Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord

Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (/ˈtælərænd ˈpɛrɪɡɔːr/;[1] French: [ʃaʁl moʁis də tal(ɛ)ʁɑ̃ peʁiɡɔʁ]; 2 February 1754 – 17 May 1838), 1st Prince of Benevento, then 1st Prince of Talleyrand, was a laicized French bishop, politician, and diplomat. After theology studies, he became in 1780 Agent-General of the Clergy and represented the Catholic Church to the French Crown. He worked at the highest levels of successive French governments, most commonly as foreign minister or in some other diplomatic capacity. His career spanned the regimes of Louis XVI, the years of the French Revolution, Napoleon, Louis XVIII, and Louis-Philippe. Those he served often distrusted Talleyrand but, like Napoleon, found him extremely useful. The name "Talleyrand" has become a byword for crafty, cynical diplomacy.

He was Napoleon's chief diplomat during the years when French military victories brought one European state after another under French hegemony, as, he believed, they rightfully should be. However, most of the time, Talleyrand worked for peace so as to consolidate France's gains. He succeeded in obtaining peace with Austria through the 1801 Treaty of Luneville and with Britain in the 1802 Treaty of Amiens. He could not prevent the renewal of war in 1803 but by 1805, he opposed his emperor's renewed wars against Austria, Prussia, and Russia. He resigned as foreign minister in August 1807, but retained the trust of Napoleon and conspired to undermine the emperor's plans through secret dealings with Tsar Alexander of Russia and Austrian minister Metternich. Talleyrand sought a negotiated secure peace so as to perpetuate the gains of the French revolution. Napoleon rejected peace and, when he fell in 1814, Talleyrand eased the Bourbon restoration decided by the Allies. He played a major role at the Congress of Vienna in 1814–1815, where he negotiated a favourable settlement for France and played a role in decisions regarding the undoing of Napoleon's conquests.

Talleyrand polarizes scholarly opinion. Some regard him as one of the most versatile, skilled and influential diplomats in European history, and some believe that he was a traitor, betraying in turn the Ancien Régime, the French Revolution, Napoleon, and the Restoration.[2]

Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord by François Gérard, 1808
Charles-Maurice, Prince de Talleyrand by François Gérard (1808)
Ambassador of France to the United Kingdom
In office
6 September 1830 – 13 November 1834
Appointed byLouis Philippe I
Preceded byPierre de Montmercy-Laval
Succeeded byHorace Sébastiani de La Porta
1st Prime Minister of France
In office
9 July 1815 – 26 September 1815
MonarchLouis XVIII
Succeeded byArmand-Emmanuel du Plessis de Richelieu
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
13 May 1814 – 19 March 1815
MonarchLouis XVIII
Preceded byAntoine de Laforêt
Succeeded byLouis de Caulaincourt
In office
22 November 1799 – 9 May 1807
MonarchNapoleon I (1804–1807)
First ConsulNapoleon Bonaparte (1799–1804)
Preceded byCharles-Frédéric Reinhard
Succeeded byJean-Baptiste de Nompère de Champagny
In office
15 July 1797 – 20 July 1799
Head of StateDirectory
Preceded byCharles-François Delacroix
Succeeded byCharles-Frédéric Reinhard
Member of the National Constituent Assembly
In office
9 July 1789 – 30 September 1791
ConstituencyAutun
Deputy to the Estates-General
for the First Estate
In office
12 April 1789 – 9 July 1789
ConstituencyAutun
Personal details
Born2 February 1754
Paris, France
Died17 May 1838 (aged 84)
Paris, France
Political partyIndependent (1789–1799)
Bonapartist (1799–1813)
Royalist (1814–1815)
Doctrinaires (1815–1830)
EducationSeminary of Saint-Sulpice
Alma materUniversity of Paris
ProfessionClergyman, diplomat
Signature
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord's signature

Biography

Early life

Talleyrand was born into a leading aristocratic family in Paris. His father, Count Daniel de Talleyrand-Périgord, was 20 years of age when Charles was born. His mother was Alexandrine de Damas d'Antigny. Both his parents held positions at court, but as cadets of their respective families, had no important income. From childhood, Talleyrand walked with a limp. In his Memoirs, he linked this infirmity to an accident at age four which made him unable to enter the expected military career and caused him to be called later le diable boiteux[3] (French for "the lame devil") among other nicknames. However, recent research has shown that his limp was in fact congenital.[4] Talleyrand's father had a long career in the Army, reaching the rank of lieutenant general, as did his uncle, Gabriel Marie de Périgord, despite having the same infirmity. The choice of a career in the clergy for Charles-Maurice was aimed at having him succeed his uncle Alexandre Angélique de Talleyrand-Périgord, then Archbishop of Reims, one of the richest and most prestigious dioceses in France.[5] It would appear that the family, though ancient and illustrious, was not particularly prosperous, and saw Church positions as a path to wealth. Talleyrand attended the Collège d'Harcourt, the seminary of Saint-Sulpice,[6] while studying theology at the Sorbonne until the age of 21. He was ordained a priest in 1779, at the age of 25. In 1780, he became Agent-General of the Clergy, a representative of the Catholic Church to the French Crown. In this important position, he was instrumental in drafting a general inventory of Church properties in France as of 1785, along with a defence of "inalienable rights of the Church", a stance he was later to deny. In 1789, the influence of Talleyrand's father and family overcame the King's dislike and obtained his appointment as Bishop of Autun. The undoubtedly able Talleyrand, though free-thinking in the Enlightenment mould, appears at the time to have been outwardly respectful of religious observance. In the course of the Revolution, however, he was to manifest his cynicism and abandon all orthodox Catholic practice. In 1801, Pope Pius VII laicized Talleyrand, an event most uncommon at the time in the history of the Church.[7]

