Charles Cotesworth Pinckney (February 25, 1746 – August 16, 1825) was an early American statesman of South Carolina, Revolutionary War veteran, and delegate to the Constitutional Convention. He was twice nominated by the Federalist Party as its presidential candidate in 1804 and 1808, losing both elections.
Pinckney was born into a powerful family of aristocratic planters. He practiced law for several years and was elected to the colonial legislature. A supporter of independence from Great Britain, Pinckney served in the American Revolutionary War, rising to the rank of brigadier general. After the war, he won election to the South Carolina legislature, where he and his brother Thomas Pinckney represented the landed elite of the South Carolina Lowcountry. An advocate of a stronger federal government, Pinckney served as a delegate to the 1787 Philadelphia Convention, which wrote a new federal constitution. Pinckney's influence helped ensure that South Carolina would ratify the United States Constitution.
Pinckney declined George Washington's first offer to serve in his administration, but in 1796 Pinckney accepted the position of Minister to France. In what became known as the XYZ Affair, the French demanded a bribe before they would agree to meet with the U.S. delegation. Pinckney returned to the United States, accepting an appointment as a general during the Quasi-War with France. Though he had resisted joining either major party for much of the 1790s, Pinckney began to identify with the Federalist Party following his return from France. The Federalists chose him as their vice presidential nominee in the 1800 election, hoping that his presence on the ticket could win support for the party in the South. Though Alexander Hamilton schemed to elect Pinckney president under the electoral rules then in place, both Pinckney and incumbent Federalist President John Adams were defeated by the Democratic-Republican candidates.
Seeing little hope of defeating popular incumbent President Thomas Jefferson, the Federalists chose Pinckney as their presidential nominee for the 1804 election. Neither Pinckney nor the party pursued an active campaign, and Jefferson won in a landslide. The Federalists nominated Pinckney again in 1808, in the hope that Pinckney's military experience and Jefferson's economic policies would give the party a chance of winning. Though the 1808 presidential election was closer than the 1804 election had been, Democratic-Republican nominee James Madison nonetheless prevailed.
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
|United States Minister to France|
September 9, 1796 – February 5, 1797
|Preceded by||James Monroe|
|Succeeded by||Robert Livingston|
|Born||February 25, 1746|
Charleston, South Carolina, British America
|Died||August 16, 1825 (aged 79)|
Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.
|Education||Christ Church, Oxford|
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney was born into the Pinckney family of elite planters in Charleston, South Carolina, on February 25, 1746. He was the son of Charles Pinckney, who would later serve as the chief justice of the Province of South Carolina, and Eliza Lucas, celebrated as a planter and agriculturalist, who is credited with developing indigo cultivation in this area. His younger brother, Thomas Pinckney, later served as Governor of South Carolina, as did his first cousin once removed, Charles Pinckney.
In 1753, Pinckney's father moved the family to London, England, where he served as the colony's agent. Both Charles and his brother Thomas were enrolled in the Westminster School, where they continued as students after the rest of the family returned to South Carolina in 1758. Pinckney enrolled in Christ Church, Oxford in 1763 and began studying law at the Middle Temple in 1764. After a short stint at a military academy in France, Pinckney completed his studies in 1769 and was admitted to the English bar. He briefly practiced law in England before establishing a legal practice in Charleston.
After returning to the colonies, in 1773, Pinckney married Sarah Middleton. Her father Henry Middleton later served as the second President of the Continental Congress and her brother Arthur Middleton signed the Declaration of Independence. Sarah died in 1784. In 1786, Pinckney married again, to Mary Stead, who came from a wealthy family of planters in Georgia. Pinckney had three daughters.
After returning to South Carolina from Europe, Pinckney began to practice law in Charleston. He was first elected to a seat in the colonial legislature in 1770. In 1773 he served as a regional attorney general. When war erupted between the thirteen American colonies and Great Britain in 1775, Pinckney stood with the American Patriots; in that year he was a member of the first South Carolina provincial congress, which helped South Carolina transition from being a British colony to being an independent state. During the American Revolutionary War, he served in the lower house of the state legislature and as a member of the South Carolina Senate, in addition to his military service.
