Known as the "Godfather of Broadband", the "Father of Fiber Optics", and the "Father of Fiber Optic Communications", Kao was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physics for "groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication".
His grandfather was Gao Xie (aka Gao Chuiwan), a famous scholar, poet, literator, artist, and a leading figure of the South Society during the late Qing Dynasty. Some influential writers including Gao Xu, (aka Gao Tianmei), Yao Guang (姚光), and Gao Zeng (高增) were also Gao's close relatives.
A bundle of silica glass fibres for optical communication, which are the de facto worldwide standard. Kao also first publicly suggested that silica glass of high purity is an ideal material for long range optical communication.
In the 1960s at Standard Telecommunication Laboratories (STL) based in Harlow, Essex, Kao and his co-workers did their pioneering work in the realisation of fibre optics as a telecommunications medium, by demonstrating that the high-loss of existing fibre optics arose from impurities in the glass, rather than from an underlying problem with the technology itself.
In 1963, when Kao first joined the optical communications research team he made notes summarising the background situation and available technology at the time, and identifying the key individuals involved. Initially Kao worked in the team of Antoni E. Karbowiak (Toni Karbowiak), who was working under Alec Reeves to study optical waveguides for communications. Kao's task was to investigate fibre attenuation, for which he collected samples from different fibre manufacturers and also investigated the properties of bulk glasses carefully. Kao's study primarily convinced himself that the impurities in material caused the high light losses of those fibres. Later that year, Kao was appointed head of the electro-optics research group at STL. He took over the optical communication program of STL in December 1964, because his supervisor, Karbowiak, left to take the Chair in Communications in the School of Electrical Engineering at the University of New South Wales (UNSW), Sydney, Australia.
Although Kao succeeded Karbowiak as manager of optical communications research, he immediately decided to abandon Karbowiak's plan (thin-film waveguide) and overall change research direction with his colleague George Hockham. They not only considered optical physics but also the material properties. The results were first presented by Kao to the IEE in January 1966 in London, and further published in July with George Hockham (1964–1965 worked with Kao).a[›] This study first theorized and proposed to use glass fibres to implement optical communication, the ideas (especially structural features and materials) described are largely the basis of today's optical fibre communications.
In 1965,b[›] Kao with Hockham concluded that the fundamental limitation for glass light attenuation is below 20 dB/km (decibels per kilometer, is a measure of the attenuation of a signal over a distance), which is a key threshold value for optical communications. However, at the time of this determination, optical fibres commonly exhibited light loss as high as 1,000 dB/km and even more. This conclusion opened the intense race to find low-loss materials and suitable fibres for reaching such criteria.
Kao, together with his new team (members including T. W. Davies, M. W. Jones, and C. R. Wright), pursued this goal by testing various materials. They precisely measured the attenuation of light with different wavelengths in glasses and other materials. During this period, Kao pointed out that the high purity of fused silica (SiO2) made it an ideal candidate for optical communication. Kao also stated that the impurity of glass material is the main cause for the dramatic decay of light transmission inside glass fibre, rather than fundamental physical effects such as scattering as many physicists thought at that time, and such impurity could be removed. This led to a worldwide study and production of high-purity glass fibres. When Kao first proposed that such glass fibre could be used for long-distance information transfer and could replace copper wires which were used for telecommunication during that era, his ideas were widely disbelieved; later people realized that Kao's ideas revolutionized the whole communication technology and industry.
He also played a leading role in the early stage of engineering and commercial realization of optical communication. In spring 1966, Kao traveled to the U.S. but failed to interest Bell Labs, which was a competitor of STL in communication technology at that time. He subsequently traveled to Japan and gained support. Kao visited many glass and polymer factories, discussed with various people including engineers, scientists, businessmen about the techniques and improvement of glass fiber manufacture. In 1969, Kao with M. W. Jones measured the intrinsic loss of bulk-fused silica at 4 dB/km, which is the first evidence of ultra-transparent glass. Bell Labs started considering fibre optics seriously.