French Revolution

Shortly after he was ordained as Bishop of Autun, Talleyrand attended the Estates-General of 1789, representing the clergy, the First Estate. During the French Revolution, Talleyrand strongly supported the anti-clericalism of the revolutionaries. He assisted Mirabeau in the appropriation of Church properties. He participated in the writing of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and proposed the Civil Constitution of the Clergy that nationalised the Church, and swore in the first four constitutional bishops, even though he had himself resigned as Bishop following his excommunication by Pope Pius VI in 1791. During the Fête de la Fédération on 14 July 1790, Talleyrand celebrated Mass. Notably, he promoted public education in full spirit of the Enlightenment by preparing a 216-page Report on Public Instruction. It proposed pyramidical structure rising through local, district, and departmental schools, and parts were later adopted.[8]

Le serment de La Fayette a la fete de la Federation 14 July 1790 French School 18th century
The oath of La Fayette at the Fête de la Fédération, 14 July 1790. Talleyrand, then Bishop of Autun, can be seen at the extreme right. French School, 18th century. Musée Carnavalet.

In 1792, he was sent twice, though unofficially, to Britain to avert war. Besides an initial declaration of neutrality during the first campaigns of 1792, his mission ultimately failed. In September 1792, he left Paris for England just at the beginning of the September massacres, yet declined to defect. The National Convention issued a warrant for his arrest in December 1792. In March 1794, he was forced to leave the country by Pitt's expulsion order. He then went to the neutral country of the United States where he stayed until his return to France in 1796. During his stay, he supported himself by working as a bank agent, involved in commodity trading and real estate speculation. He was the house guest of Aaron Burr of New York and collaborated with Theophile Cazenove, who lived at Market Street, Philadelphia.[9] Years later, Talleyrand refused Burr the same hospitality (Burr had killed Talleyrand's friend, Alexander Hamilton, in a duel).

After 9 Thermidor, he mobilised his friends (most notably the abbé Martial Borye Desrenaudes and Germaine de Staël) to lobby in the National Convention and the newly established Directoire for his return. His name was suppressed from the émigré list and he returned to France on 25 September 1796. In 1797, he became Foreign Minister. He was behind the demand for bribes in the XYZ Affair which escalated into the Quasi-War, an undeclared naval war with the United States, 1798–1800. Talleyrand saw a possible political career for Napoleon during the Italian campaigns of 1796 to 1797. He wrote many letters to Napoleon, and the two became close allies. Talleyrand was against the destruction of the Republic of Venice, but he complimented Napoleon when the Treaty of Campo Formio with Austria was concluded (Venice was given to Austria), probably because he wanted to reinforce his alliance with Napoleon.

Under Napoleon

Talleyrand, along with Napoleon's younger brother, Lucien Bonaparte, was instrumental in the 1799 coup d'état of 18 Brumaire, establishing the French Consulate government. Talleyrand was soon made Foreign Minister by Napoleon, although he rarely agreed with Napoleon's foreign policy. The Pope released him from the ban of excommunication in the Concordat of 1801, which also revoked the Civil Constitution of the Clergy. Talleyrand was instrumental in the completion of the Treaty of Amiens in 1802. He wanted Napoleon to keep peace afterwards, as he thought France had reached its maximum expansion.

Talleyrand was an integral player in the German mediatization. While the Treaty of Campo Formio of 1797 had, on paper, stripped German princes of their lands beyond the left bank of the Rhine, it was not enforced until the Treaty of Lunéville in 1801. As the French annexed these lands, leaders believed that rulers of states such as Baden, Bavaria, Württemberg, Prussia, Hesse and Nassau, who lost territories on the Left Bank, should receive new territories on the Right Bank through the secularization of ecclesiastical principalities. Many of these rulers gave out bribes in order to secure new lands, and Talleyrand and some of his associates amassed about 10 million francs in the process. This was the first blow in the destruction of the Holy Roman Empire.[10]

Napoleon forced Talleyrand into marriage in September 1802 to longtime mistress Catherine Grand (née Worlée). Talleyrand purchased the Château de Valençay in May 1803, upon the urging of Napoleon. This later was used as the site of imprisonment of the Spanish Royalty in 1808–1813, after Napoleon's invasion of Spain.

In May 1804, Napoleon bestowed upon Talleyrand the title of Grand Chamberlain of the Empire. In 1806, he was made Sovereign Prince of Benevento (or Bénévent), a former papal fief in southern Italy. Talleyrand held the title until 1815 and administered the principality concurrently with his other tasks.[11]

Talleyrand was opposed to the harsh treatment of Austria in the 1805 Treaty of Pressburg and of Prussia in the Peace of Tilsit in 1807. In 1806, after Pressburg, he profited greatly from the reorganization of the German lands, this time into the Confederation of the Rhine. But Talleyrand was shut out completely from the negotiations at Tilsit. After Queen Louise of Prussia failed in her appeal to Napoleon to spare her nation, she wept and was consoled by Talleyrand. This gave him a good name among the elites of European nations outside France.

