte fantastique.

An account of his share in the Romantic movement is to be found in Georg Brandes's Main Currents in Nineteenth Century Literature. Nodier's Description raisonnée d'une jolie collection de livres (1844), which is a catalogue of the books in his library, contains a life by Francis Wey and a complete bibliography of his numerous works. See also Sainte-Beuve, Portraits littéraires, vol. ii.; Prosper Mérimée, Portraits historiques et littéraires (1874); and A Estignard, Correspondance inédite de Charles Nodier, 1796–1844 (1876), containing his letters to his childhood friend and fellow enthusiast in literature, Charles Weiss.

A collection of Nodier's dream writings (De Quelques Phénomènes Du Sommeil) was published by Le Castor Astral in 1996.

Musical adaptations of Nodier's Trilby

Nodier's 1822 novella Trilby, ou le lutin d'Argail, provided the inspiration for the ballet La Sylphide, 1832, to a scenario devised by Adolphe Nourrit. In 1870, the novella was adapted for another ballet titled Trilby by the great choreographer Marius Petipa, balletmaster of the Tsar's Imperial Ballet of St. Petersburg, Russia.

The libretto of John Barnett's 1834 opera The Mountain Sylph is also adapted from Trilby, via the ballet La Sylphide.

Père-Lachaise - Division 49 - Nodier 01
Nodeier's grave at Père Lachaise cemetery, (49th division)

Commemoration

There are streets in France named after Charles Nodier, located in Montmartre Paris, Pantin, Reims and Besancon.

The centre of French science and culture in Ljubljana, established in December 1966, was in 1983 named the Charles Nodier French Cultural Centre (now the Charles Nodier French Institute). It is housed on the left bank of the Ljubljanica, between the Prešeren Square and the St. James' Bridge. From 1994 to 2008, the institute regularly published a bulletin titled Le Petit Nodier. Since 1985, a bronze bust of Nodier stands at the court of its building, work of Jakov Brdar, according to the plans by the architect Marjan Ocvirk. It is a vivid portrait with a sharp look and some traces of the Secession style.