Kao developed important techniques and configurations for glass fibre waveguides, and contributed to the development of different fibre types and system devices which met both civil and militaryc[›] application requirements, and peripheral supporting systems for optical fiber communication. In mid-1970s, he did seminal work on glass fiber fatigue strength. When named the first ITT Executive Scientist, Kao launched the "Terabit Technology" program in addressing the high frequency limits of signal processing, so Kao is also known as the "Father of the Terabit Technology Concept". Kao has published more than 100 papers and was granted over 30 patents, including the water-resistant high-strength fibers (with M. S. Maklad).
At an early stage of developing optic fibres, Kao already strongly preferred single mode for long-distance optical communication, instead of using multi-mode systems. His vision later was followed and now is applied almost exclusively. Kao was also a visionary of modern submarine communications cables and largely promoted this idea. He predicted in 1983 that world's seas would be littered with fibre optics, five years ahead of the time that such a trans-oceanic fibre-optic cable first became serviceable.
Ali Javan's introduction of a steady helium–neon laser and Kao's discovery of fibre light-loss properties now are recognized as the two essential milestones for the development of fiber-optic communications.
Kao joined the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) in 1970 to found the Department of Electronics, which later became the Department of Electronic Engineering. During this period, Kao was the reader and then the chair Professor of Electronics at CUHK; he built up both undergraduate and graduate study programmes of electronics and oversaw the graduation of his first students. Under his leadership, the School of Education and other new research institutes were established. He returned to ITT Corporation in 1974 (the parent corporation of STC at that time) in the United States and worked in Roanoke, Virginia, first as Chief Scientist and later as Director of Engineering. In 1982, he became the first ITT Executive Scientist and was stationed mainly at the Advanced Technology Center in Connecticut. While there, he served as an adjunct professor and Fellow of Trumbull College at Yale University. In 1985, Kao spent one year in West Germany, at the SEL Research Centre. In 1986, Kao was the Corporate Director of Research at ITT.
Kao was the vice-chancellor of the Chinese University of Hong Kong from 1987 to 1996. From 1991, Kao was an Independent Non-Executive Director and a member of the Audit Committee of the Varitronix International Limited in Hong Kong. From 1993 to 1994, he was the President of the Association of Southeast Asian Institutions of Higher Learning (ASAIHL). In 1996, Kao donated to Yale University, and the Charles Kao Fund Research Grants was established to support Yale's studies, research and creative projects in Asia. The fund currently is managed by Yale University Councils on East Asian and Southeast Asian Studies. After his retirement from CUHK in 1996, Kao spent his six-month sabbatical leave at the Imperial College London Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering; from 1997 to 2002, he also served as visiting professor in the same department.
Kao was chairman and member of the Energy Advisory Committee (EAC) of Hong Kong for two years, and retired from the position on July 15, 2000. Kao was a Member of the Council of Advisors on Innovation and Technology of Hong Kong, appointed on April 20, 2000. In 2000, Kao co-founded the Independent Schools Foundation Academy, which is located in Cyberport, Hong Kong. He was its founding Chairman in 2000, and stepped down from the Board of the ISF in December 2008. Kao was the keynote speaker at IEEEGLOBECOM 2002 in Taipei, Taiwan. In 2003, Kao was named a Chair Professor by special appointment at the Electronics Institute of the College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, National Taiwan University. Kao then worked as the chairman and CEO of Transtech Services Ltd., a telecommunication consultancy in Hong Kong. He was the founder, chairman and CEO of ITX Services Limited. From 2003 to January 30, 2009, Kao was an independent non-executive director and member of the audit committee of Next Media.
Honours and awards
Kao received numerous honours and awards, the most notable being the Nobel Prize in Physics. His awards include the following:
Guglielmo Marconi, pioneer of wireless telecommunication, was awarded half of the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics. In 2009, the century anniversary of Marconi's Nobel, Kao was awarded half of the same prize for his pioneer work on optical fibre which has "rewired the world". Kao was also awarded the Marconi Prize in 1985, and is a Fellow of the Marconi Society.
1978: The IEEE Morris N. Liebmann Memorial Award. Citation: "for making communication at optical frequencies practical by discovering, inventing, and developing the material, techniques and configurations for glass fiber waveguides and, in particular, for recognizing and proving by careful measurements in bulk glasses that silicon glass could provide the requisite low optical loss needed for a practical communication system".