Changing sides

Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, prince de Bénévent by Pierre-Paul Prud'hon, musée Carnavalet 02
Portrait of Talleyrand as Grand Chamberlain of France by Pierre-Paul Prud'hon, 1807

Having wearied of serving a master in whom he no longer had much confidence, Talleyrand resigned as minister of foreign affairs in 1807, although the Emperor retained him in the Council of State as Vice-Grand Elector of the Empire.[12] He disapproved of Napoleon's Spanish initiative, which resulted in the Peninsular War beginning in 1808. At the Congress of Erfurt in September–October 1808, Talleyrand secretly counseled Tsar Alexander. The Tsar's attitude towards Napoleon was one of apprehensive opposition. Talleyrand repaired the confidence of the Russian monarch, who rebuked Napoleon's attempts to form a direct anti-Austrian military alliance. Napoleon had expected Talleyrand to help convince the Tsar to accept his proposals and never discovered that Talleyrand was working at cross-purposes. Talleyrand believed Napoleon would eventually destroy the empire he had worked to build across multiple rulers.[13]

After his resignation in 1807 from the ministry, Talleyrand began to accept bribes from hostile powers (mainly Austria, but also Russia), to betray Napoleon's secrets.[14] Talleyrand and Joseph Fouché, who were typically enemies in both politics and the salons, had a rapprochement in late 1808 and entered into discussions over the imperial line of succession. Napoleon had yet to address this matter and the two men knew that without a legitimate heir a struggle for power would erupt in the wake of Napoleon's death. Even Talleyrand, who believed that Napoleon's policies were leading France to ruin, understood the necessity of peaceful transitions of power. Napoleon received word of their actions and deemed them treasonous. This perception caused the famous dressing down of Talleyrand in front of Napoleon's marshals, during which Napoleon famously claimed that he could "break him like a glass, but it's not worth the trouble" and added with a scatological tone that Talleyrand was "shit in a silk stocking",[15] to which the minister coldly retorted, once Napoleon had left, "Pity that so great a man should have been so badly brought up!"

Talleyrand opposed the further harsh treatment of Austria in 1809 after the War of the Fifth Coalition. He was also a critic of the French invasion of Russia in 1812. He was invited to resume his former office in late 1813, but Talleyrand could see that power was slipping from Napoleon's hands. On 1 April 1814 he led the French Senate in establishing a provisional government in Paris, of which he was elected president. On 2 April the Senate officially deposed Napoleon with the Acte de déchéance de l'Empereur; by 11 April it had approved the Treaty of Fontainebleau and adopted a new constitution to re-establish the Bourbon monarchy.

Bourbon Restoration

Talleyrand floatingwiththetide0001
An 1815 caricature of Talleyrand - L'Homme aux six têtes (The man with six heads), referring to his prominent role in six different regimes
Talleyrand, Charles-Maurice - Vieux
Elderly Talleyrand, 1828

When Napoleon was succeeded by Louis XVIII in April 1814, Talleyrand was one of the key agents of the restoration of the House of Bourbon, although he opposed the new legislation of Louis' rule. Talleyrand was the chief French negotiator at the Congress of Vienna, and, in that same year, he signed the Treaty of Paris. It was due in part to his skills that the terms of the treaty were remarkably lenient towards France. As the Congress opened, the right to make decisions was restricted to four countries: Austria, the United Kingdom, Prussia, and Russia. France and other European countries were invited to attend, but were not allowed to influence the process. Talleyrand promptly became the champion of the small countries and demanded admission into the ranks of the decision-making process. The four powers admitted France and Spain to the decision-making backrooms of the conference after a good deal of diplomatic maneuvering by Talleyrand, who had the support of the Spanish representative, Pedro Gómez Labrador, Marquis of Labrador. Spain was excluded after a while (a result of both the Marquis of Labrador's incompetence as well as the quixotic nature of Spain's agenda), but France (Talleyrand) was allowed to participate until the end. Russia and Prussia sought to enlarge their territory at the Congress. Russia demanded annexation of Poland (already occupied by Russian troops), and this demand was finally satisfied, despite protests by France, Austria and the United Kingdom. Austria was afraid of future conflicts with Russia or Prussia and the United Kingdom was opposed to their expansion as well – and Talleyrand managed to take advantage of these contradictions within the former anti-French coalition. On 3 January 1815, a secret treaty was signed by France's Talleyrand, Austria's Metternich and Britain's Castlereagh. By this tract, officially a secret treaty of defensive alliance,[16] the three powers agreed to use force if necessary to "repulse aggression" (of Russia and Prussia) and to protect the "state of security and independence."

Talleyrand, having managed to establish a middle position, received some favours from the other countries in exchange for his support: France returned to its 1792 boundaries without reparations, with French control over papal Avignon, Montbéliard (Mompelgard) and Salm, which had been independent at the start of the French Revolution in 1789. It would later be debated which outcome would have been better for France: allowing Prussia to annex all of Saxony (Talleyrand ensured that only part of the kingdom would be annexed) or the Rhine provinces. The first option would have kept Prussia farther away from France, but would have needed much more opposition as well. Some historians have argued that Talleyrand's diplomacy wound up establishing the faultlines of World War I, especially as it allowed Prussia to engulf small German states west of the Rhine. This simultaneously placed Prussian armed forces at the French-German frontier, for the first time; made Prussia the largest German power in terms of territory, population and the industry of the Ruhr and Rhineland; and eventually helped pave the way to German unification under the Prussian throne. However, at the time Talleyrand's diplomacy was regarded as successful, as it removed the threat of France being partitioned by the victors. Talleyrand also managed to strengthen his own position in France (ultraroyalists had disapproved of the presence of a former "revolutionary" and "murderer of the Duke d'Enghien" in the royal cabinet).

