Charles Cameron Kingston PC (22 October 1850 – 11 May 1908) was an Australian politician. He was an early radical liberal Premier of South Australia serving from 1893 to 1899 with the support of Labor led by John McPherson from 1893 and Lee Batchelor from 1897 in the House of Assembly, winning the 1893, 1896 and 1899 colonial elections against the conservatives. He was a leading proponent of and contributed extensively on the Federation of Australia, and was elected to the federal House of Representatives with the most votes amongst the seven elected in the single statewide Division of South Australia at the 1901 election, serving under the Protectionist Party, going on to represent the Division of Adelaide at the 1903 election. A radical liberal in state politics, his government introduced such progressive measures as: electoral reform including the first law to give votes to women in Australia (and second in the world only to New Zealand), a legitimation Act, the first conciliation and arbitration Act in Australia, establishment of a state bank, a high protective tariff, regulation of factories, a progressive system of land and income taxation, a public works programme, and more extensive workers’ compensation.
|20th Premier of South Australia|
Elections: 1893, 1896, 1899
16 June 1893 – 1 December 1899
|Governor||Earl of Kintore|
Sir Thomas Buxton
|Preceded by||John Downer|
|Succeeded by||Vaiben Louis Solomon|
Charles Cameron Kingston
22 October 1850
Adelaide, South Australia
|Died||11 May 1908 (aged 57)|
Adelaide, South Australia
|Spouse(s)||Lucy May McCarthy|
|Parents||George Strickland Kingston and Ludovina Catherina De Silva Kingston (nee Cameron)|
Kingston was born in Adelaide, the son of Sir George Kingston, a Protestant Irish-born surveyor, architect and landowner in the early days of British settlement in South Australia and later a member of the first Parliament of South Australia. His mother, Ludovina Cameron, was of Portuguese descent. George Kingston boasted that he was "the first Irishman to set foot in the colony" and it is true that the Kingstons were among Adelaide's founding families. Charles was educated at the Adelaide Educational Institution (schoolmate S. J. Magarey was born just one day later than him) and served his articles with Sir Samuel Way, Adelaide's leading lawyer and later Attorney-General of South Australia. He was called to the bar in 1873, despite the objection of the elder brother of his future wife, Lucy May McCarthy on the grounds of Kingston's alleged seduction of her. He became a QC in 1889.
In 1873 Kingston married Lucy McCarthy. Lucy was an invalid for much of her life and they had no children. In a remarkable gesture, however, Lucy took in a child, Kevin Kingston, whom Kingston had fathered with another woman, Elizabeth Watson, in 1883. As a result of this scandal, Kingston was ostracised by Adelaide "society," his contempt for whom he never troubled to conceal. Kevin died in 1902.
Kingston and his older brother Strickland Gough "Pat" Kingston (1848 - 3 October 1897) formed a business partnership Kingston & Kingston in 1879 which they dissolved in July 1884. S. G. Kingston was a brilliant lawyer, but unstable. He was jailed for the gunshot wounding of a cabdriver in June 1884 and killed himself after losing an important case in Port Augusta.
In April 1881 Kingston was elected to the South Australian House of Assembly as a radical liberal for the seat of West Adelaide. He favoured reform of the Legislative Council (which was dominated by wealthy landowners) and other radical reforms. He was described by William Maloney as the originator of the White Australia Policy, although this policy was supported by virtually all Australian politicians at the time of federation.