Selected works

Fiction and creative writings

  • Stella, ou Les Proscrits (1802) - (Stella or The Exiles) - a juvenile novel which was subsequently abandoned by the author in his several collected works.
  • Le Dernier Chapitre de Mon Roman (1803) - (The Last Chapter of My Novel) - a short novel.
  • Le Peintre de Salzbourg, Journal des Émotions d'un Cœur Souffrant (1803) - (The Painter of Salzbourg, Journal of a Suffering Heart) - a novel.
  • Les Tristes, ou Mėlanges tirės des tablettes d'un suicidė (1806) - a collection of death-haunted romantic writings which includes Nodier's first conte fantastique, "Un Heure, ou la Vision"; and the poetic essay "Les Méditations du Cloître", which was inspired by Chateaubriand.
  • Le Chant des Morlaques (1814) - (The Song of the Morlachs) - a short poetic essay that has been included in a collection of Nodier's dream writings.
  • Contes fantastiques (1814) - a fantasy short stories collection.
  • Jean Sbogar, Histoire d'un Bandit Illyrien Mysterious (1818) - a full-length novel. A gothic political romance mostly set in Illyria.
  • Thérèse Aubert, Roman d'Amour Pendant les Guerres Vendéennes (1819) - a love story set in the wake of the French Revolution, it is in the form of a novella.
  • Le Vampire (1820) - (The Vampire) - an atmospheric full-length theatrical play, freely adapting the story of John William Polidori.
  • Adèle (1820) - written in the form of letters, a love story of novella length.
  • Smarra, ou les Démons de la Nuit, conte fantastique (1821) - the author's most celebrated work, a remarkable novella, one of his dream writings, which features a vampire. The word "Smarra" was taken from the Dalmatian word for "Nightmare".
  • Trilby, ou le Lutin d'Argail, conte fantastique (1822) - one of Nodier's best known works, an atmospheric adult fairy tale of novella length set in a Scottish landscape.
  • Infernaliana (1822) - a book of little tales of ghosts and vampires, some of which were culled from earlier sources.
  • Le Songe d'Or, ou Arlequin et l'Avare, Pantomime Anglais en 11 Tablaux (1828) - a pantomime for the theatre which was subsequently adapted into a short story in 1832.
  • Histoire du Roi de Bohême et de ses Sept Châteaux (1830) - an experimental full-length novel.
  • De Quelques Phénomènes du Sommeil (1831) - (Of Some Phenomena of Sleep) - a short journalist piece, one of Nodier's dream writings, also published under the title Le Pays des Rêves.
  • M. de la Mettrie, ou les Superstitions (1831) - a short story which has been included in a collection of Nodier's dream writings.
  • Souvenirs de Jeunesse (1832) - (Souvenirs of Youth) - a collection of novellas comprising "Séraphine", "Clémentine", "Amélie", and "Lucréce et Jeannette". Subsequent editions included "Thérèse". Dedicated to Alphonse de Lamartine.
  • La Fée aux Miettes, conte fantastique (1832) - (The Crumb Fairy) - a full-length novel. A satirical adult fairy tale set in Scotland, it is one Nodier's most celebrated works.
  • Mademoiselle de Marsan, conte fantastique (1832) - a gothic short novel.
  • Jean-François les Bas-Bleus (1832) - a short story.
  • Le Dessin de Piranèse (1833) - a descriptive essay that develops into one of Nodier's dream writings. A shorter version was published as Piranèse in 1836.
  • Hurlubleu (1833) - a novella.
  • La Combe de l'Homme Mort (1833) - a short weird horror story.
  • Trésors des Fèves et Fleurs des Pois (1833) - a short story.
  • M. Cazotte (1834) - a short story.
  • Des Hallucinations et des Songes en Matière Criminal (1835) - an essay which has been included in a collection of the author's dream writings.
  • Paul ou le Resemblance (1836) - a short story.
  • Inès de Las Sierras (1837) - a gothic novella set in a nocturnal storm. Alexandre Dumas complained to the author about the rationalization of this story in an addendum at its end, and Nodier conceded the point. This is recorded in Dumas' novella La Femme au Collier de Velours, which begins with a personal portrait and some reminiscences of Nodier and the Cėnacle.
  • Les Quatre Talismans, et La Légende de Sœur Beatrix (1838) - two 'contes fantastiques,' a short novel and a short novella, the latter composed of Christian imagery.
  • La Neuvaine de la Chandeleur, et Lydie (1839) - a novella and a short story.
  • Franciscus Columna (1844) - a novella.

Some non-fiction works

  • Dissertation sur l'Usage des Antennes dans les Insectes (1798) - (A Dissertation on the Use of Antennae in Insects).
  • Pensées de Shakespeare Extraites de ses Ouvrages (1800) - (Thoughts of Shakespeare Taken from his Works) - a short essay.
  • Bibliographie Entomologique (1801) - (Entomological Bibliography).
  • Dictionnaire Raisonné des Onomatopées Françaises (1808) - (Reasoned Dictionary of French Onomatopoeia) - a dictionary of words derived from the sound associated with the subject (e.g. Cuckoo). A high point of the author's early years which was somewhat expanded in a new edition of the book in 1828.
  • Questions de Littérature Légale (1812)
  • Promenade de Dieppe aux Montagnes de l'Écosse (1821) - a book describing Nodier's travels through Britain including Scotland. His experience of the Scottish landscape inspired two of his best known works: Trilby and La Fée aux Miettes, which were set in Scotland.
  • Essai sur le Gaz Hydrogène et les Divers Modes d'Éclairage Artificiel (1823) - (An Essay on Hydrogen Gas and the Various Methods of Artificial Lighting).
  • Dictionnaire Universal de la Langue Francaise (1823) - (Universal Dictionary of the French Language).
  • Mélanges Tirés d'une Petite Bibliothèque (1829)
  • Du Fantastique en Littérature (1830) - a full-length study of the weird or fantastic in literature.
  • Bibliographie des Fous: De Quelques Livres Excentriques (1835) - (Bibliography of the Mad: Of Some Eccentric Books).
  • La Seine et ses Bords (1836-1837) - (The Seine and its banks) - a full-length description of the river and the geography of its banks. Illustrated by Marville and Foussereau.
  • Description Raisonnée d'une Jolie Collection de Livres (1844) - (Reasoned Description of a Beautiful Collection of Books).