Pinckney joined the colonial militia in 1772, and he helped organize South Carolina's resistance to British rule. In 1775, after the American Revolutionary War had broken out, Pinckney volunteered for military service as a full-time regular officer in George Washington's Continental Army. As a senior company commander with the rank of captain, Pinckney raised and led the elite Grenadiers of the 1st South Carolina Regiment. He participated in the successful defense of Charleston in the Battle of Sullivan's Island in June 1776, when British forces under General Sir Henry Clinton staged an amphibious attack on the state capital. Later in 1776 Pinckney took command of the regiment, with the rank of colonel, a position he retained to the end of the war.
After this, the British Army shifted its focus to the Northern and Mid-Atlantic states. Pinckney led his regiment north to join General Washington's troops near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Pinckney and his regiment participated in the Battle of Brandywine and the Battle of Germantown. Around this time he first met fellow officers Alexander Hamilton and James McHenry, who became future Federalist statesmen.
In 1778, Pinckney and his regiment, returning to the South, took part in a failed American expedition attempting to seize British East Florida. The expedition ended due to severe logistical difficulties and a British victory in the Battle of Alligator Bridge. Later that year, the British Army shifted its focus to the Southern theater, capturing Savannah, Georgia, in December 1778. In October 1779, the Southern army of Major General Benjamin Lincoln, with Pinckney leading one of its brigades, attempted to re-take the city in the Siege of Savannah. This attack was disaster for the Americans, who suffered numerous casualties.
Pinckney participated in the 1780 defense of Charleston against British siege but the city fell. Major General Lincoln surrendered his 5,000 men to the British on May 12, 1780, and Pinckney became a prisoner of war. As such, he demonstrated leadership, playing a major role in maintaining the troops' loyalty to the Patriots' cause. During this time, he said, "If I had a vein that did not beat with the love of my Country, I myself would open it. If I had a drop of blood that could flow dishonorable, I myself would let it out." He was kept in close confinement until his release in 1782. In November 1783, he was commissioned a brevet Brigadier General in the Continental Army shortly before the southern regiments were disbanded. He was promoted to Major General during his subsequent service in the South Carolina militia.
With the conclusion of the Revolutionary War, Pinckney returned to his legal practice, becoming one of the most acclaimed attorneys in South Carolina. He also returned to the lower house of the South Carolina legislature, and he and his brother, Thomas, became major political powers in the state. He became an advocate of the landed elite of the South Carolina Lowcountry, who dominated the state's government during this period. Though close friends with fellow legislator Edward Rutledge, Pinckney opposed the latter's attempts to end the importation of slaves, arguing that South Carolina's economy required the continual infusion of new slaves. Pinckney also took the lead in negotiating the end to a border dispute with the state of Georgia, and he signed the Convention of Beaufort, which temporarily solved some of the disputes.
The Revolutionary War had convinced many in South Carolina, including Pinckney, that the defense of the state required the cooperation of the other colonies. As such, Pinckney advocated a stronger national government than that provided by the Articles of Confederation, and he represented South Carolina at the Constitutional Convention of 1787. Pinckney advocated that African American slaves be counted as a basis of representation. According to a book review in The New York Times in January 2015:
The Northwest Ordinance of July 1787 held that slaves 'may be lawfully reclaimed' from free states and territories, and soon after, a fugitive slave clause – Article IV, Section 2 – was woven into the Constitution at the insistence of the Southern delegates, leading South Carolina's Charles C. Pinckney to boast, 'We have obtained a right to recover our slaves in whatever part of America they may take refuge, which is a right we had not before.'
Pinckney advocated for a strong national government (albeit one with a system of checks and balances) to replace the weak one of the time. He opposed as impractical the election of representatives by popular vote. He also opposed paying senators, who, he thought, should be men of independent wealth. Pinckney played a key role in requiring treaties to be ratified by the Senate and in the compromise that resulted in the abolition of the Atlantic slave trade. He also opposed placing a limitation on the size of a federal standing army.
Pinckney played a prominent role in securing the ratification of the Federal constitution in the South Carolina convention of 1788, and in framing the South Carolina Constitution in the convention of 1790. At the ratification convention, Pinckney distinguished three types of government and said republics were where "the people at large, either collectively or by representation, form the legislature". After this, he announced his retirement from politics.