Kingston was Attorney-General of South Australia 1884-85 in the government of John Colton and again in 1887-89 in the government of Tom Playford. In 1893 he succeeded Playford as leader of the South Australian liberals and defeated conservative Premier John Downer to become Premier 1893-99, a record at the time of six and a half years, not to be broken until Thomas Playford IV, as well as Chief Secretary and Attorney-General, and also Minister for Industry 1895-99. Kingston came to office with the support of a new third party, the South Australian division of the Labor Party led by John McPherson, which held the balance of power. A big, imposing man with a full beard, a booming voice and a violent, cutting debating style, Kingston dominated the small world of South Australian colonial politics in the 1890s. He was a great hero to liberals and working class voters, and much hated by conservatives. In 1892, Richard Baker called him a "coward, a bully and a disgrace to the legal profession" in the Legislative Council and Kingston replied by calling Baker "false as a friend, treacherous as a colleague, mendacious as a man, and utterly untrustworthy in every relationship of public life". Kingston arranged for a duel but Baker had him arrested and as a result Kingston was bound over to keep the peace for a year.
Kingston had not supported votes for women at the 1893 elections but he was subsequently persuaded by his ministerial colleagues, John Cockburn and Frederick Holder of its political advantages and lobbied by the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. Women's suffrage in Australia took a leap forward – enacted in 1895 and taking effect from this election, South Australia was the first in Australia and only the second in the world after New Zealand to allow women to vote, and the first in the world to allow women to stand for election.
When Tom Buxton was appointed Governor of South Australia, Kingston was angry that the government had not been involved in the decision about who should be the new Governor, so made life as hard as possible for Buxton and his family. The governor's allowance was reduced and customs duty was charged on their household items (including his wife's invalid carriage).
A leading supporter of Federation, Kingston was a delegate to the Constitutional Conventions of 1891 and 1897-98 which worked to draft an Australian Constitution. In 1897 he travelled to London for the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria, where he was made a Privy Councillor and awarded an honorary Doctor of Civil Laws degree by Oxford University. He also turned down the offer of a knighthood, to the distress of his wife. While there he lobbied senior British politicians in favour of Australian federation.
In 1899 Kingston's government was defeated in the House on a bill relating to the reform of the Legislative Council, leading to Kingston's resignation as Premier. By this time, however, he was more interested in federal politics, as the six Australian colonies moved towards federation. He was a leading figure in the popular movement for federation, and in 1900 he travelled to London with Edmund Barton and Alfred Deakin to oversee the passage of the federation bill through the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
When the Constitution came into effect on 1 January 1901, Barton formed the first federal ministry, and Kingston was appointed Minister for Trade and Customs. In March 1901 he was elected as one of seven statewide members of the Division of South Australia in the first Australian House of Representatives. Kingston topped the poll with 65% of the vote. South Australia was not divided into electoral divisions in time for the election. In 1903 he became the first member for the Division of Adelaide. His Central District seat in the Legislative Council was won by George Brookman.
Kingston was a "high protectionist": he favoured very high tariffs to protect Australia's fledgling manufacturing industries. Most of his time as minister was spent negotiating a customs bill through both houses of the Parliament since no one party had a majority in either House and the forces of the Free Trade Party resisted his bill at every stage. Negotiating with his opponents was not among Kingston's many talents, and his bullying style made him many enemies. He also insisted on involving himself in the administrative details of his department and insisted on prosecutions of businesses to enforce his high-tariff policies.
In July 1903, Kingston resigned suddenly in a fit of anger due to the opposition of John Forrest and Edmund Barton to his attempt to impose conciliation and arbitration on British and foreign seamen engaged in the Australian coastal trade. He never held office again, and although Labor offered him a position in Chris Watson's ministry, he turned this down, presumably because of ill health. He remained as Member for Adelaide, being allowed to run unopposed at both the 1903 and 1906 elections.
Kingston died in Adelaide of a sudden stroke in May 1908 and was buried at the local West Terrace Cemetery, survived by his increasingly eccentric wife. An Adelaide by-election was held to elect a new MP. The Division of Kingston is named after him.
Kingston's body was exhumed in March 2008, nearly 100 years after his death, because two people thought they may be his direct descendants from an illegitimate child of his. It is claimed that Kingston was ostracised by Adelaide society for his sexual indiscretions, having fathered at least six illegitimate children.
