Charles II of Spain

Charles II (Spanish: Carlos; 6 November 1661 – 1 November 1700), also known as El Hechizado or the Bewitched, was the last Habsburg ruler of the Spanish Empire. He is now best remembered for his physical disabilities, believed to be the result of inbreeding, and the war for his throne that followed his death.

He died childless in 1700 with no immediate Habsburg heir. His will named his successor as 16-year-old Philip of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV and Charles's half-sister Maria Theresa.[1] Disputes over Philip's inheritance led to the War of the Spanish Succession.

Charles II
Juan de Miranda Carreno 002
Portrait by Juan Carreño de Miranda, c. 1685, shows Charles's Habsburg jaw
King of Spain
(more)
Reign17 September 1665 – 1 November 1700
PredecessorPhilip IV
SuccessorPhilip V
RegentMariana of Austria (1665–1675)
Born6 November 1661
Royal Alcazar of Madrid, Spain
Died1 November 1700 (aged 38)
Royal Alcazar of Madrid, Spain
Burial
Consorts
HouseHabsburg
FatherPhilip IV of Spain
MotherMariana of Austria
ReligionRoman Catholicism
Signature
Charles II's signature

Early life

Las Meninas, by Diego Velázquez, from Prado in Google Earth
Diego Velázquez' 1656 painting Las Meninas showing the Spanish royal court of the time

Charles was born in Madrid to Philip IV of Spain and his second wife, Mariana of Austria. The only surviving son of his father's two marriages, he was given the title Prince of Asturias, traditionally held by the heir to the Spanish throne.

Philip and Mariana were uncle and niece, making Charles their son, great-nephew and first-cousin respectively; all eight of his great-grandparents were descendants of Joanna and Philip I of Castile. The impact of this inbreeding is not fully understood, while his elder sister Margaret Theresa did not appear to have the same issues.[2]

Charles has been the subject of various studies on the impact of inbreeding, which have suggested he may have had the endocrine disease acromegaly and a combination of rare genetic disorders often transmitted through recessive genes, including combined pituitary hormone deficiency and distal renal tubular acidosis.[3]

However, the authors of the most significant study state that "evidence supporting inbreeding as an important factor in the extinction of the Spanish Habsburg lineage [is] not conclusive. It has not been demonstrated disabilities suffered by Charles II were caused by detrimental recessive alleles inherited from common ancestors."[4]

Regardless of their cause, Charles suffered ill-health throughout his life and has been described as "short, lame, epileptic, senile and completely bald before 35, always on the verge of death but repeatedly baffling Christendom by continuing to live."[5] In his case, the so-called Habsburg lip was so pronounced he spoke and ate only with difficulty, did not learn to talk until the age of four or walk until eight. However, foreign observers such as the Marquess of Torcy noted his mental capacities remained intact.[6]

Background; the decline of Spanish power

When Charles became King in 1665, the Spanish Empire or 'Monarchy' remained an enormous global confederation in terms of territory, but decades of war drained resources and ended Spain's supremacy in Europe. The 1568-1648 Eighty Years' War with the Dutch, the 1635-59 Franco-Spanish War and other conflicts devastated finances, while Spain was forced to accept an independent Dutch Republic in 1648.

The Kingdom of Spain comprised the two Crowns of Castile and Aragon, each with very different political cultures and traditions.[a] This made it hard to enact reforms or collect taxes and government finances were in perpetual crisis. Spain declared bankruptcy nine times between 1557 and 1666, including 1647, 1652, 1661 and 1666.[7]

However, the 17th century was a period of crisis for many European states and Spain was not alone in facing these problems.[8] Feuds between those who ruled in Charles' name did little to help but it is debatable how far they or he can be held responsible for long-term trends predating his reign; the Monarchy proved remarkably resilient and when Charles died was largely intact.[9]

Reign

Retrato de la reina Mariana de Austria, by Diego Velázquez
Mariana of Austria by Diego Velázquez, c. 1656; she acted as Regent for much of Charles' reign

Charles was three years old when his father, Philip IV, died on 17 September 1665; as he was a legal minor, his mother Mariana was appointed Queen Regent by the Council of Castile. While Charles theoretically ruled in his own name after her death in 1696, in reality his frequent ill-health meant power was often exercised by others. This resulted in bitter internal struggles for control of government, the long feud between his mother and illegitimate half-brother John of Austria the Younger being especially damaging.

Charles' father Philip had established the system of employing personal favourites or "validos" when he appointed the Count-Duke of Olivares in 1621. Mariana simply followed this precedent, the difference being that as they had been put in office by a woman, they were more visible. The first was her personal confessor, Juan Everardo Nithard who was appointed Grand Inquisitor in 1666, placing him on the Regency Council.[b]

Juan Jose de Austria
John of Austria; his struggle with Mariana over control of government severely weakened Spain

On Charles' accession, his administration had to end the long-running Portuguese Restoration War and settle the War of Devolution with France. The Spanish Crown declared bankruptcy in 1662 and 1666 and reducing Spain's military commitments was a matter of extreme urgency. In 1668, the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ended the war with France and the Treaty of Lisbon accepted the restoration of the Crown of Portugal and loss of the Portuguese Empire.[10] These were simply an acceptance of reality while Aix-La-Chapelle was in many ways a diplomatic triumph, since France was forced to return most of its territorial gains. However, John exploited discontent within the ruling class to instigate a revolt in Aragon and Catalonia, compelling Mariana to dismiss Nithard in February 1669.