In 1789, President George Washington offered Pinckney his choice of the State Department or the War Department; Pinckney declined both. When Washington offered Pinckney the role of Minister to France in 1796, Pinckney accepted. Relations with the French First Republic were then at a low ebb: the Jay Treaty between the US and Great Britain had angered members of the ruling French Directory, and they had ordered the French Navy to step up seizures of American merchant vessels found to be trading with Britain, with whom France was at war. When Pinckney presented his credentials in November 1796, they were refused, with the Directory stating that no ambassador could be accepted until the outstanding crisis was resolved. Pinckney was outraged by the offense.
After Pinckney reported this to the recently inaugurated President John Adams in 1797, a commission composed of Pinckney, John Marshall, and Elbridge Gerry was established to treat with the French. Gerry and Marshall joined Pinckney at The Hague, and traveled to Paris in October 1797. After a cursory preliminary meeting with the new French Foreign Minister Talleyrand, the commissioners were approached informally by a series of intermediaries who spelled out French demands. These included a large loan to France, which the commissioners had been instructed to refuse, and substantial bribes for Talleyrand and members of the Directory, which the commissioners found offensive. These exchanges became the basis for what became known as the "XYZ Affair" when documents concerning them were published in 1798.
Talleyrand, who was aware of political differences in the commission (Pinckney and Marshall were Federalists who favored Britain, and Gerry wavered politically between moderate Federalism ideas and the Jeffersonian Republicans, who favored France and were strongly hostile to Britain), exploited this division in the informal discussions. Pinckney and Marshall left France in April 1798; Gerry remained behind in an unofficial capacity, seeking to moderate French demands. The breakdown of negotiations led to what became known as the undeclared Quasi-War (1798–1800), pitting the two nation's navies against each other.
With a potential war looming, Congress authorized the expansion of the army, and President Adams asked Washington to take command as commander-in-chief of the army. As a condition for accepting the position, Washington insisted that Pinckney be offered a position as a general. Washington believed that Pinckney's military experience and political support in the South made him indispensable in defending against a possible invasion by the French. Many Federalists feared that Pinckney would chafe at serving under Hamilton, who had been appointed as Washington's second-in-command, but Pinckney pleasantly surprised the Federalists by accepting his appointment as a general without complaint. Pinckney led the army's Southern department from July 1798 to June 1800.
Pinckney and his political allies had resisted becoming closely allied with the Federalist or Democratic-Republican parties during the 1790s, but Pinckney began to identify as a Federalist following his return from France. With the support of Hamilton, Pinckney became the Federalist vice presidential nominee in the 1800 presidential election.[a] Pinckney's military and political service had won him national stature, and Federalists hoped that Pinckney could win some Southern votes against Democratic-Republican nominee Thomas Jefferson. Hamilton had even greater hopes, as he wished to displace Adams as president and viewed Pinckney as more amenable to his policies. In-fighting between supporters of Adams and Hamilton plagued the Federalists, and the Democratic-Republicans won the election. Pinckney himself refused to become involved in Hamilton's plans to make him president, and promised not to accept the votes of any elector who was not also pledged to Adams.
Federalists saw little hope of defeating the popular Jefferson in the 1804 election; though the party remained strong in New England, Jefferson was widely expected to win the Southern and mid-Atlantic states. With little hope of winning the presidency, the Federalists nominated Pinckney as their presidential candidate, but neither Pinckney nor the Federalists pursued an active presidential campaign against Jefferson. The Federalists hoped that Pinckney's military reputation and his status as a Southerner would show that the Federalist Party remained a national party, but they knew that Pinckney had little chance of winning even his own home state. Jefferson won the election in a rout, taking 162 electoral votes compared to Pinckney's 14. Pinckney's defeat in South Carolina made him the first major party presidential nominee to lose his own home state.
Jefferson's second term proved more difficult than his first, as the British and French attacked American shipping as part of the Napoleonic Wars. With Jefferson's popularity waning, Federalists entertained stronger hopes of winning back the presidency in 1808 than they had in 1804. With the support of Jefferson, James Madison was put forward as the Democratic-Republican nominee. Some Federalists favored supporting a renegade Democratic-Republican in James Monroe or George Clinton, but at the Federalist nominating convention, the party again turned to Pinckney. With a potential war against France or Britain looming, the Federalists hoped that Pinckney's military experience would appeal to the nation. The Federalists won Delaware and most of New England, but Madison won the remaining states and won a commanding majority of the electoral college.