Napoleon's return to France in 1815 and his subsequent defeat, the Hundred Days, was a reverse for the diplomatic victories of Talleyrand; the second peace settlement was markedly less lenient and it was fortunate for France that the business of the Congress had been concluded. Talleyrand resigned in September of that year, either over the second treaty or under pressure from opponents in France. For the next fifteen years he restricted himself to the role of "elder statesman", criticising—and intriguing—from the sidelines. However, when King Louis-Philippe came to power in the July Revolution of 1830, Talleyrand agreed to become ambassador to the United Kingdom, a post he held from 1830 to 1834. In this role, he strove to reinforce the legitimacy of Louis-Philippe's regime, and proposed a partition plan for the newly independent Belgium.

Private life

François Gérard - Portrait of Catherine Worlée, Princesse de Talleyrand-Périgord - WGA08599
Catherine (Worlée) Grand, princesse de Talleyrand-Périgord, painted by François Gerard 1805–6

Talleyrand had a reputation as a voluptuary and a womaniser. He left no legitimate children, though he may have fathered illegitimate ones. Four possible children of his have been identified: Charles Joseph, comte de Flahaut, generally accepted to be an illegitimate son of Talleyrand; the painter Eugène Delacroix, once rumoured to be Talleyrand's son, though this is doubted by historians who have examined the issue (for example, Léon Noël, French ambassador); the "Mysterious Charlotte", possibly his daughter by his future wife, Catherine Worlée Grand; and Pauline, ostensibly the daughter of the Duke and Duchess Dino. Of these four, only the first is given credence by historians. However, the French historian Emmanuel de Waresquiel has lately given much credibility to father-daughter link between Talleyrand and Pauline who he referred to as "my dear Minette".

Aristocratic women were a key component of Talleyrand's political tactics, both for their influence and their ability to cross borders unhindered. His presumed lover Germaine de Staël was a major influence on him, and he on her. Though their personal philosophies were most different (she a romantic, he very much unsentimental), she assisted him greatly, most notably by lobbying Barras to permit Talleyrand to return to France from his American exile, and then to have him made foreign minister. He lived with Catherine Worlée, born in India and married there to Charles Grand. She had traveled about before settling in Paris in the 1780s, where she lived as a notorious courtesan for several years before divorcing Grand to marry Talleyrand. Talleyrand was in no hurry to marry, and it was after repeated postponements that Napoleon obliged him in 1802 to formalize the relationship or risk his political career. After her death in 1834, Talleyrand lived with Dorothea von Biron, the divorced wife of his nephew, the Duke of Dino.

Talleyrand's venality was notorious; in the tradition of the ancien régime, he expected to be paid for the state duties he performed—whether these can properly be called "bribes" is open to debate. For example, during the German Mediatisation, the consolidation of the small German states, a number of German rulers and elites paid him to save their possessions or enlarge their territories. Less successfully, he solicited payments from the United States government to open negotiations, precipitating a diplomatic disaster (the "XYZ Affair"). The difference between his diplomatic success in Europe and failure with the United States illustrates that his diplomacy rested firmly on the power of the French army that was a terrible threat to the German states within reach, but lacked the logistics to threaten the USA not the least because of the Royal Navy domination of the seas. After Napoleon's defeat, he withdrew claims to the title "Prince of Benevento", but was created Duke of Talleyrand with the style "Prince de Talleyrand" for life, in the same manner as his estranged wife.[17]

Described by biographer Philip Ziegler as a "pattern of subtlety and finesse" and a "creature of grandeur and guile",[18] Talleyrand was a great conversationalist, gourmet, and wine connoisseur. From 1801 to 1804, he owned Château Haut-Brion in Bordeaux. He employed the renowned French chef Carême, one of the first celebrity chefs known as the "chef of kings and king of chefs", and was said to have spent an hour every day with him.[19] His Paris residence on the Place de la Concorde, acquired in 1812 and sold to James Mayer de Rothschild in 1838, is now owned by the Embassy of the United States.

Talleyrand has been regarded as a traitor because of his support for successive regimes, some of which were mutually hostile. According to French philosopher Simone Weil, criticism of his loyalty is unfounded, as Talleyrand served not every regime as had been said, but in reality "France behind every regime".[20]

Near the end of his life, Talleyrand became interested in Catholicism again while teaching his young granddaughter simple prayers. The Abbé Félix Dupanloup came to Talleyrand in his last hours, and according to his account Talleyrand made confession and received extreme unction. When the abbé tried to anoint Talleyrand's palms, as prescribed by the rite, he turned his hands over to make the priest anoint him on the back of the hands, since he was a bishop. He also signed, in the abbé's presence, a solemn declaration in which he openly disavowed "the great errors which . . . had troubled and afflicted the Catholic, Apostolic and Roman Church, and in which he himself had had the misfortune to fall."[21] He died on 17 May 1838 and was buried in Notre-Dame Chapel,[22] near his Castle of Valençay.