Nithard was replaced by Fernando de Valenzuela; when Charles turned 14 in 1675, he was legally able to rule on his own. This would have resulted in the end of the Regency while John used the opportunity to dismiss the valido. Mariana succeeded in having the Regency continued on the basis of Charles's disabilities and Valenzuela returned to court in 1677.

Marie Louise d'Orléans by Mignard wearing the Fleur-de-lis (showing her dignity as a Grand daughter of France) and the Spanish crown
Marie Louise, Charles' French first Queen.

The outbreak of the Franco-Dutch War in 1672 dragged Spain into another war with France over the Spanish Netherlands, the cost of which placed almost intolerable strain on the economy. In January 1678, John finally took charge of government, expelled Mariana and exiled Valenzuela. Ironically, given his earlier opposition to the concessions made in 1668, his first act was to end the war; under the terms of the Treaties of Nijmegen, Spain ceded many of the territories in Franche-Comté and the Spanish Netherlands returned by France at Aix-la-Chapelle.

Marie-Anne de Neubourg, reine d'Espagne
Maria-Anna, Charles' pro-Austrian second wife

Having spent so many years achieving power, John's administration failed to live up to expectations, one of its few achievements being stabilising the currency. He faced an almost impossible situation and had insufficient time to have a real impact before his government ended with his death in September 1679. Mariana returned as Queen Regent but her influence was diminished by Charles' marriage in November 1679 to the 17-year-old Marie Louise of Orléans to whom he was devoted.

The 1683-84 War of the Reunions was a brief but devastating conflict with France over the Spanish Netherlands, followed in 1688 by the outbreak of the Nine Years' War. Shortly afterwards in February 1689, Marie Louise died; despite allegations she was poisoned, based on the description of her symptoms, modern doctors believe her illness was almost certainly appendicitis.[c] In August, Charles married Maria Anna of Neuburg by proxy, the formal wedding taking place in May 1690; after his mother died on 16 May 1696, he ruled in his own name although Maria Anna played a significant role due to his ill-health and her control over access to Charles.[11]

It was clear Charles' health was finally failing and agreeing upon his successor became increasingly urgent. The Nine Years' War showed France could not achieve its objectives on its own; the 1697 Treaty of Ryswick was the result of mutual exhaustion and Louis' search for allies in anticipation of a contest over the Spanish throne. The Habsburg Emperor Leopold initially refused to sign the Treaty since it left this issue unresolved; he reluctantly did so in October 1697 but all sides viewed it as simply a pause in hostilities.[12]

The Succession

Attempts at offspring

One of John's last acts was to arrange Charles' marriage in 1679 to Marie Louise of Orléans, eldest daughter of Philippe I, Duke of Orléans. The French ambassador wrote that '...the Catholic King is so ugly as to cause fear and he looks ill' while the marriage was strongly resisted by the prospective bride but went ahead regardless.

When Mariana returned as Regent, she did her utmost to isolate Marie Louise, who was French, rather than Austrian, and the choice of her bitter rival. Marie Louise claimed Charles suffered from premature ejaculation; the lack of an heir made her unpopular, fertility treatments gave her severe intestinal problems and she became depressed.[13] The pressure to produce an heir is illustrated by the story that when an astrologer suggested Charles' sterility was due to his failure to say goodbye to his father, Mariana had Philip IV's body disinterred to allow him to do so.

Europe c. 1700
Europe in 1700

Charles was distraught when Marie Louise died in February 1689 but his declining health meant in August he married Maria Anna of Neuburg, daughter of Philip William, Elector Palatine and sister-in-law to the Emperor Leopold. As one of 12 children, she was selected for her family background of fertility but also to strengthen the pro-Austrian faction in the Spanish court; when Mariana herself died in 1696, she assumed leadership of this element.[14] The marriage was no more successful in producing an heir; after his death, Charles' autopsy revealed he had only one atrophied testicle and he was almost certainly impotent by this stage.[15]

Recognition of the Duke of Anjou as King of Spain
Philip of Anjou is proclaimed Philip V of Spain, 16 November 1700

Succession dispute

JosephFerdinand
Joseph Ferdinand of Bavaria.

As the Crown of Spain passed according to cognatic primogeniture, it was possible for a woman, or the descendant of a woman, to inherit the crown. This enabled Charles' sisters Maria Theresa (1638-83) and Margaret Theresa (1651-1673) to pass their rights to the children of their marriages with Louis XIV and Emperor Leopold.[d]

In 1685, Leopold and Margaret's daughter Maria Antonia married Max Emanuel of Bavaria; she died in 1692, leaving one surviving son, Joseph Ferdinand. In October 1698, France, Britain and the Dutch Republic attempted to impose a diplomatic solution to the Succession on Spain and Austria, by the Treaty of the Hague or First Partition Treaty. This made Joseph Ferdinand heir to the bulk of the Spanish Monarchy, with France gaining the Kingdoms of Naples and Sicily and other concessions in Italy plus the modern Basque province of Gipuzkoa. Leopold's younger son Archduke Charles became ruler of the Duchy of Milan, a possession considered vital to the security of Austria's southern border.[16]