A contested novel

  • Lord Ruthwen, ou Les Vampires (1820) – a rambling vampire novel based on earlier sources, a description of which is given at the end of the book. The overall theme is in the form of a sequel to Dr. John William Polidori's short story "The Vampyre", and the material suggests that it may originally have been intended as a play. The title page of the first edition attributed publishing to the author of Jean Sbogar and authorship to the pseudonym "C. B.", causing historians to speculate that the book was written by a contemporary vaudeville manager named Cyprien Bérard, with whom Nodier was associated. The sources for the stories suggest the knowledge of a librarian and a bibliophile, and the novel misspells the name Ruthven as occurred in the text of Promenade de Dieppe aux Montagnes de l'Écosse. There are features of Nodier's Jean Sbogar and Les Tristes in the novel, but the writing is hurried and lacks the quality of Nodier's other fictional works.

References

  1. ^ "The Painter of Salzburg, journal of the emotions of a suffering heart, followed by Meditations on the Cloister".
  2. ^ Dahan, Charles Nodier ; édition établie, présentée et annotée par Jacques-Remi (1995). Correspondance de jeunesse. Genève: Droz. p. 331. ISBN 2600000690.
  3. ^ Juvan, Andreja (2003). "Charles Nodier in Ilirija" [Charles Nodier and Illyria]. Kronika: časopis za slovensko krajevno zgodovino (in Slovenian). Section for the History of Places, Union of Historical Societies of Slovenia. 51 (2): 179. ISSN 0023-4923.
  4. ^ "Gallica - Erreur".
  5. ^ "Charles Nodier (1780–1844)". Ilirske Province / Provinces Illyriennes [Illyrian Provinces] (PDF) (in Slovenian and French). Government Communication Office, Republic of Slovenia. 9 May 2009. p. 6.
  6. ^ He appears as a chevalier of the Légion d'Honneur on the title page of his Mélanges, 1829.
  7. ^ The source for the opera Béatrice by André Messager

Further reading

  • Oliver, A. Richard, (1964). Charles Nodier: Pilot of Romanticism (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press)
  • Loving, M. (2003). "Charles Nodier: The Romantic Librarian". Libraries & Culture, 38(2), 166–188.
  • Engel, Manfred, (2008). "Literarische Anthropologie à rebours. Zum poetologischen Innovationspotential des Traumes in der Romantik am Beispiel von Charles Nodiers Smarra und Thomas DeQuinceys Dream-Fugue". Komparatistik als Humanwissenschaft, ed. Monika Schmitz-Emans, Claudia Schmitt and Christian Winterhalter (Würzburg: Könighausen & Neumann), 107–116.
  • Porée, Adolphe-André (1903). Note sur Auguste Le Prévost et Charles Nodier (in French). Rouen: L. Gy.

External links

1780 in poetry

Nationality words link to articles with information on the nation's poetry or literature (for instance, Irish or France).

1822 in literature

This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1822.

1844 in France

Events from the year 1844 in France.

1844 in literature

This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1844.