Today, when speaking of the art of diplomacy, the phrase "he is a Talleyrand" is used to describe a statesman of great resourcefulness and craft.[23]

Honours

Anecdotes

  • In 1797 a rumor spread that the King of Great Britain had died. A banker, hoping to make a profit from inside information, appeared at Talleyrand's door seeking information. Talleyrand replied along the lines of, "But of course. I shall be delighted, if the information I have to give be of any use to you." The banker listened with bated breath as Talleyrand continued: "Some say the King of England is dead; others, that he is not dead: for my own part, I believe neither the one nor the other. I tell you this in confidence, but I rely on your discretion."
  • The Spanish Ambassador complained to Talleyrand that the seals on his diplomatic letters had been broken. Talleyrand replied, "I shall wager I can guess how the thing happened. I am convinced your despatch was opened by some one who desired to know what was inside."
  • Germaine de Staël's novel Delphine allegedly depicted Talleyrand as an old woman, and herself as the heroine. Upon meeting Madame de Staël, Talleyrand remarked, "They tell me that we are both of us in your novel, in the disguise of women."[26]
  • Talleyrand had a morbid dread of falling out of bed in his sleep. To prevent this, he had his mattresses made with a depression in the centre. As a further safety measure, he wore fourteen cotton nightcaps at once, held together by 'a sort of tiara'.[27]
  • Following the arrival of the Allies, Talleyrand's mansion hosted Tsar Alexander. Later, his bedroom became the center of government in the provisional government. It was actually quite common to hold important occurrences in one's bedroom as it was warm for the host while the attendants had to stand in the cold night air.
  • On hearing of the death of a Turkish ambassador, Talleyrand is supposed to have said: "I wonder what he meant by that?" More commonly, the quote is attributed to Metternich, the Austrian diplomat, upon Talleyrand's death in 1838.[28]
  • During the occupation of Paris by the Allies, Prussian General Blücher wanted to destroy the Pont d'Iéna, which was named after a French victorious battle against Prussia. The Prefect of Paris tried everything to change the mind of Blücher, without success, and finally went to Talleyrand asking him whether he could write a letter to the General asking him not to destroy the bridge. Talleyrand instead wrote to Tsar Alexander, who was in person in Paris, asking him to grant to the people of Paris the favour of inaugurating himself the bridge under a new name (Pont de l'École militaire). The Tsar accepted, and Blücher could not then destroy a bridge inaugurated by an Ally. The name of the bridge was reverted to its original name under Louis-Philippe.
  • The district of East Levenshulme in Manchester is called Talleyrand. There is a local tradition that he stayed there, presumably during 1792–94.

In fiction

  • Talleyrand is portrayed extensively in Dennis Wheatley's series of novels featuring secret agent and gallant Roger Brook (also known as M. Chevalier de Breuc).
  • Talleyrand was featured in the two-character theatre play by Jean-Claude Brisville Supping with the Devil, in which he is depicted dining with Joseph Fouché while deciding how to preserve their respective power under the coming regime. The drama was hugely successful and was turned into the movie Le Souper (1992), directed by Edouard Molinaro, starring Claude Rich and Claude Brasseur.
  • Talleyrand was also a major supporting character in Katherine Neville's book The Eight, a quasi-mystical adventure novel about a centuries-long struggle for control of a chess set with mysterious powers.
  • Talleyrand plays a significant part in Arthur Conan Doyle's story "How the Brigadier Slew the Brothers of Ajaccio" (1895), part of the Brigadier Gerard series.
  • Talleyrand appears as a supporting character in Rudyard Kipling's short story "A Priest in Spite of Himself", collected in Rewards and Fairies, 1910.
  • Talleyrand is the central figure in Roberto Calasso's epic The Ruin of Kasch. As Italo Calvino noted in 'Panorama Mese', the book "takes up two subjects: the first is Talleyrand, and the second is everything else."[29]
  • Talleyrand appears as a character in the 1934 novel Captain Caution, by Kenneth Roberts.
  • Talleyrand is the subject of The Third Lion by author Floyd Kemske.
  • Talleyrand is an offstage but influential character near the end of The Surgeon's Mate, one of the 20 books in the Aubrey-Maturin series of seafaring novels by Patrick O'Brian.
  • He appears in Naomi Novik's fifth Temeraire novel, Victory of Eagles.
  • He is a supporting character in the BBC Books Doctor Who novel World Game.
  • Talleyrand is the central figure in R.G. Waldecks novel Lustre in the Sky (1946).
  • Talleyrand is portrayed by Malcolm Keen in the Count of Monte Cristo (TV series) – Episode 22 of 39: "The Talleyrand Affair" (1955).
  • Talleyrand is portrayed by John Malkovich in the A&E Television Series "Napoleon" (2002).

Gallery

CoA Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord (1817-1830)

Arms of Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord

Coat of Arms of Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (Empire)

Arms of Talleyrand under the Napoleonic Empire

Talleyrandprothesis0002

Photograph of the famed orthopedic shoe of Charles-Maurice Talleyrand-Périgord. Today located in the Chateau de Valencay.