1979: The L. M. Ericsson International Prize, Sweden.
1989: The James C. McGroddy Prize for New Materials, American Physical Society (APS). Citation: "for contribution to the materials research and development that resulted in practical low loss optical fibers, one of the cornerstones of optical communications technology".
1996: The Prince Philip Medal of the Royal Academy of Engineering, UK; in recognition of "his pioneering work which led to the invention of optical fibre and for his leadership in its engineering and commercial realisation; and for his distinguished contribution to higher education in Hong Kong".
4 Nov 2014: Gimme Fibre Day on Kao's birthday, FTTH Councils Global Alliance
Later life and death
Kao's international travels led him to opine that he belonged to the world instead of any country. An open letter published by Kao and his wife in 2010 later clarified that "Charles studied in Hong Kong for his high schooling, he has taught here, he was the Vice-Chancellor of CUHK and retired here too. So he is a Hong Kong belonger."
Pottery making, a traditional Chinese handiwork, was a hobby of Kao's. Kao also enjoyed reading Wuxia novels.
On October 6, 2009, when Kao was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his contributions to the study of the transmission of light in optical fibres and for fibre communication, he said, "I am absolutely speechless and never expected such an honour". Kao's wife Gwen told the press that the prize will primarily be used for Charles's medical expenses, after paying tax to the US government. In 2010 Charles and Gwen Kao founded the Charles K. Kao Foundation for Alzheimer's Disease to raise public awareness about the disease and provide support for the patients.
In 2016, Kao lost the ability to maintain his balance. At the end-stage of his dementia he was cared for by his wife and intended not to be kept alive with life support or have CPR performed on him. Kao died at Bradbury Hospice in Hong Kong on 23 September 2018 at the age of 84.
^a: Kao's major task was to investigate light-loss properties in materials of optic fibers, and determine whether they could be removed or not. Hockham's was investigating light-loss due to discontinuities and curvature of fibre. ^b: Some sources show around 1964, for example, "By 1964, a critical and theoretical specification was identified by Dr. Charles K. Kao for long-range communication devices, the 10 or 20 dB of light loss per kilometer standard." from Cisco Press. ^c: In 1980, Kao was awarded the Gold Medal from American Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association, "for contribution to the application of optical fiber technology to military communications". ^d: In the United States National Academy of Engineering Membership Website, Kao's country is indicated as People's Republic of China. ^e:OFC/NFOEC – Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference
^ 高錕. 香港百人 (in Cantonese, Chinese, and English). Asia Television. 2011.
^ abcdefghijKao, Charles K. (2013) [original Chinese translation published in 2005]. 潮平岸闊——高錕自傳 [A Time And A Tide: Charles K. Kao ─ A Memoir] (autobiography) (in Chinese). Translated by 許迪鏘 (First ed.). Joint Publishing (Hong Kong). ISBN 978-962-04-3444-0.
^历史沿革 (in Chinese). Government of Jinshan District, Shanghai. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
^國務院關於行政區劃變更的決定(PDF). 國務院公報 (in Chinese). 1958 (34): 717. December 6, 1958. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
^高錕. 傑出華人系列 (documentary and oral history) (in Cantonese, Chinese, and English). Radio Television Hong Kong. 2000. Event occurs at 12:00 to 13:00. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
^陶家骏 (June 1, 2008). "Archived copy" 著名女教育家陶玄 [Famous Female Educator Tao Xuan]. 绍兴县报 [Shaoxing County News] (in Chinese). Archived from the original on March 13, 2012. Retrieved October 9, 2009.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
^「光纖之父」高錕離世 享年84歲 (16:56). Online instant news section. Ming Pao (in Chinese). Hong Kong: Media Chinese International. September 23, 2018. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
^高锟个人简历 [The biography of Charles K. Kao] (in Chinese). chinanews.com.cn. October 6, 2009. Retrieved October 9, 2009.
^ ab光纤与爱情——高锟一生的实验. Ming Pao. Hong Kong. March 4, 2000. Retrieved October 7, 2009 – via networkchinese.com.