Unsurprisingly, the Spanish objected to their Empire being divided by foreign powers without consultation, and on 14 November 1698, Charles II published his will. This made six year old Joseph Ferdinand heir to an independent and undivided Spanish Monarchy, with Maria Anna as Queen Regent during his minority, an announcement allegedly received by the Spanish councillors in silence.[17]

Joseph Ferdinand died of smallpox in 1699, leaving Louis XIV's eldest son, the Grand Dauphin, as the senior surviving legitimate descendant of Philip IV; since this would lead to the union of Spain and France, an alternative was needed. In March 1700, France, Britain and the Dutch agreed to the Second Partition Treaty or Treaty of London; Archduke Charles replaced Joseph Ferdinand as heir, with Spanish possessions in Europe split between France, Savoy and Austria.[18] Charles altered his will in favour of Archduke Charles, once again stipulating an undivided and independent Spanish Monarchy.

However, much of the nobility, including Charles, disliked the Austrians and saw genuine advantages for Spain in a Bourbon candidate. In September 1700, Charles became ill again; by 28 September he was no longer able to eat and Portocarrero persuaded him to alter his will in favour of Louis XIV's grandson, Philip of Anjou.[19] When Charles died on 1 November 1700, the throne was offered to Philip, who was proclaimed King of Spain on 16 November 1700. This was accepted by Britain and the Dutch Republic among others but disputes over division of territories and commercial rights led to the War of the Spanish Succession in 1701.[20]

Death

Carlos II 8 escudos 20787
Spanish gold coin minted in 1700, the last year of the reign of Charles II

Toward the end of his life, Charles's fragile health deteriorated; he officially retired when he had a nervous breakdown caused by the stress of Spain's economic issues and conflict over his successor.

He died in Madrid five days before his 39th birthday on 1 November 1700, the 39th death anniversary of his elder brother Philip. The physician who performed his autopsy stated his body "did not contain a single drop of blood; his heart was the size of a peppercorn; his lungs corroded; his intestines rotten and gangrenous; he had a single testicle, black as coal, and his head was full of water."[21]

His life was memorably summarised by John Langdon-Davies as follows: "We are dealing with a man who died of poison two hundred years before he was born. If birth is a beginning, of no man was it more true to say that in his beginning was his end. From the day of his birth they were waiting for his death."[22]

Legacy

Detail of Auto de fe 1680
Marie Louise, Charles and his mother attend the auto de fe of 30 June 1680, by Francisco Rizi

In his role as monarch, Charles presided over the largest ever public auto-da-fés in 1680 and 1691, the latter resulting in the death of more than 37 victims. It has been suggested his disgust at this led to the process that ultimately broke the power of the Inquisition over Spanish society and that this forms part of his legacy.

When he came to the throne, the Inquisition remained a significant force but its influence had declined and the auto-da-fé were an attempt to publicly assert its power, rather than increased religiosity. While Charles certainly played a role, its downfall was largely the result of the political struggle over his heir. In 1700, the Inquisitor General, Balthasar de Mendoza, Bishop of Segovia, arrested Charles' personal confessor Froilán Díaz on a charge of 'bewitching' the King.[e] When he was found not guilty, Mendoza attempted to arrest those who voted for his acquittal, resulting in the establishment of a Council to investigate the Inquisition; it survived as an institution until 1834 but with little power.[23]

More tangible memorials include Charleroi in modern Belgium and the Caroline Islands, which were named after him in 1666 and 1686 respectively.

Depiction

Television

King Charles II as played by Michael Boisvert, is a minor character of the short-lived historical fantasy series Young Blades from January to June 2005.

Notes

  1. ^ The Crown of Aragon was divided into the Kingdoms of Aragon, Valencia, Majorca, Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, Principality of Catalonia and Marquisate of Malta.
  2. ^ Modern assessments of Mariana tend to reflect contemporary views that a woman without a husband was almost unnatural and 'favourite' often gets interpreted as lover. John did no better when he finally achieved power in 1678.
  3. ^ In an era when many illnesses were poorly understood, poison was often suggested as the cause.
  4. ^ Ironically, Habsburg attempts to apply this principle to Austria would lead to the War of the Austrian Succession in 1740.
  5. ^ Mendoza was an ally of the pro-Austrian Queen Maria Anna while Díaz was considered pro-French and given Charles' declining health had considerable influence over him.