19th-century French literature

19th-century French literature concerns the developments in French literature during a dynamic period in French history that saw the rise of Democracy and the fitful end of Monarchy and Empire. The period covered spans the following political regimes: Napoleon Bonaparte's Consulate (1799–1804) and Empire (1804–1814), the Restoration under Louis XVIII and Charles X (1814–1830), the July Monarchy under Louis Philippe d'Orléans (1830–1848), the Second Republic (1848–1852), the Second Empire under Napoleon III (1852–1871), and the first decades of the Third Republic (1871–1940).

Agosti Xaho

Augustin Chaho in French or Agosti Xaho in Basque was an important Romantic Basque writer. He was born in Tardets (Atharratze in basque), Soule, French Basqueland on 10 October 1811 and died in Bayonne (Baiona in Basque), Labourd 23 October 1858. It is usually said that he studied in Paris with Charles Nodier.

He wrote Travel to Navarre during the insurrection of the Basques (1830-1835) (1836, in French, on his experiences in the First Carlist War, which he interprets as an ethnic war of Basques against Spain), The Legend of Aitor (in which he invented a national creation myth, that had great acceptance for some time) and Azti-Begia (The Soothsayer's Eye in Souletin Basque).

He was a republican supporter, and became councillor in Bayonne and the Basses-Pyrénées department. He headed the revolution of 1848 in Bayonne. After the Bonapartist coup of 1851, he escaped to Vitoria (Gasteiz in Basque), in Alava, Spanish Basqueland.

Alphonse de Cailleux

Alphonse de Cailleux, in full Alexandre-Alphonse-Achille, vicomte de Cailloux (31 December 1788 in Rouen – 24 May 1876) was a painter, connoisseur and arts administrator who became director of the Musée du Louvre and all the royal museums of France. Under the Bourbon Restoration he was attached to the reconstituted royal household (the maison du roi).

As secrétaire général des Musées royaux he shared a carriage with Charles Nodier, Jean Alaux and Victor Hugo at the coronation of Charles X in 1825. In 1836 he was appointed directeur adjoint at the Louvre, where he assisted the increasingly debilitated Louis Nicolas Philippe Auguste de Forbin; at Forbin's death he was appointed directeur général des beaux-arts, a precursor of the position of Minister of Fine Arts.

In 1845 he was elected a membre libre (not being an artist himself) of the Académie des Beaux-Arts of the Institut de France. He was also a chevalier of the Légion d'Honneur. In February 1848, as revolt erupted and Louis Philippe abdicated, this confirmed royalist resigned his posts.

His portrait, attributed to Georges Rouget, is at the Musée de Versailles.

Bibans

The Bibans or Biban Range (Arabic: البيبان‎, Kabylian: Tiggoura, French: Chaîne des Bibans or Les Bibans) are a chain of mountains in northern Algeria, bordering the south of Kabylie.

Charles-Émilien Thuriet

Charles-Émilien Thuriet (5 October 1832, Baume-les-Dames – 8 December 1920, Turin) was a 19th–20th-century French writer and poet.

A magistrate by occupation, Thuriet was, with Charles Weiss, cofoundator of the Revue littéraire de la Franche-Comté.

Thuriet was an associated member of the Académie de Besançon.

Cénacle

Cénacle is the name given to a Parisian literary group of varying constituency that began about 1826 to gather around Charles Nodier. The group sought to revive in French literature the old monarchical spirit, the spirit of medieval mystery and spiritual submission. The chief members were Vigny and the brothers Deschamps. They were soon joined by Lamartine, Hugo, and Sainte-Beuve, who describes the group as "royalists by birth, Christians by convention and a vague sentimentality." Their organ was La Muse Française. Musset, Mérimée, and the elder Dumas were involved within the Cénacle, too. Time and the revolution of 1830 wrought changes in the attitudes of the members of Cénacle. Théophile Gautier and Gérard de Nerval were attracted to the group at the time of the revolution, but the reasons for the existence of the Cénacle dissolved. The group lost its reason for existence with the triumph of Hugo's Hernani (1830).