^ ab高錕履歷 [resume of Kao Kuen]. Wen Wei Po (in Chinese). Hong Kong. 7 October 2009. Retrieved 27 September 2018.
^高錕. 傑出華人系列 (documentary and oral history) (in Cantonese, Chinese, and English). Radio Television Hong Kong. 2000. Event occurs at around 20:00. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
^"Draper Prize". draper.comg. Archived from the original on February 14, 2010. Retrieved November 4, 2009. "Charles Kao is credited for first publicly proposing the possibility of practical telecommunications using fibers in the 1960s."
^Montgomary, Jeff D. (March 22, 2002). "Chapter 1 – History of Fiber Optics". In DeCusatis, Casimer (ed.). Fiber optic data communication: technological trends and advances (1st ed.). Academic Press. 1.3.1. Long Road to Low-Loss Fiber (pp. 9–16). ISBN 978-0-12-207891-0.
^1999 Charles Stark Draper Award Presented "Kao, who was working at ITT's Standard Telecommunications Laboratories in the 1960s, theorized about how to use light for communication instead of bulky copper wire and was the first to publicly propose the possibility of a practical application for fibre-optic telecommunication."
^Technology of Our Times: People and Innovation in Optics and Optoelectronics (SPIE Press Monograph Vol. PM04), by Frederick Su; SPIE Publications (July 1, 1990); ISBN 0-8194-0472-1, ISBN 978-0-8194-0472-5. Page 82–86, Terabit Technology, by Charles K. Kao.
^"1, A Global Footprint"(PDF). Building the Global Fiber Optics Superhighway (Free Abstract). Springer USA. May 8, 2007. ISBN 978-0-306-46505-5. Retrieved November 3, 2009. ISBN 978-0-306-46979-4 (Online)
^高錕. 傑出華人系列 (documentary and oral history) (in Cantonese, Chinese, and English). Radio Television Hong Kong. 2000. Event occurs at around 38:00. Retrieved September 27, 2018. 我對每一個國家，每一個種族感情都差不多。。。。。。我是以人為主，不是以國家或種族為主。。。。。。我變成了世界中間的一部份，不是任何國家的一部份。
A Choice Fulfilled: the Business of High Technology; by Charles K. Kao. The Chinese University Press/ Palgrave Macmillan; 1991, 203 pages. ISBN 962-201-521-2 ISBN 978-962-201-521-0
Tackling the Millennium Bug Together: Public Conferences; by Charles K. Kao. Central Policy Unit, Hong Kong; 48 pages, 1998.
Technology Road Maps for Hong Kong: a Preliminary Study; by Charles K. Kao. Office of Industrial and Business Development, The Chinese University of Hong Kong; 126 pages, 1990.
Nonlinear Photonics: Nonlinearities in Optics, Optoelectronics and Fiber Communications; by Yili Guo, Kin S. Chiang, E. Herbert Li, and Charles K. Kao. The Chinese University Press, Hong Kong; 2002, 600 pages.
Kao, Charles (1982). Optical Fibre Systems: Technology, Design and Application. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Inc., US. ISBN 978-0070332775.
Hecht, Jeff (1999). City of Light, The Story of Fiber Optics. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-510818-7.
Kao, K. C.; Hockham, G. A. (1966). "Dielectric-fibre surface waveguides for optical frequencies". Proc. IEE. 113 (7): 1151–1158. doi:10.1049/piee.1966.0189.
高錕. 傑出華人系列 (documentary and oral history) (in Cantonese, Chinese, and English). Radio Television Hong Kong. 2000. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
"Oral-History:Charles Kao". Engineering and Technology History Wiki (oral history transcript). Interview Conducted by Robert Colburn. September 26, 2018 [interview conducted in 2004]. Retrieved September 27, 2018.CS1 maint: others (link)
Kao, Charles K. (2010). A Time and A Tide: Charles K. Kao ─ A Memoir (autobiography). Chinese University Press. ISBN 9789629969721.
Kao, Charles K. (2013) [the translation first published in 2005]. 潮平岸闊——高錕自傳 [A Time And A Tide: Charles K. Kao ─ A Memoir] (autobiography) (in Chinese). Translated by 許迪鏘 (First ed.). Joint Publishing (Hong Kong). ISBN 978-962-04-3444-0.