References

  1. ^ Kamen, Henry (2001). Philip V of Spain: The King who Reigned Twice. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08718-7.
  2. ^ Callaway, Ewen. "Inbred Royals show traces of natural selection". Nature.com. Nature; International Weekly Journal of Science. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
  3. ^ Callaway, Ewen (19 April 2013). "Inbred Royals Show Traces of Natural Selection". Nature News. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
  4. ^ Gonzalo, Alvarez, Ceballos, Francisco; Quintero Celsa (2009). "The Role of Inbreeding in the Extinction of a European Royal Dynasty". PLOS. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005174. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  5. ^ Durant, Ariel, Durant, Will (1963). Age of Louis XIV (Story of Civilization). TBS Publishing. ISBN 0207942277.
  6. ^ Onnekink, David (ed) Mijers, Esther (ed), Rule, John (2017). The Partition Treaties, 1698-1700; A European View in Redefining William III: The Impact of the King-Stadholder in International Context. Routledge. pp. 91–108. ISBN 1138257966.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  7. ^ Jon Cowans (2003). Modern Spain: A Documentary History. U. of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 26–27. ISBN 0-8122-1846-9.
  8. ^ de Vries, Jan (2009). "The Economic Crisis of the 17th Century" (PDF). Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 40 (2): 151–194. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  9. ^ Storrs, Christopher (2006). The Resilience of the Spanish Monarchy 1665-1700. OUP Oxford. pp. 6–7. ISBN 0199246378.
  10. ^ Barton, Simon (2009). A History of Spain. ISBN 978-0230200111.
  11. ^ Onnekink, David (ed) Mijers, Esther (ed), Rule, John (2017). The Partition Treaties, 1698-1700; A European View in Redefining William III: The Impact of the King-Stadholder in International Context. Routledge. pp. 91–108. ISBN 1138257966.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  12. ^ Meerts, Paul Willem (2014). Diplomatic negotiation: Essence and Evolution. http://hdl.handle.net/1887/29596: Leiden University dissertation. p. 168.
  13. ^ García-Escudero López, Ángel, Arruza Echevarría A, Padilla Nieva and R. Puig Giró1, Padilla Nieva, Jaime, Puig Giró, Ramon (2009). "Charles II; from spell to genitourinary pathology". History of Urology. 62 (3): 181.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  14. ^ Rommelse, Gijs (2011). Ideology and Foreign Policy in Early Modern Europe (1650–1750). Routledge. p. 224. ISBN 1409419134.
  15. ^ García-Escudero López, Ángel, Arruza Echevarría A, Padilla Nieva and R. Puig Giró1, Padilla Nieva, Jaime, Puig Giró, Ramon (2009). "Charles II; from spell to genitourinary pathology". History of Urology. 62 (3): 182.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  16. ^ Ward, William,, Leathes, Stanley (1912). The Cambridge Modern History (2010 ed.). Nabu. p. 384. ISBN 1174382058.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  17. ^ Ward, William,, Leathes, Stanley (1912). The Cambridge Modern History (2010 ed.). Nabu. p. 385. ISBN 1174382058.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  18. ^ McKay, Derek, Scott, HM (1983). The Rise of the Great Powers 1648 - 1815 (The Modern European State System). Routledge. pp. 54–55. ISBN 0582485541.
  19. ^ Hargreaves- Mawdsley, HN (1979). Eighteenth-Century Spain 1700-1788: A Political, Diplomatic and Institutional History. Macmillan. pp. 15–16. ISBN 0333146123.
  20. ^ Falkner, James (2015). The War of the Spanish Succession 1701-1714 (Kindle ed.). 96: Pen and Sword. ISBN 9781473872905.
  21. ^ Gargarilla, Pedro. "Enfermedades de los reyes de España. Los Austrias : de la locura de Juana a la impotencia de Carlos II el Hechizado" La Esfera de los Libros S.L., 2005. ISBN 8497343387
  22. ^ Langdon-Davies, John (1963). Carlos; the King Who Would Not Die. Prentice Hall. ASIN B0006AYR3A. OCLC 1117405.
  23. ^ Kamen, Henry (1965). The Spanish Inquisition: A Historical Revision (2014 ed.). Yale University Press. p. 185. ISBN 0300180519.

Sources

  • Will Durant, The Reformation (1957)
  • Will and Ariel Durant, The Age of Louis XIV (1963)
  • Martin Andrew Sharp Hume, The Year After the Armada, and other historical studies (1896)
  • Henry Kamen, The Spanish Inquisition (1997)
  • John Langdon-Davies, Carlos, the Bewitched, the last Spanish Hapsburg, 1661-1700, London (1962)
  • Ludwig Pfandl, Karl II. Das Ende der spanischen Machtstellung in Europa, Munich (1940)

External links

Charles II of Spain
Born: November 6 1661 Died: November 1 1700
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Philip IV
King of Spain,
Sardinia, Naples and Sicily
Duke of Milan, Lothier,
Brabant, Limburg and Luxemburg
Count of Flanders, Hainaut and Namur

1665–1700
Succeeded by
Philip V
Count Palatine of Burgundy
1665–1678
Lost to France
Treaties of Nijmegen
Spanish royalty
Vacant
Title last held by
Philip Prospero
Prince of Asturias
1661–1665
Vacant
Title next held by
Louis Philip
1700 papal conclave

The papal conclave of 1700 was convened following the death of Pope Innocent XII. It ended in the election of Giovanni Albani as Pope Clement XI. The conclave saw a rise in the dominance of the zelanti faction College of Cardinals. It remained deadlocked for a month until the death of the childless Charles II of Spain. The cardinal electors anticipated that his death without a clear heir would cause a political crisis, and moved to elect a pope that was seen as non-partisan.

Antonio Caldara

Antonio Caldara (1670 – 28 December 1736) was an Italian Baroque composer.