Der Vampyr (Lindpaintner)

Der Vampyr (The Vampire) is an opera (designated as a Romantische Oper) in three acts by Peter Josef von Lindpaintner. The German libretto by Cäsar Max Hegel was based on a work by Heinrich Ludwig Ritter, based in turn on a French melodrama by Charles Nodier, Pierre Carmouche and Achille de Jouffroy, ultimately traceable to the short story The Vampyre (1819) by John Polidori.Other early 19th-century operas on the same theme were Silvestro de Palma's I vampiri (1812), Martin-Joseph Mengal's Le vampire (1826), and Heinrich Marschner's Der Vampyr of the same year as Lindpaintner's opera (1828).

Gaspard de la Nuit (poetry collection)

Gaspard de la Nuit — Fantaisies à la manière de Rembrandt et de Callot (English: Gaspard of the Night — Fantasies in the Manner of Rembrandt and Callot) is a compilation of prose poems by Italian-born French poet Aloysius Bertrand. Considered one of the first examples of modern prose poetry, it was published in 1842, one year after Bertrand's death from tuberculosis, from a manuscript dated 1836, by his friend David d'Angers. The text includes a short address to Victor Hugo and another to Charles Nodier, and a Memoir of Bertrand written by Sainte-Beuve was included in the original 1842 edition.

The poems themselves are expressed with a strong romanticist verve, and explore fantasies of medieval Europe.

Il pirata

Il pirata (The Pirate) is an opera in two acts by Vincenzo Bellini with an Italian libretto by Felice Romani which was based on a three-act mélodrame from 1826: Bertram, ou le Pirate (Bertram, or The Pirate) by Charles Nodier and Isidore Justin Séverin Taylor). This play was itself based upon a French translation of the five-act verse tragedy Bertram, or The Castle of St. Aldobrand by Charles Maturin which appeared in London in 1816.The original play has been compared with Bellini's opera and the influence of Il pirata on Gaetano Donizetti's Lucia di Lammermoor has been noted. Also, Bellini's recycling of his own music in this opera has been analyzed, as well as his utilizing "a more self-consciously innovative compositional style" and participating more in work on the libretto, as compared with prior efforts where he was more deferential to the librettists chosen by the Naples opera management and the corresponding texts. In addition, 19th-century commentary refers to the musical influence of Il pirata on the early Richard Wagner opera Das Liebesverbot.

Illyrian Provinces

The Illyrian Provinces were an autonomous province of France during the First French Empire that existed under Napoleonic Rule from 1809 to 1814. The Provinces encompassed modern-day Croatia, Slovenia, Gorizia, and parts of Austria. Its headquarters were stationed in Laybach, which would be renamed Ljubljana and made the capital of contemporary Slovenia. It encompassed six départments, making it a relatively large portion of territorial France at the time. Parts of Croatia were split up into Civil Croatia and Military Croatia, the former served as a residential space for French immigrants and Croatian inhabitants and the latter as a military base to check the Ottoman Empire.

In 1809, Napoleon Bonaparte invaded the region with his Grande Armée after key wins during the War of the Fifth Coalition forced the Austrian Empire to cede parts of its territory. Integrating the land into France was Bonaparte's way of controlling Austria's access to the Mediterranean and Adriatic Sea and expanding his empire east. Bonaparte installed four governors to disseminate French bureaucracy, culture, and language. The most famous and influential governor was Auguste de Marmont, who undertook the bulk of Bonaparte's bidding in the area. Marmont was succeeded by Henri Gatien Bertrand (1811-12), Jean-Andoche Junot (1812-13), and Joseph Fouché (1813-14).

Marmont pushed the Code Napoléon throughout the area and led a vast infrastructural expansion. During 1810, the French authorities established the Écoles centrales in Croatia and Slovenia. Although the respective states were allowed to speak and work in their native languages, French was designated as the official language and much of the federal administration was conducted as such. French rule contributed significantly to the provinces even after the Austrian Empire usurped French authority in that area in 1814. Napoleon introduced a greater national self-confidence and awareness of freedoms, as well as numerous political reforms. He introduced equality before the law, compulsory military service, a uniform tax system, abolished certain tax privileges, introduced modern administration, separated church and state and nationalized the judiciary. French presence in this region saw to a diffusion of French culture and the creation of the Illyrian Movement.

