Charles Lucien Bonaparte

Charles Lucien Jules Laurent Bonaparte, 2nd Prince of Canino and Musignano (24 May 1803 – 29 July 1857), was a French biologist and ornithologist. Lucien and his wife had twelve children, including Cardinal Lucien Bonaparte.

Charles Lucien Bonaparte
Bonaparte Charles Lucien 1803-1857
Born24 May 1803
Died29 July 1857 (aged 54)
Paris, France
NationalityFrench
Scientific career
FieldsZoology

Life and career

Bonaparte was the son of Lucien Bonaparte and Alexandrine de Bleschamp, and a nephew of Emperor Napoleon I. Born in Paris,[1] he was raised in Italy. On 29 June 1822, he married his cousin, Zénaïde, in Brussels. Soon after the marriage, the couple left for Philadelphia in the United States to live with Zénaïde's father, Joseph Bonaparte.[2] Before leaving Italy, Carlo had already discovered a warbler new to science, the moustached warbler, and on the voyage he collected specimens of a new storm-petrel. On arrival in the United States, he presented a paper on this new bird, which was later named after Alexander Wilson.

Bonaparte then set about studying the ornithology of the United States[2] and updating Wilson's American Ornithology. The revised edition was published between 1825 and 1833. In 1824, Bonaparte tried to get the then unknown John James Audubon accepted by the Academy of Natural Sciences, but this was opposed by the ornithologist George Ord.

At the end of 1826, Bonaparte and his family returned to Europe. He visited Germany, where he met Philipp Jakob Cretzschmar, and England, where he met John Edward Gray at the British Museum, and renewed his acquaintance with Audubon. In 1828, the family settled in Rome. In Italy, he was the originator of several scientific congresses, and lectured and wrote extensively on American and European ornithology and other branches of natural history.[2] Between 1832 and 1841, Bonaparte published his work on the animals of Italy, Iconografia della Fauna Italica. He had also published Specchio Comparativo delle Ornithologie di Roma e di Filadelfia (Pisa, 1827), presenting a comparison between birds of the latitude of Philadelphia and Italian species.[2] He created the genus Zenaida, after his wife, for the mourning dove and its relatives. He was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1845.[3]

In 1849, he was elected to the Roman Assembly and participated in the creation of the Roman Republic. According to Jasper Ridley, when the Assembly convened for the first time: "When the name of Carlo Bonaparte, who was a member for Viterbo, was called, he replied to the roll-call by calling out Long live the Republic!" (Viva la Repubblica!).[4] He participated in the defense of Rome against the 40,000 French troops sent by his cousin Louis Napoleon. He left Rome after the Republican army was defeated in July 1849. He landed at Marseilles, but was ordered to leave the country by Louis Napoleon. He reaffirmed his political beliefs the following year in naming Wilson's bird-of-paradise (Cicinnurus respublica) in honor of the republican idea.

He travelled to the United Kingdom, attending the meeting of the British Association in Birmingham. He then visited Sir William Jardine in southern Scotland. Charles then began work on preparing a methodical classification of all the birds in the world, visiting museums across Europe to study the collections. In 1850,[2] he was allowed to return to France and made Paris his home for the rest of his life. In 1854, he became director of the Jardin des Plantes.[2] In 1855, he was made a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. He published the first volume of his Conspectus Generum Avium before his death, the second volume being edited by Hermann Schlegel.

Bonaparte also studied amphibians and reptiles, and is the author of Vipera ursinii, commonly known as Orsini's viper.

Lucien Charles Bonaparte died in Paris[1] at age 54.

Honours

Family

Prince Charles and Princess Zénaïde Bonaparte had twelve children, listed below :

Name Date of birth Date of death
Joseph Lucien Charles Napoleon Bonaparte, 3rd Prince of Canino and Musignano 13 February 1824 2 September 1865 (aged 41)
Alexandrine Gertrude Zénaïde Bonaparte 9 June 1826 May 1828(age 2)
Lucien Louis Joseph Napoleon Bonaparte, 4th Prince of Canino and Musignano and later a Cardinal 15 November 1828 19 November 1895 (aged 67)
Julie Charlotte Bonaparte 5 June 1830 28 October 1900 (aged 70)
Charlotte Honorine Joséphine Pauline Bonaparte 4 March 1832 1 October 1901 (aged 69)
Léonie Stéphanie Elise Bonaparte 18 September 1833 14 September 1839 (aged 5)
Marie Désirée Eugénie Joséphine Philomène Bonaparte 18 March 1835 28 August 1890 (aged 55)
Augusta Amélie Maximilienne Jacqueline Bonaparte (married the son of Charlotte Bonaparte Gabrielli) 9 November 1836 29 March 1900 (aged 63)
Napoléon Charles Grégoire Jacques Philippe Bonaparte, 5th Prince of Canino and Musignano 5 February 1839 11 February 1899 (aged 60)
Bathilde Aloïse Léonie Bonaparte 26 November 1840 9 June 1861 (aged 20)
Albertine Marie Thérèse Bonaparte 12 March 1842 3 June 1842 (aged 0)
Charles Albert Bonaparte 22 March 1843 6 December 1847 (aged 4)