Caldara was born in Venice (exact date unknown), the son of a violinist. He became a chorister at St Mark's in Venice, where he learned several instruments, probably under the instruction of Giovanni Legrenzi. In 1699 he relocated to Mantua, where he became maestro di cappella to the inept Charles IV, Duke of Mantua, a pensionary of France with a French wife, who took the French side in the War of the Spanish Succession. Caldara removed from Mantua in 1707, after the French were expelled from Italy, then moved on to Barcelona as chamber composer to Charles III, the pretender to the Spanish throne (following the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 without any direct heir) and who kept a royal court at Barcelona. There, he wrote some operas that are the first Italian operas performed in Spain. He moved on to Rome, becoming maestro di cappella to Francesco Maria Marescotti Ruspoli, 1st Prince of Cerveteri. While there he wrote in 1710 La costanza in amor vince l'inganno (Faithfulness in Love Defeats Treachery) for the public theatre at Macerata.

With the unexpected death of Emperor Joseph I from smallpox at the age of 32 in April 1711, Caldara deemed it prudent to renew his connections with Charles III – soon to become Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI – as he travelled from Spain to Vienna via northern Italy. Caldara visited Vienna in 1712, but found Marc'Antonio Ziani and Johann Joseph Fux firmly ensconced in the two highest musical posts. He stopped at the Salzburg court on his return journey to Rome, where he was well received (and to which he subsequently sent one new opera annually from 1716 to 1727). In 1716, following the death the previous year of Ziani and the promotion of Fux to Hofkapellmeister, Caldara was appointed Vize-Kapellmeister to the Imperial Court in Vienna, and there he remained until his death.

Caldara is best known as a composer of operas, cantatas and oratorios. Several of his works have libretti by Pietro Metastasio, the court poet at Vienna from 1729.

Apalachee language

Apalachee was a Muskogean language of Florida. It was closely related to Koasati and Alabama.The language is known primarily from one document, a letter written in 1688 to Charles II of Spain. Geoffrey Kimball has produced a grammatical sketch (Kimball 1987) and a vocabulary of the language (Kimball 1988) based on the contents of the letter.

Haas (1949) showed that Apalachee belonged to the same branch of the Muskogean family as Koasati, Alabama, and Hitchiti.

Charles II

Charles II may refer to:

Charles II of Alençon (1297–1346)

Charles II of England (1630–1685), Scotland and Ireland

Charles II of Naples (1254–1309)

Charles II of Navarre (1332–1387)

Charles II of Norway (1748–1818), also known as Charles XIII of Sweden

Charles II of Spain (1661–1700)

Charles II of Sweden (1409–1470), usually called Charles VIII

Charles II, Archduke of Inner Austria (1540–1590)

Charles II, Count of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1547–1606)

Charles II, Count of Nevers (died 1521)

Charles II, Duke of Bourbon (1434–1488)

Charles II, Duke of Brunswick (1804–1873)

Charles II, Duke of Elbeuf (1596–1657)

Charles II, Duke of Guelders (1467–1538)

Charles II, Duke of Lorraine (1364–1431)

Charles II, Duke of Mantua and Montferrat (1629–1665)

Charles II, Duke of Parma (1799–1883)

Charles II, Duke of Savoy (1489–1496)

Charles II, Elector Palatine (1651–1685)

Charles II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1741–1816)

Charles II, Landgrave of Hesse-Philippsthal (1803–1868)

Charles II, Lord of Monaco (1555–1589)

Charles II, Margrave of Baden-Durlach (1529–1577)

Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor (1685–1740), also known as Charles II of Bohemia

Charles Cabrier II

Charles Christian II (1818–1886)* Charles Ridgely II (1702–1772)

Charles de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu (1689–1755), French political philosopher of the Enlightenment era

Charles Scribner II (1854–1930)

Charles the Bald (823–877), king of the West Franks and Holy Roman Emperor

Charles Tyroler II (died 1995)

Landgrave Charles of Hesse-Kassel (1744–1836)

Charles V

Charles V may refer to:

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (1500–1558)

Charles V of Naples (1661–1700), better known as Charles II of Spain

Charles V of France (1338–1380), called the Wise

Charles V, Duke of Lorraine (1643–1690)

Infante Carlos of Spain, Count of Molina (1788–1855), first Carlist pretender to the throne of Spain (as Charles V)

Duke of Almodóvar del Río

Duke of Almódovar del Río (Ducado de Almodóvar del Río) is a hereditary ducal title in the Spanish nobility which holds a Grandeeship of Spain 2nd Class. It was conferred on 11 July 1780 on Pedro Jiménez de Góngora, 6th Marquis of Almodóvar del Río, by King Charles III of Spain, thus raising to a dukedom the Marquiste of Almodóvar del Río. This title had been granted to Francisco Jiménez de Góngora y Castillejo by King Charles II of Spain, the 13 May 1667. Historically, the title corresponds to dominion over the area around Almodóvar del Río.

Guerra Manuscript

The Guerra Manuscript is an important musical manuscript copied by the nobleman and scribe José Miguel de Guerra y Villegas for the capilla real of Charles II of Spain around 1680.

The manuscript, Ms 265 at the Royal University of Santiago de Compostela, was only fully analysed edited and published in 1998. It contains 100 tonos humanos for soprano and continuo. Many of the songs exist in other sources, such as excerpts from zarzuelas, and the composers can be identified. Composers include the senior theatre composer and master of the capilla real Juan Hidalgo, José Marín, Cristóbal Galán, Juan del Vado, Matías Ruiz, and the then young harpist Juan de Navas.

Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Marquess of Torcy

Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Marquess of Torcy (14 September 1665 – 2 September 1746), generally called Colbert de Torcy, was a French diplomat, who negotiated some of the most important treaties towards the end of Louis XIV's reign, notably the treaty (1700) that occasioned the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714), in which the dying Charles II of Spain named Louis XIV's grandson, Philippe, duc d'Anjou, heir to the Spanish throne, eventually founding the line of Spanish Bourbons.

Juan Francisco de la Cerda, 8th Duke of Medinaceli

Juan Francisco de la Cerda Enríquez de Ribera (Medinaceli, 4 November 1637 – Madrid, 20 February 1691), 8th Duke of Medinaceli, 7th Marquis de Cogolludo, 4th Marquis of Alcalá de la Alameda, 6th Duke of Alcalá de los Gazules, 9th Count of Los Molares, 9th Marquis of Tarifa, 8th Count of El Puerto de Santa María, was a Spanish noble and politician, and valido of King Charles II of Spain.

List of ambassadors of the United Kingdom to Spain

The Ambassador of the United Kingdom to Spain is the United Kingdom's foremost diplomatic representative in the Kingdom of Spain, and in charge of the UK's diplomatic mission in Spain. The official title is Her Britannic Majesty's Ambassador to the Kingdom of Spain.

The British ambassador to Spain is also non-resident ambassador to the Principality of Andorra.

In 1822, Foreign Secretary George Canning downgraded the Embassy to a Mission, and the Head of Mission from an Ambassador to an Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, to reflect Spain's decreased importance on the world stage. The Mission in Madrid was upgraded to a full Embassy once more on 9 December 1887.

List of monarchs of Sicily

The monarchs of Sicily ruled from the establishment of the County of Sicily in 1071 until the "perfect fusion" in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in 1816.

The origin of the Sicilian monarchy are in the Norman conquest of southern Italy occurred between the 11th and 12th century. Sicily, which was ruled as an Islamic emirate for at least two centuries, was invaded in 1071 by Norman House of Hauteville, who conquered Palermo and established a feudal county. The House of Hauteville completed their conquest of Sicily in 1091.

In 1130, the County of Sicily and the County of Apulia, both led by two distinct branches of the House of Hauteville, merged in the Kingdom of Sicily, and Count Roger II was crowned king by Antipope Anacletus II.

Over the centuries, Sicily passed in the hands of several foreign authorities: from 1194 to 1254 it was in personal union with the Holy Roman Empire; from 1282 to 1714 it came into a personal union of the Crown of Aragon; from 1713 to 1720 it was in a personal union of the Duchy of Savoy and finally, from 1720 to 1735, was one of the crowns of the Habsburg Monarchy.

In 1282, after the Sicilian Vespers, the kingdom split in two separated states: the properly named Ultra Sicily (Siciliae ultra Pharum, what means "Sicily over the Strait") and the Hither Sicily (Siciliae citra) or commonly named Kingdom of Naples. The two states stylized themselves always as "Kingdom of Sicily", until the partial unification 1516 when Charles II of Spain inherited both lands as "King of Naples and Sicily". The definitive unification there was in 1816, when Ferdinand IV and III unified the two entities in a single state, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

List of viceroys of Naples

This is a list of viceroys of the Kingdom of Naples. Following the conquest of Naples by Louis XII of France in 1501, Naples was subject to the rule of the foreign rulers, the Kings of France, Aragon and Spain and the Habsburg Archdukes of Austria respectively. Commonly staying far from Naples, these rulers governed the Kingdom through a series of viceroys.

Maria Antonia of Austria

Maria Antonia of Austria (Maria Antonia Josepha Benedicta Rosalia Petronella; 18 January 1669 – 24 December 1692) was an Electress of Bavaria by marriage to Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria. She was the eldest daughter and only surviving child of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I and his wife Margaret Theresa of Spain. She was the heir to the Spanish throne after her maternal uncle Charles II of Spain from 1673 until her death.

Marie Louise d’Orléans

Marie Louise of Orléans (26 March 1662 – 12 February 1689) was Queen consort of Spain from 1679 to 1689 as the first wife of King Charles II of Spain. She was a granddaughter of Louis XIII of France. In her adopted country, she was known as María Luisa de Orleans.

Peace of Utrecht

The Peace of Utrecht is a series of peace treaties signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht between April 1713 and February 1715.

Before Charles II of Spain died childless in 1700, he had named his grandnephew Philip of France as his successor. However, Philip was a French prince, grandson of Louis XIV of France and also in line for the French throne, and the other major powers in Europe were not willing to tolerate the potential union of two such powerful states. Essentially, the treaties allowed Philip to take the Spanish throne in return for permanently renouncing his claim to the French throne, along with other necessary guarantees that would ensure that France and Spain should not merge, thus preserving the balance of power in Europe.

The treaties between several European states, including Spain, Great Britain, France, Portugal, Savoy and the Dutch Republic, helped end the war. The treaties were concluded between the representatives of Louis XIV of France and of his grandson Philip on one hand, and representatives of Anne of Great Britain, Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia, John V of Portugal and the United Provinces of the Netherlands on the other. Though the king of France ensured the Spanish crown for his dynasty, the treaties marked the end of French ambitions of hegemony in Europe expressed in the continuous wars of Louis XIV, and paved the way to the European system based on the balance of power. British historian G. M. Trevelyan argues:

That Treaty, which ushered in the stable and characteristic period of Eighteenth-Century civilization, marked the end of danger to Europe from the old French monarchy, and it marked a change of no less significance to the world at large, — the maritime, commercial and financial supremacy of Great Britain.