Sir John Downer
| Premier of South Australia
Vaiben Louis Solomon
|New title|| Minister for Trade and Customs
|Parliament of Australia|
|New division|| Member for South Australia
Served alongside: Batchelor, Bonython,
Glynn, Holder, Poynton, Solomon
|New division|| Member for Adelaide
Elections were held in the colony of South Australia from 15 April to 6 May 1893. All 54 seats in the South Australian House of Assembly were up for election.
The incumbent conservative government led by Premier of South Australia John Downer was defeated by the liberal opposition led by Charles Kingston, with the support of the United Labor Party (ULP) led by John McPherson who formed an informal coalition. Each district elected multiple members, with voters casting multiple votes. This was the first election in which parties and increasingly solid groupings were formed.
A United Trades and Labor Council meeting with the purpose of creating an elections committee was convened on 12 December 1890, and held on 7 January 1891. The elections committee was formed, officially named the United Labor Party of South Australia with McPherson the founding secretary. Later that year, the ULP enjoyed immediate success, electing David Charleston, Robert Guthrie and Andrew Kirkpatrick to the South Australian Legislative Council. A week later, Richard Hooper won the 1891 Wallaroo by-election as an Independent Labor member in the South Australian House of Assembly. McPherson won the 1892 East Adelaide by-election on 23 January, becoming the first official Labor leader and member of the House of Assembly. At the 1893 election, ten Labor candidates including McPherson and Hooper were elected to the 54-member House of Assembly which gave the ULP the balance of power. So successful, a decade later at the 1905 election, Thomas Price would form the world's first stable Labor government. John Verran led Labor to form the state's first of many majority governments at the 1910 election.
In response to the ULP, the second party in South Australia formed − the National Defence League (NDL), created by the conservative forces in the colony, and this sharpened the existing conflict with the more 'radical groups'. It also reflected a trend for the conservative members to gravitate to the NDL, and the progressive members to support Kingston, a strong advocate of progressive social policy and reform of the Legislative Council. One issue which was increasingly dividing the Kingston liberal group and the NDL was the restrictive franchise for the Legislative Council. By the 1893 election, both the ULP and NDL had built up impressive electoral organisations. There was no "Liberal" or "Kingston" party, but there was a relatively cohesive Kingston group among both independent members and candidates. The Liberal and Democratic Union would not be formed until the 1906 election.1896 South Australian colonial election
Colonial elections were held in South Australia on 25 April 1896, excepting the Northern Territory, which voted on 2 May. All 54 seats in the South Australian House of Assembly were up for election. The incumbent liberal government led by Premier of South Australia Charles Kingston in an informal coalition with the United Labor Party (ULP) led by John McPherson defeated the conservative opposition. Each district elected multiple members, with voters casting multiple votes.
The period after the 1893 election saw an increasing competition between the two new political parties – the ULP and the conservative National Defence League (NDL). It also reflected a trend for the conservative members to gravitate to the NDL, and the progressive members to support Kingston, a strong advocate of progressive social policy and reform of the Legislative Council. There was no "Liberal" or "Kingston" party, but there was a relatively cohesive Kingston group among both independent members and candidates. The Liberal and Democratic Union would not be formed until the 1906 election.
The election was held concurrently with the first referendum in Australia.Women's suffrage in Australia took a leap forward – enacted in 1895 and taking effect from this election, South Australia was the first in Australia and only the second in the world after New Zealand to allow women to vote, and the first in the world to allow women to stand for election. However, the first female would not be elected to the Parliament of South Australia until the 1959 election when Jessie Cooper and Joyce Steele were elected for the Liberal and Country League, and the 1965 election for Labor with Molly Byrne.1899 South Australian colonial election
Elections were held in the colony of South Australia on 29 April 1899, except for Albert, where the incumbent members were elected unopposed on 12 April, and Northern Territory, which voted on 6 May. All 54 seats in the South Australian House of Assembly were up for election. The incumbent liberal government led by Premier of South Australia Charles Kingston in an informal coalition United Labor Party (ULP) led by Lee Batchelor defeated the conservative opposition led by Leader of the Opposition John Downer. Each district elected multiple members, with voters casting multiple votes. Although the conservatives won more seats, the liberal government retained power until later that year, when new conservative leader Vaiben Louis Solomon forced the government to resign, but only held office for one week. The liberals held government until the next election through leaders Frederick Holder and John Jenkins.