Iron Gates (Algeria)

The Iron Gates (Arabic: البيبان‎, known in French as Défilé des Bibans or Porte de Fer) are a mountain pass in the Bibans in Algeria. They gave their name to the Biban Range.

Sir Herbert Croft, 5th Baronet

Sir Herbert Croft, 5th Baronet (1 November 1751 – 26 April 1816), English author best known for his novel Love and Madness.

The Mountain Sylph

The Mountain Sylph is an opera in two acts by John Barnett to a libretto by Thomas James Thackeray, after Trilby, ou le lutin d'Argail by Charles Nodier. It was first produced in London at the Lyceum Theatre in 1834 with great success.

Often (mistakenly) cited as the first through-composed English opera of the 19th century, it was Barnett's only great success on the stage out of some 30 operas and operettas, and was perhaps the most effective work by an English composer in the style of Carl Maria von Weber. Rarely (if ever) performed in the last century, its plot was parodied by W. S. Gilbert in his libretto for the Savoy Opera Iolanthe (1882).

Trilby (ballet)

Trilby is a ballet in 2 acts and 3 scenes, with choreography by Marius Petipa and music by Yuli Gerber. Libretto by Marius Petipa, based on the 1822 novella Trilby, ou Le Lutin d'Argail by Charles Nodier, first presented by the Ballet of the Moscow Imperial Bolshoi Theatre on January 25/February 6 (Julian/Gregorian calendar dates), 1870, in Moscow with Polina Karpakova as Trilby and Ludiia Geiten as Miranda and restaged by Petipa for the Imperial Ballet at the Imperial Bolshoi Kamenny Theatre on January 17–29, 1871 in St. Petersburg with Adèle Grantzow as Trilby and Lev Ivanov as Count Leopold.

The famous variation for the male dancer in the Le Corsaire pas de deux is from Gerber's score for Trilby; a painting of dancers from the ballet in costume (as fledglings emerging from the shell) by Viktor Hartmann was one of the paintings which inspired Pictures at an Exhibition by Mussorgsky.

Trilby (disambiguation)

A trilby is a narrow-brimmed hat with an indented crown.

Trilby may also refer to:

People

Trilby Glover, Australian actress

Trilby Clark (1896–1983), Australian actressFiction

Trilby, ou le lutin d'Argail, an 1822 novella by Charles Nodier

Trilby (ballet), an 1870 ballet based on the Nodier novel

Trilby (novel), an 1894 novel by George du Maurier

Trilby (play), 1895 play based on du Maurier's novel

Trilby (1914 film), a 1914 silent film based on the play

Trilby (1915 film), a 1915 silent film based on the 1894 novel starring Clara Kimball Young and Wilton Lackaye

Trilby (1922) a 15-minute silent film directed by Harry B. Parkinson as part of the 1922 "Tense Moments With Great Authors" film series

Trilby (1923 film), a 1923 silent film starring Andrée Lafayette, Arthur Edmund Carewe and Creighton Hale, based on the 1894 novel

Trilby, the computer in the 1989 film Lords of the Deep

Trilby, the main character in the Chzo Mythos series of computer adventure games, as well as The Art of Theft, a spinoff

Trilby, a character from the children's television series Raggs (2008)Places

Trilby, Florida, a US town in Pasco County, Florida; named after the du Maurier novel TrilbyShips

USS Trilby (SP-673), a United States Navy patrol boat in commission during 1917, named after the heroine of the du Maurier novel TrilbyBusinesses

Trilby Yates, New Zealand fashion label that operated from the 1920s to 1950s

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