Another enduring result was the creation of the Spanish Bourbon Dynasty, still reigning over Spain up to the present while the original House of Bourbon has long since been dethroned in France.

Philip V of Spain

Philip V (Spanish: Felipe V, French: Philippe, Italian: Filippo; 19 December 1683 – 9 July 1746) was King of Spain from 1 November 1700 to his abdication in favour of his son Louis on 14 January 1724, and from his reaccession of the throne upon his son's death on 6 September 1724 to his own death on 9 July 1746.

Before his reign, Philip occupied an exalted place in the royal family of France as a grandson of King Louis XIV. His father, Louis, Grand Dauphin, had the strongest genealogical claim to the throne of Spain when it became vacant in 1700. However, since neither the Grand Dauphin nor Philip's older brother, Louis, Duke of Burgundy, could be displaced from their place in the succession to the French throne, the Grand Dauphin's maternal uncle (Philip's granduncle) King Charles II of Spain named Philip as his heir in his will. It was well known that the union of France and Spain under one monarch would upset the balance of power in Europe, such that other European powers would take steps to prevent it. Indeed, Philip's accession in Spain provoked the 13-year War of the Spanish Succession, which continued until the Treaty of Utrecht forbade any future possibility of unifying the French and Spanish thrones.

Philip was the first member of the French House of Bourbon to rule as king of Spain. The sum of his two reigns, 45 years and 21 days, is the longest in modern Spanish history.

Princess Marie Louise

Princess Marie Louise may refer to:

Princess Marie Louise of Orléans (1662–1689), daughter of Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, queen consort of Charles II of Spain

Princess Marie Louise of Hesse-Kassel (1688–1765), daughter of Charles I, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, wife of John William Friso, Prince of Orange

Princess Marie Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans (1695–1719), daughter of Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, wife of Charles, Duke of Berry (1686–1714)

Princess Marie Louise of Savoy (1749–1792), daughter of Louis Victor, Prince of Carignano, wife of Louis Alexandre, Prince de Lamballe

Princess Maria Luisa of Parma, aka Marie Louise of Bourbon-Parma, (1751–1819), daughter of Philip, Duke of Parma, queen consort of Charles IV of Spain

Princess Marie Luise Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel (1814–1895), daughter of Prince William of Hesse-Kassel, wife of Prince Frederick Augustus of Anhalt-Dessau

Princess Marie Louise of Bourbon-Parma (1870–1899), daughter of Robert I, Duke of Parma, princess consort of Ferdinand I of Bulgaria

Princess Marie Louise of Schleswig-Holstein (1872–1956), daughter of Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein and Princess Helena of the United Kingdom, wife of Prince Aribert of Anhalt

Princess Marie Louise of Hanover and Cumberland (1879–1948), daughter of Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, wife of Prince Maximilian of Baden

Princess Marie Louise of Orléans (1896–1973), daughter of Prince Emmanuel of Orléans, Duke of Vendôme, wife of Prince Philip of Bourbon-Two Sicilies

Princess Marie Louise of Bulgaria (born 1933), daughter of Boris III of Bulgaria, wife of Prince Karl of Leiningen

Puno

Puno is a city in southeastern Peru, located on the shore of Lake Titicaca. It is the capital city of the Puno Region and the Puno Province with a population of approximately 140,839 (2015 estimate). The city was established in 1668 by viceroy Pedro Antonio Fernández de Castro as capital of the province of Paucarcolla with the name San Juan Bautista de Puno. The name was later changed to San Carlos de Puno, in honor of king Charles II of Spain. Puno has several churches dating back from the colonial period; they were built to service the Spanish population and evangelize the natives.

The Reconciliation of Esau and Jacob

The Reconciliation of Esau and Jacob is a 1624 painting by Peter Paul Rubens. Originally in the Spanish royal collection, it was sent to Germany by Maria Anna of Neuburg (wife of Charles II of Spain) to her brother Johann Wilhelm. It is now in the Staatsgalerie Schleissheim near Munich.

It shows the biblical story of meeting between Jacob and Esau. It was the model for a painting by Abraham Willemsen.This painting was featured in Willem van Haecht's Gallery of Cornelis van der Geest with Joseph and Potiphar's wife, 1630s.