Works

  • American Ornithology, or, The Natural History of Birds Inhabiting the United States (4 vols., Philadelphia, 1825-'33). This work contains more than 100 new species discovered by Bonaparte.
  • Conspectus Generum Avium (Leyden, 1850)
  • Revue critique de l'ornithologie Européenne (Brussels, 1850)
  • Monographie des loxiens (Leyden, 1850) in collaboration with H. Schlegel
  • Catalogue des oiseaux d'Europe (Paris, 1856)
  • Memoirs (New York, 1836)

In conjunction with M. de Pouancé, he also prepared descriptive catalogue of pigeons and one of parrots which were published after his death. Among his papers published are:

  • “Observations on the Nomenclature of Wilson's ‘Ornithology,’” Journal of the Academy of Philadelphia
  • “Synopsis of the Birds of the United States,” Annals of the Lyceum of New York
  • “Catalogue of the Birds of the United States,” Contributions of the Maclurian Lyceum of Philadelphia

He published several scientific papers on ornithological topics in the Bolognese journal Nuovi annali delle scienze naturali, as Carlo Luciano Bonaparte.[5]

See also

Several birds are named after him:

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b "Charles-Lucien Bonaparte, prince di Canino e di Musignano - French scientist".
  2. ^ a b c d e f Wikisource-logo.svg Wilson, J. G.; Fiske, J., eds. (1900). "Bonaparte, Charles Lucien Jules Laurent" . Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton.
  3. ^ "MemberListB".
  4. ^ Ridley, Jasper (1976). Garibaldi. Viking Press. p. 268. ISBN 0-670-33548-7.
  5. ^ Nuovi annali delle scienze naturali. Biodiversity Heritage Library.

Bibliography

  • Thomas, Phillip Drennon (2002). "The emperor of nature: Charles-Lucien Bonaparte and his world. [Review of: Stroud, P.T. The emperor of nature: Charles-Lucien Bonaparte and his world. Philadelphia: U. of Pennsylvania Pr., 2000]". Journal of American history (Bloomington, Ind.). 88 (4). p. 1517. PMID 16845779.
  • Stroud, Patricia Tyson - The Emperor of Nature. Charles-Lucien Bonaparte and his World ISBN 0-8122-3546-0
  • Mearns, Barbara and Richard - Biographies for Birdwatchers ISBN 0-12-487422-3
  • Ridley, Jasper - Garibaldi Viking Press (1976)
  • Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Charles-Lucien-Jules-Laurent Bonaparte" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

External links

Charles Lucien Bonaparte
Born: 24 May 1803 Died: 29 July 1857
Titles of nobility
Preceded by
Lucien I
Prince of Canino and Musignano
1840–1857
Succeeded by
Joseph
Acrochordidae

The Acrochordidae, commonly known as wart snakes, Java wart snakes, file snakes, elephant trunk snakes, or dogface snakes, are a monogeneric family created for the genus Acrochordus. This is a group of primitive aquatic snakes found in Australia and tropical Asia. Currently, 3 species are recognised.

Airbreathing catfish

Airbreathing catfishes are fishes comprising the family Clariidae of order Siluriformes. About 14 genera and about 116 species of clariids are described. All the clariids are freshwater species. Note that other groups of catfishes also breathe air, such as the Callichthyidae and Loricariidae.

Brevicipitidae

Brevicipitidae or rain frogs is a small family of frogs found in eastern and southern Africa. As of November 2013 contains 34 species in 5 genera. Formerly included as subfamily in Microhylidae (narrow-mouth frogs), phylogenetic research has indicated the brevicipitine frogs should be considered as a family with Hemisotidae (shovelnose frogs) as the most closely related sister taxon.Most adult brevicipitine frogs are not easily seen as they spend extended periods of time in soil or leaf litter. However, some species might be partly arboreal at times. Many species show strong sexual size dimorphism, with females being much larger than males.At least the frogs in Breviceps and Probreviceps genera breed by direct development, in which small froglets emerge from eggs without intervening aquatic tadpole phase. It is likely that the same applies to the other genera, too. The frogs lay small clutches of 13–56 fairly large eggs (4–8 mm diameter not including the protective capsule) in cover, often in underground burrows. With some species either male or female stays with eggs or close to the egg chamber, though the details and extent of brood care is poorly understood within Brevicipitidae as a whole.