The 1899 election was a contest between three increasingly dominating groups – the ULP, the conservative National Defence League (NDL) which renamed to the Australasian National League (ANL), and the Kingston liberals. It was also dominated by one issue – the restrictive franchise for the Legislative Council. The Kingston government, which had secured a majority with the strong support of the ULP, had attempted to broaden the franchise in 1898, but the ANL and conservative majority of the Council had rejected the Bill. Kingston took the Assembly into the 1899 election with this issue dominant. The seat contest was particularly intense between the conservatives and the Kingston liberals. There was no "Liberal" or "Kingston" party, but there was a relatively cohesive Kingston group among both independent members and candidates. The Liberal and Democratic Union would not be formed until the 1906 election.1901 Australian federal election
Federal elections for the inaugural Parliament of Australia were held in Australia on Friday 29 March and Saturday 30 March 1901. The elections followed Federation and the establishment of the Commonwealth of Australia on 1 January 1901. All 75 seats in the Australian House of Representatives, six of which were uncontested, as well as all 36 seats in the Australian Senate, were up for election.
After the initial confusion of the Hopetoun Blunder, the first Prime Minister of Australia, Edmund Barton, went into the inaugural 1901 federal election as the appointed head of a Protectionist Party caretaker government. While the Protectionists came first on votes and seats, they fell short of a majority. The incumbent government remained in office with the parliamentary support of the Labour Party, who held the balance of power, while the Free Trade Party formed the opposition. A few months prior to the 1903 election, Barton resigned to become a founding member of the High Court of Australia, and was replaced by Alfred Deakin.
Then Prime Minister Edmund Barton entered parliament at this election, as did six future Prime Ministers - Alfred Deakin, Chris Watson, George Reid, Joseph Cook, Andrew Fisher, and Billy Hughes - and future opposition leader Frank Tudor.1902 South Australian state election
State elections were held in South Australia on 3 May 1902 following the dissolution of both houses. All 42 seats in the South Australian House of Assembly were up for election, and all 18 seats in the Legislative Council. The House had a reduction of 12 seats compared to the previous election. The Council was reduced from 6 members in each of four districts to 6 members from Central District and four from each of North-Eastern, Northern and Southern Districts. The incumbent liberal government led by Premier of South Australia John Jenkins in an informal coalition with the conservatives defeated the United Labor Party (ULP) led by Thomas Price. Each of the 13 districts elected multiple members, with voters casting multiple votes.
Following the 1899 election, Charles Kingston tried again for franchise reform. The Assembly voted against the measure and Kingston resigned his ministry. He was replaced by Vaiben Louis Solomon for a brief period of seven days, until Frederick Holder formed a government which, for the first time, included a ULP member, Lee Batchelor.
The parliament was transformed by the impact of federation. Seven leading members of the Assembly resigned and were elected to the Parliament of Australia. As a result, there were 11 by-elections in this period. The Assembly was reduced in numbers, from 54 to 42. A redistribution was carried out following these changes, to produce a chamber elected from 13 districts - one 5-member, two four-member, nine 3-member and one 2-member electorates. The election was a "new start" for the parliament.
There was no "Liberal" or "Kingston" party, but there was a relatively cohesive Kingston group among both independent members and candidates. The Liberal and Democratic Union would not be formed until the 1906 election.1908 Adelaide by-election
A by-election was held for the Australian House of Representatives seat of Adelaide on 13 June 1908. This was triggered by the death of former Premier of South Australia and federal Protectionist Party MP Charles Kingston.
The by-election was won by Labor candidate Ernest Roberts, after the seat was previously won uncontested by Kingston at the 1903 and 1906 elections. Voting was not compulsory in 1908.