Asian of the Century is a centurial issue of the 20th century held by American AsianWeek magazine and CNN in 1999 that features and profiles Asian persons who have topped their respective fields. Mahatma Gandhi was declared as the "Asian of the Century".
BMAT STEM Academy (formerly known as Sir Charles Kao UTC) is a University Technical College located on the Harlow College campus in Harlow, Essex, England, which opened in September 2014. It was named after the Nobel Prize winning scientist Charles K. Kao who worked and studied at Standard Telecommunication Laboratories in Harlow.
An Ofsted report in April 2017 gave the school a "Requires improvement" grade in all categories; at that time the school had 140 students although its capacity was 500.From April 2018, the school was re-launched as a member of the Burnt Mill Academy Trust, which runs schools in Essex including Burnt Mill Academy and Epping St John's. It was renamed to the BMAT STEM Academy.
The U.S. National Academy of Engineering annually awards the Draper Prize, which is given for the advancement of engineering and the education of the public about engineering. It is one of three prizes that constitute the "Nobel Prizes of Engineering" — the others are the Academy's Russ and Gordon Prizes. The winner of each of these prizes receives $500,000. The Draper prize is named for Charles Stark Draper, the "father of inertial navigation", an MIT professor and founder of Draper Laboratory.
A communications receiver is a type of radio receiver used as a component of a radio communication link. This is in contrast to a broadcast receiver which is used to receive radio broadcasts. A communication receiver receives parts of the radio spectrum not used for broadcasting, that includes amateur, military, aircraft, marine, and other bands. They are often used with a radio transmitter as part of a two way radio link for shortwave radio or amateur radio communication, although they are also used for shortwave listening.
Gao (Chinese: 高) is an East Asian surname of Chinese origin that can be literally translated as "high" or "tall". There are approximately 16 million living people with this surname. Some places, such as Taiwan, usually romanise this family name into Kao. In Hong Kong, it is romanized to Ko. In Macau, it is romanized to Kou.
Hong Kong Affairs Advisers (Chinese: 港事顧問) were appointed by the Chinese government after the last Governor of Hong Kong, Chris Patten carried out his electoral reform in the British Hong Kong, in the eve of the handover of the sovereignty of the city-state from the British Empire to the People's Republic of China in 1997.
The Hong Kong Science Park (HKSTP) is a science park in Pak Shek Kok, New Territories, Hong Kong. It sits on the Tolo Harbour waterfront, near the Chinese University of Hong Kong.
It provides a campus-like environment of 330,000 square metres marketed for high-technology enterprises. It is designed to accommodate companies of all sizes and stages of development and to promote interaction and innovation at both local and global level.
The park is administered by the Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation, a statutory body established in 2001.
The IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal is an award honoring "exceptional contributions to the advancement of communications sciences and engineering" in the field of telecommunications. The medal is one of the highest honor awarded by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers for achievements in telecommunication sciences and engineering.
It was instituted in 1976 by the directors of the world's largest professional society, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), commemorating the centennial of the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell. The award is presented either to an individual, or to a team of two or three persons.The institute's reasoning for the award was described thus:
The invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876 was a major event in electrotechnology. It was instrumental in stimulating the broad telecommunications industry that has dramatically improved life throughout the world. As an individual, Bell himself exemplified the contributions that scientists and engineers have made to the betterment of mankind.
Recipients of the award receive a gold medal, bronze replica, certificate, and an honorarium.
The initially called Morris Liebmann Memorial Prize provided by the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE), the IEEE Morris N. Liebmann Memorial Award was created in 1919 in honor of Colonel Morris N. Liebmann. It was initially given to awardees who had "made public during the recent past an important contribution to radio communications". The award continued to be awarded as the IEEE Morris N. Liebmann Memorial Award by the Board of Directors of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) after the IRE organization merged into the IEEE in 1963. The scope was changed to "for important contributions to emerging technologies recognized within recent years". After 2000, the award was superseded by the IEEE Daniel E. Noble Award.