Cebidae

The Cebidae are one of the five families of New World monkeys now recognised. Extant members are the capuchin monkeys and squirrel monkeys. These species are found throughout tropical and subtropical South and Central America.

Cotinga

The cotingas are a large family, Cotingidae, of suboscine passerine birds found in Central America and tropical South America. Cotingas are birds of forests or forest edges, that are primary frugivorous. They all have broad bills with hooked tips, rounded wings, and strong legs. They range in size from 12–13 cm (4.7–5.1 in) of the fiery-throated fruiteater (Pipreola chlorolepidota) up to 48–51 cm (19–20 in) of the Amazonian umbrellabird (Cephalopterus ornatus).

Cycloramphidae

The Cycloramphidae are a family of frogs endemic to southeastern Brazil. This family has seen large changes in its composition. Genera that have at some point been included in the Cycloramphidae are at present placed in the Alsodidae, Hylodidae, Leptodactylidae, and Rhinodermatidae. Of these, the Alsodidae and/or Hylodidae have also been considered as subfamilies of Cycloramphidae (as, respectively, Alsodinae and Hylodinae); the Cycloramphidae, as recognized at present, would be similar to subfamily Cycloramphinae under such system.

Eagle ray

The eagle rays are a group of cartilaginous fishes in the family Myliobatidae, consisting mostly of large species living in the open ocean rather than on the sea bottom.

Eagle rays feed on mollusks and crustaceans, crushing their shells with their flattened teeth. Devil and manta rays filter plankton from the water. They are excellent swimmers and are able to breach the water up to several metres above the surface. Compared with other rays, they have long tails, and well-defined, rhomboidal bodies. They are ovoviviparous, giving birth to up to six young at a time. They range from 0.48 to 9.1 m (1.6 to 29.9 ft) in length.

Emydura

Emydura, the Australian short-necked turtles, are a genus of turtles in the family Chelidae. It was paraphyletic with Elseya. Consequently, it was split into two genera Myuchelys and Elseya by Thomson & Georges, 2009.

They can grow quite large, 30 cm or more is not unusual and have a life span of around 20–30 years. They generally do not hibernate as their warmer climate lets them remain active all year round; they also spend more time in the water than other varieties.

They are considered omnivore but rely on a constant supply of meat to remain healthy, feeding on basically anything that will fit into their mouth.

They are characterised by a white strip starting at their nose and leading down their neck, as well as a more rigged shell.

In Australia, the public require a basic reptiles licence to purchase these animals; taking from the wild is strictly prohibited.

Species and notable subspecies arranged according to most recent review of Georges & Thomson, 2010 with some modification after Kehlmaier et al. 2019 are:

Macquarie turtle, Emydura macquarii, (Gray, 1830)Murray river turtle, Emydura macquarii macquarii

Krefft's turtle, Emydura macquarii krefftii

Fraser island short-neck turtle, Emydura macquarii nigra

Cooper creek turtle, Emydura macquarii emmotti

Red-bellied short-necked turtle or Jardine River Turtle, Emydura subglobosa, (Krefft 1876)Red-bellied short-necked turtle, Emydura subglobosa subglobosa

Worrell's short-necked turtle, Emydura subglobosa worrelli

Northern yellow-faced turtle, Emydura tanybaraga, Cann, 1997

Victoria river red-faced turtle, Emydura victoriae, (Gray 1841)

Northern Red-faced Turtle, Emydura australis, Gray 1841: 445. Following Kehlmaier et al. 2019

Geomyoidea

Geomyoidea is a superfamily of rodent that contains the pocket gophers (Geomyidae), the kangaroo rats and mice (Heteromyidae), and their fossil relatives.

Loricariinae

Loricariinae is a subfamily of the family Loricariidae of catfish (order Siluriformes). This subfamily is divided into two tribes and about 30 genera. They are mainly native to freshwater habitats in South America, but there are also several species (in genera Crossoloricaria, Dasyloricaria, Fonchiiichthys, Rineloricaria, Spatuloricaria, Sturisoma and Sturisomatichthys) in Panama and a single (Fonchiiichthys) in Costa Rica.