Alexander McLachlan was an independent Anti-Socialist Party candidate.Alexander McLachlan
Alexander John McLachlan (2 November 1872 – 28 May 1956) was an Australian politician.
McLachlan was born in Naracoorte, South Australia and educated at Hamilton Academy, and Mount Gambier High School. He was an articled clerk in Mount Gambier and completed the Final Certificate in Law at the University of Adelaide in 1895. He was in partnership with Charles Kingston from 1897 to 1905. In 1898 he married Cecia Antoinette Billiet. He was a director of the Hume Pipe Co. (Aust) Ltd from its foundation in 1920.Attorney-General of South Australia
The Attorney-General of South Australia is the Cabinet minister in the Government of South Australia who is responsible for that state's system of law and justice. The Attorney-General must be a qualified legal practitioner, although this was not always the case.
The current Attorney-General since March 2018 is The Hon. Vickie Chapman MHA, a member of the Liberal Party of Australia (SA).Barton Ministry
The Barton Ministry (Protectionist) was the 1st ministry of the Government of Australia. It was led by the country's 1st Prime Minister, Sir Edmund Barton. The Barton Ministry was formed on 1 January 1901 when Federation took place and Australia became fully independent from the United Kingdom. The ministry was replaced by the First Deakin Ministry on 24 September 1903 following Barton's retirement from Parliament to enter the inaugural High Court.Charles Kingston (cricketer)
Charles Arthur Kingston (5 December 1865 – 14 October 1917) was an English cricketer. Kingston was a right-handed batsman.
Born at Northampton, Northamptonshire, Kingston made his debut in first-class cricket while in British Guiana for Demerara against Barbados in the 1891/92 Inter-Colonial Tournament. He made two further first-class appearances in that seasons tournament, against Trinidad and in the tournament final against Barbados. Kingston scored a total of 34 runs in his three matches, averaging 6.80, with a high score of 21. He later returned to England, where he played minor counties cricket for Northamptonshire, debuting against Staffordshire in 1895 in what was Northamptonshire's inaugural Minor Counties Championship match. He made two further appearances for the county in the 1896 Minor Counties Championship against Northumberland and Durham.
He died on 14 October 1917. His brothers Fred, Hubert, James, and William all played first-class cricket.Charles Kingston (disambiguation)
Charles Kingston (1850–1908) was premier of South Australia and member of the federal Australian parliament.
Charles Kingston may also refer to:
Charles Kingston (Mormon) (1856–1944), leader of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Wyoming
Charles W. Kingston (1884–1975), Mormon fundamentalist leader
Charles Elden Kingston (1909–1947), Mormon fundamentalist leader
Charles Kingston (cricketer) (1865–1917), English cricketer
Charles Morgan Kingston (1867–1948), Canadian politicianCharles W. Kingston
Charles William Kingston (June 26, 1884 – November 29, 1975) was a member of the Latter Day Church of Christ and the Davis County Cooperative Society.Division of Kingston
The Division of Kingston is an Australian Electoral Division in South Australia covering the outer southern suburbs of Adelaide. The 171 km² seat stretches from Hallett Cove and O'Halloran Hill in the north to Sellicks Beach in the south, including the suburbs of Aldinga Beach, Christie Downs, Christies Beach, Hackham, Hallett Cove, Huntfield Heights, Lonsdale, Maslin Beach, Moana, Morphett Vale, Old Noarlunga, Onkaparinga Hills, Port Noarlunga, Reynella, Seaford, Sellicks Beach, Sheidow Park, Port Willunga, Trott Park, Woodcroft, and parts of Happy Valley and McLaren Flat.