Plaque Talleyrand, Hôtel de Saint-Florentin, Paris 1

Inscription at the Hôtel de Saint-Florentin

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Talleyrand-Périgord". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  2. ^ "Remembering Talleyrand". Restorus. 2016-05-17. Retrieved 2018-07-25.
  3. ^ Royot, Daniel (2007). Divided Loyalties in a Doomed Empire. University of Delaware Press, ISBN 978-0-87413-968-6, p. 138: "Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord was the essence of the metamorphic talent inherent in French aristocracy. The so-called Diable boiteux (lame devil), born in 1754 was not fit for armed service."
  4. ^ Emmanuel de Waresquiel, Talleyrand. Le prince immobile, Paris, Fayard, 2004, p. 31.
  5. ^ Emmanuel de Waresquiel, op. cit., p. 31.
  6. ^ "il est admis, ... en 1770, au grand séminaire de Saint-Sulpice": http://www.talleyrand.org
  7. ^ Controversial concordats. Catholic University of America Press. 1999.
  8. ^ . Samuel F. Scott and Barry Rothaus, eds., Historical Dictionary of the French Revolution 1789–1799 (vol. 2 1985), pp 928–32, online
  9. ^ "Full text of "Cazenove journal, 1794 : a record of the journey of Theophile Cazenove through New Jersey and Pennsylvania"". Retrieved 29 September 2014.
  10. ^ Palmer, Robert Roswell; Joel Colton (1995). A History of the Modern World (8 ed.). New York: Knopf Doubleday Publishing. p. 419. ISBN 978-0-67943-253-1.
  11. ^ Duff Cooper: Talleyrand, Frankfurt 1982. ISBN 3-458-32097-0
  12. ^ H. A. L. Fisher, "The French Dependencies and Switzerland", in A. Ward et al. (eds.), Cambridge Modern History, IX: Napoleon (Cambridge, 1934), p. 399.
  13. ^ Haine, Scott. The History of France (1st ed.). Greenwood Press. p. 93. ISBN 0-313-30328-2. Retrieved September 6, 2016.
  14. ^ Lawday, David (2007). Napoleon's Master: A Life of Prince Talleyrand. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-37297-3.
  15. ^ "Talleyrand: Napoleon's Master by David Lawday". 12 November 2006.
  16. ^ Traité sécret d'alliance défensive, conclu à Vienne entre Autriche, la Grande bretagne et la France, contre la Russie et la Prussie, le 3 janvier 1815
  17. ^ Bernard, pp. 266, 368 fn.
  18. ^ The Shield of Achilles: War, Peace, and the Course of History by Philip Bobbitt (2002), chp 21
  19. ^ J.A.Gere and John Sparrow (ed.), Geoffrey Madan's Notebooks, Oxford University Press, 1981, at page 12
  20. ^ Simone Weil (2002). The Need for Roots. Routledge. p. 110. ISBN 0-415-27102-9.
  21. ^ newadvent.org
  22. ^ Talleyrand's short biography in Napoleon and Empire website, displaying photographs of his castle of Valençay and of his tomb
  23. ^
    • Gérard Robichaud, Papa Martel, University of Maine Press, 2003, p.125.
    • Parliamentary Debates (Hansard), H.M. Stationery Off., 1964, p. 1391
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Verslag der handelingen der Staten-Generaal, Deel 2. p 26
  25. ^ Almanach Du Département de L'Escaut Pour L'an 1809-1815, Volume 1;Volume 1809. lA.B. Stéven. p. 6.
  26. ^ On me dit que nous sommes tous les deux dans votre roman, déguisés en femme.
  27. ^ André Castelot (1980), Talleyrand ou le cynisme, from the Mémoires (1880) of Claire de Rémusat, lady-in-waiting to Empress Marie-Louise.
  28. ^ Brooks, Xan (1 January 2009). "Happy birthday Salinger". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  29. ^ Atlas, James (14 December 1994). "An Erudite Author in a Genre All His Own". The New York Times.

Further reading

Biographies

  • Bernard, J.F. (1973). Talleyrand: A Biography. New York: Putnam. ISBN 0-399-11022-4.; major scholarly biography
  • Brinton, Crane. Lives of Talleyrand (1936), 300 pp scholarly study
  • Cooper, Duff (1932). Talleyrand. New York: Harper. ISBN 0802137679.
  • Ferraro, Guglielmo. The Reconstruction of Europe: Talleyrand and the Congress of Vienna, 1814–1815 (1941)
  • Kelly, Linda (2017). Talleyrand in London: The Master Diplomat's Last Mission. London: I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-78453-781-4.
  • Lawday, David (2006). Napoleon's Master: A Life of Prince Talleyrand. London: Jonathan Cape. ISBN 978-0-224-07366-0.
  • Orieux, Jean. Talleyrand: The Art of Survival (1974) 677pp; scholarly biography
  • Pflaum, Rosalynd. Talleyrand and His World (2010) 478pp, popular biography
  • Sked, Alan. "Talleyrand and England, 1792–1838: A Reinterpretation," Diplomacy & Statecraft (2006) 17#4 pp. 647–64.