Potential heirs to Charles II of Spain
Philip III
of Spain

1578–1621
Margaret
of Austria

1584–1611
Maria Anna
of Spain

1606–1646
Anne
of Austria

1601–1666
Elisabeth
of France

1602–1644
Philip IV
of Spain

1605–1665
Mariana
of Austria

1635–1696
Louis XIV
of France

1638–1715
Maria Theresa
of Spain

1638–1683
Charles IIof Spain
1661–1700
Margaret Theresa
of Spain

1651–1673
Leopold I
Holy Roman Emperor

1640–1705
Eleonor Magdalene
of Neuburg

1655–1720
Louis
Grand Dauphin

1661–1711
Maria Antonia
of Austria

1669–1692
Charles VI
Holy Roman Emperor

1685–1740
Louis
Dauphin of France

1682–1712
Philip V
of Spain

1683–1746
Charles
Duke of Berry

1686–1714
Joseph Ferdinand
of Bavaria

1692–1699
  • Potential heirs are shown with a golden border. In cases of second marriages, the first spouse is to the left and the second to the right.
  • References
  • Durant, D.; Durant, A. (2011). The Age of Louis XIV: The Story of Civilization. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 9781451647655.
  • Kamen, H. (2001). Philip V of Spain: The King Who Reigned Twice. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300180541.
Heraldry of Charles II of Spain
Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1580-1668)
Coat of Arms of Charles II of Spain (1668-1700)
Coat of Arms of Charles II of Spain as Monarch of Naples and Sicily
Coat of Arms of the King of Spain as Monarch of Milan (1580-1700)
Coat of arms as King of Spain
(1665–1668)
Coat of arms as King of Spain
(1668–1700)
Coat of arms as King of Naples & Sicily
(1665–1700)
Coat of arms as Duke of Milan
(1665–1700)
Lesser Coat of Arms of Charles V of Naples and III of Sicily
Full Ornamented Coat of Arms of Philip III and Charles V of Naples (1650-1700)
Coat of Arms of Charles II of Spain (Navarre)
Lesser coat of arms as King of Naples
(1665–1668)
Coat of arms as King of Naples & Sicily
(1665–1700)
Coat of arms as King of Navarre
(1665–1700)
Ancestors of Charles II of Spain
Philip I
of Castile
[i][ii][iii]
1478–1506
Joanna
of Castile
[i][ii][iii]
1479–1555
Isabella
of Portugal
[iv][v]
1503–39
Charles V
Holy Roman Emperor
[iv][v]
1500–58
Ferdinand I
Holy Roman Emperor
[vi][vii][viii]
1503–64
Anna
of Bohemia
and Hungary
[vi][vii][viii]
1503–47
Isabella
of Austria
[ix]
1501–26
Christian II
of Denmark
[ix]
1481–1559
Maria
of Spain
[x]
1528–1603
Maximilian II
Holy Roman Emperor
[x]
1527–76
Anna
of Austria
[xi][xii]
1528–90
Albert V
Duke of Bavaria
[xi][xii]
1528–1579
Christina
of Denmark
[ix]
1522–90
Francis I
Duke of Lorraine
[ix]
1517–45
Philip II
of Spain
[xiii]
1527–98
Anna
of Austria
[xiii]
1549–80
Charles II
Archduke of Austria
[xiv][xv]
1540–90
Maria Anna
of Bavaria
[xiv][xv]
1551–1608
William V
Duke of Bavaria
[xvi]
1548–1626
Renata
of Lorraine
[xvi]
1544–1602
Philip III
of Spain
[xvii][xviii]
1578–1621
Margaret
of Austria
[xvii][xviii]
1584–1611
Ferdinand II
Holy Roman Emperor
[xix]
1578–1637
Maria Anna
of Bavaria
[xix]
1574–1616
Maria Anna
of Spain
[xix]
1606–46
Ferdinand III
Holy Roman Emperor
[xix]
1608–57
Philip IV
of Spain
[xx]
1605–65
Mariana
of Austria
[xx]
1634–96
Charles IIof Spain
1661–1700
Notes:
  1. ^ a b Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor at the Encyclopædia Britannica
  2. ^ a b Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Joanna" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  3. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1860). "Habsburg, Elisabeth (eigentlich Isabella von Oesterreich)" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 6. p. 167 – via Wikisource.
  4. ^ a b Wikisource-logo.svg Kurth, Godefroid (1911). "Philip II" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. 12. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  5. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Maria von Spanien" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 7. p. 19 – via Wikisource.
  6. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1860). "Habsburg, Karl II. von Steiermark" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 6. p. 352 – via Wikisource.
  7. ^ a b Press, Volker (1990), "Maximilian II.", Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB) (in German), 16, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 471–475; (full text online)
  8. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1860). "Habsburg, Anna von Oesterreich (1528–1587)" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 6. p. 151 – via Wikisource.
  9. ^ a b c d Cartwright, Julia Mary (1913). Christina of Denmark, Duchess of Milan and Lorraine, 1522-1590. New York: E. P. Dutton. pp. 536–539.
  10. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1860). "Habsburg, Anna von Oesterreich (Königin von Spanien)" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 6. p. 151 – via Wikisource.
  11. ^ a b Sigmund Ritter von Riezler (1897), "Wilhelm V. (Herzog von Bayern)", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB) (in German), 42, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 717–723
  12. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Maria von Bayern" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 7. p. 20 – via Wikisource.
  13. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Philipp III." . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 7. p. 120 – via Wikisource.
  14. ^ a b Eder, Karl (1961), "Ferdinand II.", Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB) (in German), 5, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 83–85; (full text online)
  15. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Margaretha (Königin von Spanien)" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 7. p. 13 – via Wikisource.
  16. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Maria Anna von Bayern" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 7. p. 23 – via Wikisource.
  17. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Maria Anna von Spanien" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 7. p. 23 – via Wikisource.
  18. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Philipp IV." . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 7. p. 122 – via Wikisource.
  19. ^ a b c d Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Maria Anna (Königin von Spanien)" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 7. p. 24 – via Wikisource.
  20. ^ a b Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Charles II. (King of Spain)" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 5 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
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