The division was named after Charles Kingston, Premier of South Australia (1893–1899), elected to the first House of Representatives in 1901 and the first Federal member of the Division of Adelaide in 1903. Kingston was first based on the Holdfast Bay area to the north of the current boundaries from the 1949 election as a notionally marginal to fairly safe Labor seat. However, it fell to the Liberals in that election, only to have Labor win it at the 1951 election. This started a tradition of Labor and the Liberals alternating for long spells in a seat that has slowly moved south over the decades. It has now moved almost clear of its original boundaries; Hallett Cove is the only suburb within the seat's current borders that was part of the seat in 1949.
It has tended to elect an MP from the governing party of the day, having elected only four opposition MPs. Notably, every sitting member in the electorate's history has been defeated at the polls—none have retired or resigned.Kingston has been represented by Labor MP Amanda Rishworth since the 2007 election where she won with a 54.4 percent two-party vote from a 4.5 percent swing. Going into the 2010 election, it was the most marginal Labor seat in South Australia. However, Rishworth consolidated her hold on the seat in 2010 by winning a 64 percent two-party vote from a 9.5 percent swing. At the 2013 election, Rishworth suffered a 4.9 percent swing to finish on a 59.7 percent two-party vote, but was still the second largest vote of any party in Kingston's history. In 2016, Rishworth further strengthened her hold on Kingston by boosting her majority to 67.1 percent on a swing of 7.7 percent, the strongest result in the seat's history. It is now Labor's second-safest seat in South Australia, behind only Port Adelaide, on two-party terms, however on the primary vote Kingston polled one percent higher at over 49 percent, the highest primary vote of South Australia's 11 seats. Though Labor picked up a two-party swing in all eleven seats, the presence of Nick Xenophon Team candidates in all eleven seats produced, apart from a suppressed major party primary vote, a result where Rishworth was the only major party candidate in the state to pick up a primary vote swing.Electoral district of Wallaroo
Wallaroo is a defunct electoral district that elected members to the House of Assembly, the lower house of the bicameral legislature of the Australian state of South Australia. It was established in 1875 and abolished in 1970.Successful 1891 Wallaroo by-election candidate Richard Hooper was the first Labor member of the House of Assembly, but was not a member of the newly formed United Labor Party (ULP), instead serving as an Independent Labor member. The 1892 East Adelaide by-election saw ULP candidate John McPherson win the seat. It was the first time the ULP had won a seat in the House of Assembly, with electoral success to be followed at the 1893 colonial election, winning 10 of 54 seats and the balance of power, allowing the ULP to support the liberal opposition led by Charles Kingston in defeating the conservative government led by John Downer.
The town of Wallaroo is currently located in the safe Liberal seat of Goyder. The two current Wallaroo booths totaling 3,000 voters are both marginally Liberal.John Jenkins (Australian politician)
John Greeley Jenkins (8 September 1851 – 22 February 1923) was an American-Australian politician. He was Premier of South Australia from 1901 to 1905. He had previously served as Minister for Education and the Northern Territory and Commissioner for Public Works under Thomas Playford II, Commissioner of Public Works under Charles Kingston and Chief Secretary under Frederick Holder. He was subsequently Agent-General for South Australia from 1905 to 1908.Kingston On Murray, South Australia
Kingston On Murray (formerly Thurk and Kingston O.M.) is a town on the south bank of the Murray River in the Riverland region of South Australia. It was named after Charles Kingston who was Premier of South Australia from 1893-99. At the 2006 census, the town had a population of 257.The town was surveyed in January 1915 and originally proclaimed as Thurk on 21 November 1918. The town's name was changed from Thurk to Kingston O.M. in 1940. The name was altered at the request of residents from Kingston O.M. to Kingston On Murray in March 1994. Erratum published in Government Gazette 24 November 1994 to correct the incorrect use of hyphens in the original Notice to Assign.Members of the South Australian House of Assembly, 1899–1902
This is a list of members of the South Australian House of Assembly from 1899 to 1902, as elected at the 1899 colonial election:The Federation of Australia occurred on 1 January 1901, resulting in South Australia changing from a colony to a state of the new nation during this term of parliament. Seven members of the House of Assembly were elected to the new Parliament of Australia at the 1901 federal election, resulting in by-elections for their state seats.