Scholarly studies

  • Esdaile, Charles. Napoleon's Wars: An International History, 1803–1815 (2008); 645pp, a standard scholarly history
  • Godechot, Jacques; Béatrice Fry Hyslop; David Lloyd Dowd; et al. (1971). The Napoleonic Era in Europe. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
  • Ross, Steven T. European Diplomatic History, 1789–1815: France Against Europe (1969)
  • Schroeder, Paul W. The Transformation of European Politics 1763–1848 (1994) 920pp; online; advanced analysis

Historiography

  • Moncure, James A. ed. Research Guide to European Historical Biography: 1450–Present (4 vol 1992); 4:1823–33

Non-English language

  • Potocka-Wąsowiczowa, Anna z Tyszkiewiczów (1965). Wspomnienia naocznego świadka. Warsaw, PL: PWN.
  • Waresquiel, Emmanuel de (2003). Talleyrand: le prince immobile. Paris: Fayard. ISBN 2-213-61326-5.
  • Tarle, Yevgeny (1939). Talleyrand. Moskow.

External links

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Pierre-Louis de La Rochefoucauld
Agent-General of the French Clergy
1780–1785
Served alongside: Thomas de Boisgelin
Succeeded by
François-Xavier-Marc-Antoine de Montesquiou-Fézensac
Preceded by
Louis de Jarente de Sénas d'Orgeval
Succeeded by
Louis-Mathias
Preceded by
Yves-Alexandre de Marbeuf
Bishop of Autun
1788–1791
Succeeded by
Jean-Louis Gouttes
Political offices
Preceded by
Jean-Xavier Bureau de Pusy
President of the National Assembly of France
1790
Succeeded by
François-Xavier-Marc-Antoine de Montesquiou-Fézensac
Preceded by
Étienne Eustache Bruix
Ministers of Marine and the Colonies
1799
Succeeded by
Marc Antoine Bourdon de Vatry
Preceded by
Charles-François Delacroix
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1797–1799
Succeeded by
Charles-Frédéric Reinhard
Preceded by
Charles-Frédéric Reinhard
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1799–1807
Succeeded by
Jean-Baptiste de Nompère de Champagny
New office Grand Chamberlain of France
1804–1814
Position abolished
Preceded by
Antoine René Charles Mathurin
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1814–1815
Succeeded by
Armand Augustin Louis de Caulaincourt
Preceded by
Louis Pierre Edouard
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1815
Succeeded by
Armand-Emmanuel de Vignerot du Plessis
New office Prime Minister of France
1815
French nobility
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Title created
Prince of Talleyrand
1815 – 1838
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Robert Guiscard
Prince of Benevento
1806–1815
{{{reason}}}
Diplomatic posts
New office Representative to the Congress of Erfurt
1812
Position abolished
Representative to the Congress of Vienna
1814–1815
A Royal Divorce (1926 film)

A Royal Divorce is a 1926 British historical drama film directed by Alexander Butler and starring Gwylim Evans, Gertrude McCoy and Lillian Hall-Davis. It was based on a play by C.C. Collingham and depicts the romantic relationship and political divorce between Napoleon and his wife Josephine. It was remade as a sound film, A Royal Divorce, in 1938.

A Royal Divorce (1938 film)

A Royal Divorce is a 1938 British historical drama film directed by Jack Raymond and starring Ruth Chatterton, Pierre Blanchar and Frank Cellier. The film portrays the complex relationship between Napoleon I of France and his wife, Josephine Bonaparte from their first meeting until their divorce more than a decade later.

Austerlitz (1960 film)

Austerlitz is a 1960 film directed by Abel Gance and starring Jean Marais, Rossano Brazzi, Martine Carol, Jack Palance, Claudia Cardinale, Vittorio de Sica, Orson Welles, Leslie Caron and Jean-Louis Trintignant. Pierre Mondy portrays Napoleon in this film about his victory at the Battle of Austerlitz. Leslie Caron plays the role of his mistress Élisabeth Le Michaud d'Arçon.

Brigadier Gerard (film)

Brigadier Gerard is a 1915 British silent action film directed by Bert Haldane and starring Lewis Waller, Madge Titheradge and A.E. George. It is based on the short story collectionThe Adventures of Gerard by Arthur Conan Doyle which follows a fictional French cavalry officer during the Napoleonic Wars.

Conquest (1937 film)

Conquest (also called Marie Walewska) is a 1937 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film which tells the story of the Polish Countess Marie Walewska, who becomes the mistress of Napoleon in order to influence his actions towards her homeland. It stars Greta Garbo, Charles Boyer, Reginald Owen, Alan Marshal, Henry Stephenson, Leif Erickson, Dame May Whitty, George Zucco, and Maria Ouspenskaya.

The movie was adapted by S. N. Behrman, Samuel Hoffenstein, Helen Jerome and Salka Viertel from the novel Pani Walewska by Waclaw Gasiorowski. It was directed by Clarence Brown and Gustav Machatý (uncredited).

It was nominated for Best Actor in a Leading Role (Charles Boyer) and Best Art Direction (Cedric Gibbons and William A. Horning).Its worldwide gross amounted to $2,141,000. But its massive budget led to a loss of $1,397,000.

Désirée (film)

Désirée is a 1954 American historical-biographical film directed by Henry Koster and produced by Julian Blaustein from a screenplay by Daniel Taradash, based on the best-selling novel Désirée by Annemarie Selinko. The music score was by Alex North and the cinematography by Milton R. Krasner. The film was made in CinemaScope.

It stars Marlon Brando as Napoleon Bonaparte and Jean Simmons as Désirée Clary. It also stars Merle Oberon and Michael Rennie with Cameron Mitchell, Elizabeth Sellars, Charlotte Austin, Cathleen Nesbitt, Carolyn Jones and Evelyn Varden.