Macrouridae

Macroudidae is a family of deep sea fish, a diverse and ecologically important group, which are part of the order of cod-like fish, the Gadiformes. The species in the Macrouridae are characterised by their large heads which normally have a single barbel on the chin, projecting snouts, and slender bodies that taper to whip-like tails, without an obvious caudal fin but what there is of the caudal fin is often confluent with the posterior dorsal and anal fins. There are normally two dorsal fins, the anterior dorsal fin is quite high, the posterior quite low but is longer and takes up a greater proportion of the fish's of the back, species in the subfamily Macrouroidinae have a single dorsal fin. The long anal fin is almost as long as the second dorsal fin is nearly as long as the posterior dorsal, and sometimes it is longer. The pelvic fin is inserted in the vicinity of the thorax and normally has 5-17 fin rays but are absent in Macrouroides. The body is covered in small scales and if they have a photophore, it is usually on the midline of the abdomen just in front of the anus. The bioluminescence of these fish is produced by symbiotic bioluminescent bacteria. The structure of the skull has been used to show their placing in the Gadiformes, but they differ from the typical cods in that they possess one stout spine in the anterior dorsal fin.The species in this family are mainly benthopelagic, they are found at depths of 200-2000 m, they occur on the sea bed and have a wide distribution from the Arctic to the Antarctic. The species in the Macrouridae normally live near the sea bed on the continental slope, however, some species are bathypelagic or mesopelagic, other species occur on the outer continental shelf. Their bodies are loose in texture rather than firm and they are weak swimmers. Some species are of commercial importance to fisheries.

Natricinae

The Natricinae are a subfamily of snakes in the family Colubridae. The subfamily comprises 34 genera. Members include many very common snake species, such as the European grass snakes, and the North American water snakes and garter snakes. Some Old World members of the subfamily are known as keelbacks, because their dorsal scales exhibit strong keeling.

Natricine snakes are found in Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, and Central America as far south as Costa Rica. A single species, Tropidonophis mairii, reaches Australia. Although the highest diversity is in North America, the oldest members are in Asia and Africa, suggesting an Old World origin for the group. Most species are semiaquatic and feed on fish and amphibians, although a few are semifossorial or leaf-litter snakes that feed on invertebrates. Most species are harmless to humans, but a few (e.g., Thamnophis sirtalis, Thamnophis elegans) are capable of inflicting bites that can result in local, nonlife-threatening symptoms, and at least two members of the genus Rhabdophis (R. tigrinus and R. subminiatus) are capable of inflicting life-threatening bites to humans, though they have only enlarged, ungrooved fangs in the back of the mouth.

Parsley frog

The parsley frogs or Pelodytidae are a family of order Anura. The family consists of just one genus, Pelodytes, which contains only three species. These frogs can be found in southwestern Europe and the Caucasus. The common name of "parsley frogs" comes from the common parsley frog (Pelodytes punctatus) which, because of its colouring, looks garnished with parsley.

Parsley frogs are typical-looking frogs closely related to European spadefoot toads and megophryids, but differ largely in appearance. Unlike the megophryids, they do not have cryptic colouring, usually being green or brown. Unlike the European spadefoot toads, they lack hardened protrusions on their feet, although they are still fossorial, and are generally slender.The parsley frogs are small, smooth-skinned frogs, reaching a length of 5 cm (2.0 in). They are one of the few families of frogs which contain more known extinct species and genera (two or three) than extant species. Although now found only in the Palearctic ecozone, fossils of a mid-Miocene species were also found in North America.

Porcupinefish

Porcupinefish are fish belonging to the family Diodontidae (order Tetraodontiformes), also commonly called blowfish and, sometimes, balloonfish and globefish. They are sometimes collectively called pufferfish, not to be confused with the morphologically similar and closely related Tetraodontidae, which are more commonly given this name.

Porcupinefish are medium- to large-sized fish, and are found in shallow temperate and tropical seas worldwide. A few species are found much further out from shore, wherein large schools of thousands of individuals can occur. They are generally slow.Porcupinefish have the ability to inflate their bodies by swallowing water or air, thereby becoming rounder. This increase in size (almost double vertically) reduces the range of potential predators to those with much bigger mouths. A second defense mechanism is provided by the sharp spines, which radiate outwards when the fish is inflated.