1 Encounter Bay MHA Charles Tucker was unseated by the Court of Disputed Returns on 6 July 1899. He was re-elected at the resulting by-election on 29 July.
2 West Adelaide MHA Charles Kingston resigned on 7 February 1900. Bill Denny won the resulting by-election on 17 March.
3 Northern Territory MHA Walter Griffiths died on 4 September 1900. Charles Edward Herbert won the resulting by-election on 20 October.
4 West Adelaide MHA Lee Batchelor vacated his seat when he was seated in the first Parliament of Australia on 9 May 1901. Francis Bernard Keogh won the resulting by-election on 1 June.
5 North Adelaide MHA Paddy Glynn vacated his seat when he was seated in the first Parliament of Australia on 9 May 1901. Hugh Robert Dixson won the resulting by-election on 1 June.
6 Barossa MHA John Downer vacated his seat when he was seated in the first Parliament of Australia on 9 May 1901. E. H. Coombe won the resulting by-election on 8 June.
7 Burra MHA Frederick Holder vacated his seat when he was seated in the first Parliament of Australia on 9 May 1901. William Russell won the resulting by-election on 8 June.
8 Gumeracha MHA Thomas Playford vacated his seat when he was seated in the first Parliament of Australia on 9 May 1901. William Jamieson won the resulting by-election on 1 June.
9 Flinders MHA Alexander Poynton vacated his seat when he was seated in the first Parliament of Australia on 9 May 1901. William Tennant Mortlock won the resulting by-election on 8 June.
10 Northern Territory MHA Vaiben Louis Solomon vacated his seat when he was seated in the first Parliament of Australia on 9 May 1901. Samuel James Mitchell won the resulting by-election on 15 June.
11 Wallaroo MHA Henry Allerdale Grainger resigned on 30 May 1901. John Verran won the resulting by-election on 22 June.
12 West Torrens MHA Frank Hourigan died on 1 December 1901. No by-election was held before the 1902 election.Robert Kingston
Robert Charles Kingston (July 16, 1928 – February 28, 2007) was a United States Army general who served as the commander of U.S. Central Command.Sir Thomas Buxton, 3rd Baronet
Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, 3rd Baronet (26 January 1837 – 28 October 1915), commonly referred to as "Sir Fowell Buxton", was the Governor of South Australia from 29 October 1895 until 29 March 1899. He was the grandson of Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, a British MP and social reformer, and the son of Sir Edward North Buxton, also an MP.
He attended Harrow School and Trinity College, Cambridge. He married Lady Victoria Noel on 12 June 1862 and they had a total of 13 children, ten surviving infancy. She was crippled by a spinal condition in 1869.
He was elected as Liberal Member of Parliament (MP) for King's Lynn at the 1865 general election, but was defeated at the 1868 election. After his defeat, he stood again for Parliament unsuccessfully on several other occasions: in Westminster at the 1874 general election, in Western Essex at the 1880 general election and at the by-elections in Northern Norfolk in 1876 and 1879. He was appointed High Sheriff of Norfolk in 1876.
When Buxton was appointed governor, the Premier of South Australia, Charles Kingston was angry that the South Australian government had not been involved in the decision about who should be the new governor, so made life as hard as possible for Buxton and his family. The governor's allowance was reduced and customs duty was charged on their household items (including his wife's invalid carriage). Buxton took up the job anyway, and later was described as the most genial, sociable and common-sense governor, due to his gentle and unassuming friendliness. He visited gaols and hospitals, and showed genuine interest in Aboriginal culture during his time as governor. He eventually returned to England due to the ill health of his wife.Their second son, Noel Buxton acted as aide-de-camp to his father as governor, and later was a human rights campaigner and British Member of Parliament.
A memorial to Sir Thomas and his wife Victoria was erected in St Thomas' Church in Upshire in Essex in 1917, designed by Sir Robert Lorimer.