The film was nominated for two Academy Awards, for Best Art Direction (color) (Lyle R. Wheeler, Leland Fuller, Walter M. Scott, Paul S. Fox) and Best Costume Design (Rene Hubert and Charles LeMaire).

French Provisional Government of 1815

The French Provisional Government or French Executive Commission of 1815 replaced the French government of the Hundred Days that had been formed by Napoleon after his return from exile on Elba.

It was formed on 22 June 1815 after the abdication of Napoleon following his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo.

Following the second Bourbon Restoration, on 9 July 1815 the Provisional Government was replaced by the Ministry of Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord.

Hamilton (play)

Hamilton is a 1917 Broadway play about Alexander Hamilton, written by Mary P. Hamlin and George Arliss. It was directed by Dudley Digges and stars Arliss in the title role. It follows the attempts of Hamilton to establish a new financial structure for the United States following the Confederation Period and the establishment of a new Constitution in 1787.

Mary Hamlin, then a 46-year-old high society woman and mother of four, claimed that playwriting was her "secret desire."In 1931, the film Alexander Hamilton was released. It was based on Hamlin's play and Arliss reprised the title role.

Le Destin fabuleux de Désirée Clary

Le Destin fabuleux de Désirée Clary (Mlle. Desiree) is a French film released in September 1942, black and white, written and directed by Sacha Guitry. The film concerns the life of Désirée Clary, the daughter of a Marseilles merchant, who became Queen of Sweden and the founder of a dynasty.

Lützow's Wild Hunt

Lützow’s Wild Hunt (German: Lützows wilde verwegene Jagd) is the title of a patriotic German song and a 1927 German silent war film.

Ministry of Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord

The Ministry of Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord was formed on 9 July 1815 after the second Bourbon Restoration under King Louis XVIII of France.

It replaced the French Provisional Government of 1815 that had been formed when Napoleon abdicated after the Battle of Waterloo.

The cabinet was dissolved on 26 September 1815 and replaced by the First ministry of Armand-Emmanuel du Plessis de Richelieu.

Napoleon and Love

Napoleon and Love was a 1974 British television series originally aired on ITV and lasting for 9 episodes from 5 March to 30 April 1974. The series starred Ian Holm in the title role as Napoleon and depicts his relationships with the women who featured in his life as a backdrop to his rise and fall.

Napoleon at Saint Helena

Napoleon at Saint Helena (German: Napoleon auf Sankt Helena) is a 1929 German silent historical film directed by Lupu Pick and starring Werner Krauss, Hanna Ralph and Albert Bassermann. The film depicts the final years of Napoleon between 1815 and 1821 during his period of exile on the British Atlantic island of Saint Helena following his defeat at Waterloo.

Queen Louise (1957 film)

Queen Louise (German: Königin Luise) is a 1957 West German historical drama film directed by Wolfgang Liebeneiner and starring Ruth Leuwerik, Dieter Borsche and Bernhard Wicki. It was made at the Emelka Studios in Munich.

The film depicts the life of Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, the wife of Frederick William III of Prussia, and her stand against Napoleon during the Napoleonic Wars. It was one of a number of films made during the 1950s that portrayed historical royal Germany in a positive manner. It is similar in theme to the Prussian film genre which had been popular between the two World Wars including two films about Louise Queen Louise (1927) and Louise, Queen of Prussia (1931).

So Ended a Great Love

So Ended a Great Love (German: So endete eine Liebe) is a 1934 German historical romance film directed by Karl Hartl and starring Paula Wessely, Willi Forst and Gustaf Gründgens .The film's sets were designed by the art director Werner Schlichting. The film was made at the Johannisthal Studios in Berlin, with location shooting taking place in Würzburg and Hungary. An English-language version of the film was planned but never produced.

The Fighting Eagle

The Fighting Eagle is a 1927 American silent film adventure and romance drama starring Rod La Rocque. It was directed by Donald Crisp and it was produced by Cecil B. DeMille. The film was set during the Napoleonic Era.

The Fighting Eagle is a surviving film in several collections and has been released on DVD.

The Young Mr. Pitt

The Young Mr. Pitt is a 1942 British biographical film of the life of William Pitt the Younger and in particular his struggle against revolutionary France and Napoleon. It was directed by Carol Reed and stars Robert Donat, Robert Morley and John Mills. Made in black-and-white, it was produced by Edward Black and Maurice Ostrer for the British subsidiary of 20th Century Fox.

It was filmed as the Second World War was raging. Similar parallels with the struggle against Hitler's Germany were implied in That Hamilton Woman (aka Lady Hamilton, 1941), made by Alexander Korda in the United States with Laurence Olivier and Vivien Leigh in the leads.

Waterloo (1929 film)

Waterloo is a 1929 German silent war film directed by Karl Grune and starring Charles Willy Kayser, Charles Vanel and Otto Gebühr. It depicts the Allied forces victory over Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815.

It was made at the Munich studios of Bavaria Film. The film's sets were designed by the art director Ludwig Reiber.

World Game (novel)

World Game is a BBC Books original novel written by Terrance Dicks and based on the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. It features the Second Doctor (Patrick Troughton) and the Lady Serena and is set during "Season 6B". It is also a partial sequel to another Dicks' Past Doctor Adventure, Players and documents the return of the Countess.

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