Some species are poisonous, having a tetrodotoxin in their internal organs, such as the ovaries and liver. This neurotoxin is at least 1200 times more potent than cyanide. The poison is produced by several types of bacteria obtained from the fish's diet. As a result of these three defenses, porcupinefish have few predators, although adults are sometimes preyed upon by sharks and killer whales. Juveniles are also preyed on by Lysiosquillina maculata, tuna, and dolphins.Porcupinefish is used as a food fish and is an exotic delicacy in Cebu, Philippines, where it is locally called tagotongan.

Pyxicephalidae

The Pyxicephalidae are a family of frogs found in sub-Saharan Africa.

Recurvirostridae

The Recurvirostridae are a family of birds in the wader suborder Charadrii. It contains two distinct groups of birds, the avocets (one genus) and the stilts (two genera).

Sand lance

A sand lance or sandlance is a fish belonging to the family Ammodytidae. Several species of sand lances are commonly known as "sand eels", though they are not related to true eels. Another variant name is launce, and all names of the fish are references to its slender body and pointed snout. The family name (and genus name, Ammodytes) means "sand burrower", which describes the sand lance's habit of burrowing into sand to avoid tidal currents.

Sand lances are most commonly encountered by fishermen in the North Pacific and North Atlantic, but are found in oceans throughout the world. These fish do not have pelvic fins and do not develop swim bladders, staying true to their bottom-dwelling habit as adults. Both adult and larval sea lances primarily feed on copepods. Larval forms of this fish are perhaps the most abundant of all fish larvae in areas such as the northwest Atlantic, serving as a major food item for cod, salmon, whales and other commercially important species. As adults, sand lances are harvested commercially in some areas (primarily in Europe), leading to direct human competition with diving birds such as puffins, auks, terns, and cormorants. Some species are inshore coastal dwellers, and digging for sand lances to use as a bait fish has been a popular pastime in coastal areas of Europe and North America. Other species are deep-water dwellers, some of which have only recently been described to science, and most of which lack common names.

Sand lances have chameleon-like independent eye movements.

Scombrinae

The Scombrinae are a subfamily of ray-finned bony fishes in the family Scombridae. Of the 51 species in the Scombridae, 50 are in Scombrinae – with the sole exception being the butterfly kingfish, which is placed in the monospecific subfamily Gasterochismatinae.The Scombrinae, therefore, comprise 50 extant species in 14 genera, grouped into four tribes:

Subfamily ScombrinaeTribe Scombrini – mackerels

Genus Rastrelliger

Genus Scomber

Tribe Scomberomorini – Spanish mackerels

Genus Acanthocybium

Genus Grammatorcynus

Genus Scomberomorus

Tribe Sardini – bonitos

Genus Sarda

Genus Cybiosarda

Genus Gymnosarda

Genus Orcynopsis

Tribe Thunnini – tunas

Genus Allothunnus

Genus Auxis

Genus Euthynnus

Genus Katsuwonus

Genus Thunnus

Xenopeltis

Xenopeltis is the genus of sunbeam snakes, of the monotypic family Xenopeltidae, the species of which are found in Southeast Asia. Sunbeam snakes are known for their highly iridescent scales. Currently, two species are recognized. Studies of DNA suggest that the xenopeltids are most closely related to the Mexican burrowing python, Loxocemus bicolor, and to the true pythons of Pythonidae.

Ancestors of Charles Lucien Bonaparte
16. Sebastiano Nicolo Buonaparte
8. Giuseppe Maria Buonaparte
17. Maria-Anna Tusilo di Bocognano
4. Carlo Buonaparte
18. Giuseppe Maria Paravicini
9. Maria-Saveria Paravicini
19. Maria Angela Salineri
2. Lucien Bonaparte, 1st Prince of Canino and Musignano
20. Giovanni Agostino Ramolino
10. Giovanni Geronimo Ramolino
21. Angela Maria Peri
5. Letizia Ramolino
22. Giuseppe Maria Pietrasanta
11. Angela Maria Pietrasanta
23. Maria Josefina Malerba
1. Charles Lucien Bonaparte, 2nd Prince of Canino and Musignano
12. Nicolas Jacob de Bleschamp
6. Charles Jacob de Bleschamp
26. Pierre Dehorgue
13. Marguerite Dehorgue
27. Jeanne Poindrette
3. Alexandrine de Bleschamp
14. Jean-Charles Bouvet
7. Philiberte Bouvet
30. Antoine François Grimod de Verneuil
15. Marie Gasparde Grimod de Verneuil
31. Marie Suzanne Papet
1st generation
2nd generation
3rd generation
4th generation
5th generation
6th generation

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