The James C. McGroddy Prize for New Materials is a prize that has been awarded annually by the American Physical Society since 1975, but was only given that name following its endowment by IBM in 1999. Prior to that it was known as the International Prize for New Materials. The recipients are chosen for "Outstanding achievement in the science and application of new materials". The prize is named after James C. McGroddy, himself a winner of APS's George E. Pake Prize in 1995, and comes with a cash award of $10,000.
University College London (UCL) is one of the two founding colleges of the University of London. There have been 33 Nobel Prize laureates amongst UCL’s alumni and current and former staff. UCL has the most Nobel affiliations among colleges and schools of the University of London, which has produced as many as 72 Nobelists till 2010.
This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates by country. Listings for Economics refer to the related Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. The Nobel Prizes and the Prize in Economic Sciences have been awarded 567 times to 889 recipients, of which 25 awards (all Peace Prizes) were to organizations. Due to some recipients receiving multiple awards, the total number of recipients is 860 individuals and 22 organizations.The present list ranks laureates under the country/countries that are stated by the Nobel Prize committee on its website. The list does not distinguish between laureates who received a full prize and the majority who shared a prize. Some laureates are listed under more than one country, because the official website mentions multiple countries in relation to the laureate. If a country is merely mentioned as the place of birth, an asterisk (*) is used in the respective listing to indicate this. In this case, the birth country is mentioned in italics at the other listings of this laureate.
Organizations are listed here if the Nobel Prize committee relates them to a single country.
The Marconi Prize is an annual award recognizing achievements and advancements made in field of communications (radio, mobile, wireless, telecommunications, data communications, networks, and Internet). The prize is awarded by the Marconi Foundation. and it includes a $100,000 honorarium and a work of sculpture.
SPIE Gold Medal, or Gold Medal Award of SPIE, is the highest honor of SPIE (the international society for optics and photonics), and is considered as one of the highest award in the fields of photonic and optical engineering and related instrumental sciences. The Gold Medal started awarding annually since 1977, and the award includes a medal and $10,000 cash award.
In fiber-optic communication, a single-mode optical fiber (SMF) is an optical fiber designed to carry light only directly down the fiber - the transverse mode. Modes are the possible solutions of the Helmholtz equation for waves, which is obtained by combining Maxwell's equations and the boundary conditions. These modes define the way the wave travels through space, i.e. how the wave is distributed in space. Waves can have the same mode but have different frequencies. This is the case in single-mode fibers, where we can have waves with different frequencies, but of the same mode, which means that they are distributed in space in the same way, and that gives us a single ray of light. Although the ray travels parallel to the length of the fiber, it is often called transverse mode since its electromagnetic oscillations occur perpendicular (transverse) to the length of the fiber. The 2009 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Charles K. Kao for his theoretical work on the single-mode optical fiber.
Standard Telecommunication Laboratories was the UK research centre for Standard Telephones and Cables (STC).
Initially based in Enfield, North London, and moved to Harlow Essex in 1959. At this time STC was part of ITT.
It is now recognised as the birthplace of optical fibre communications, for it is here that Sir Charles K. Kao, George Hockham and others pioneered the use of single-mode optical fibre made from low loss glass. In 2009 Charles Kao was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physics, for pioneering optical fibre communication.
Another famous name associated with STL is Alec Reeves, previously famous for inventing pulse-code modulation while working at the Paris labs of the parent company ITT in 1938, and for his invention of the wartime bomber navigation system OBOE. Alec headed a team working on various means of optical communication, prior to the emergence of glass optical fibre as the leading contender.
In 1991, the laboratories became a part of Bell Northern Research (BNR), following the acquisition of STC by Northern Telecom, which later became Nortel.
Nortel subsequently encountered financial difficulties, and was broken up and sold off. The last remnants of the laboratories at the Harlow, Essex site, have now disappeared.
The UCL Faculty of Mathematical and Physical Sciences is one of the 11 constituent faculties of University College London (UCL). The Faculty, the UCL Faculty of Engineering Sciences and the UCL Faculty of the Built Envirornment (The Bartlett) together form the UCL School of the Built Environment, Engineering and Mathematical and Physical Sciences.
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