After the 1808 election, Pinckney focused on managing his plantations and developing his legal practice.
From 1805 until his death in 1825, Pinckney was president-general of the Society of the Cincinnati.
Pinckney was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1813.
Pinckney died on August 16, 1825 and was buried in St. Michael's Churchyard in Charleston, South Carolina. His tombstone reads, "One of the founders of the American Republic. In war he was a companion in arms and friend of Washington. In peace he enjoyed his unchanging confidence."
According to the state library of South Carolina:
Pinckney owned slaves throughout his life and believed that slavery was necessary to the economy of South Carolina. At the Constitutional Convention, he agreed to abolish the slave trade in 1808, but opposed emancipation. In 1801, Pinckney owned about 250 slaves. When his daughter Eliza married, Pinckney gave her fifty slaves. On his death, he bequeathed his remaining slaves to his daughters and nephews.
In the South Carolina House of Representatives, on January 18, 1788, Pinckney offered several defenses for the lack of a bill of rights in the proposed U.S. Constitution. One was that bills of rights generally begin by declaring that all men are by nature born free. The reporter's summary of his observation concluded, "Now, we should make that declaration with a very bad grace, when a large part of our property consists in men who are actually born slaves."
Elbridge Gerry ... proposed that the Constitution contain express language limiting the size of the standing army to several thousand men. Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, ostensibly at the instigation of Washington, responded that such a proposal was satisfactory so long as any invading force also agreed to limit its army to a similar size.
Media related to Charles Cotesworth Pinckney at Wikimedia Commons
| United States Minister to France
|Party political offices|
| Federalist nominee for Vice President of the United States
| Federalist nominee for President of the United States
The United States presidential election of 1804 was the fifth quadrennial presidential election, held from Friday, November 2, to Wednesday, December 5, 1804. Incumbent Democratic-Republican President Thomas Jefferson defeated Federalist Charles Cotesworth Pinckney of South Carolina. It was the first presidential election conducted following the ratification of the Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which reformed procedures for electing presidents and vice presidents.
Jefferson was re-nominated by his party's congressional nominating caucus without opposition, and the party nominated Governor George Clinton of New York to replace Aaron Burr as Jefferson's running mate. With former President John Adams in retirement, the Federalists turned to Pinckney, a former ambassador and Revolutionary War hero who had been Adams's running mate in the 1800 election.
Though Jefferson had only narrowly defeated Adams in 1800, he was widely popular due to the Louisiana Purchase and a strong economy. He carried almost every state, including most states in the Federalist stronghold of New England. Several states did not hold a popular vote for president, but Jefferson dominated the popular vote in the states that did. Jefferson's 45.6 percentage point victory margin in the popular vote remains the highest victory margin in a presidential election in which there were multiple major party candidates.1804 United States presidential election in Connecticut
The 1804 United States presidential election in Connecticut took place between November 2 and December 5, 1804, as part of the 1804 United States presidential election. The state legislature chose nine representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice President.
During this election, Connecticut cast nine electoral votes for Federalist Party candidate Charles Cotesworth Pinckney (becoming the only state other than Delaware to do so). However, he would lose to Democratic Republican incumbent Thomas Jefferson by a landslide margin nationally.1804 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania
The 1804 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania took place as part of the 1804 United States presidential election. Voters chose 20 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice President.
Pennsylvania voted for the Democratic-Republican candidate, Thomas Jefferson, over the Federalist candidate, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. Jefferson won Pennsylvania by a wide margin of 89.38%.1808 United States presidential election
The United States presidential election of 1808 was the sixth quadrennial presidential election, held from Friday, November 4, to Wednesday, December 7, 1808. The Democratic-Republican candidate James Madison defeated Federalist candidate Charles Cotesworth Pinckney decisively. Madison's victory made him the first individual to succeed a president of the same party.
Madison had served as Secretary of State since President Thomas Jefferson took office in 1801. Jefferson, who had declined to run for a third term, threw his strong support behind Madison, a fellow Virginian. Sitting Vice President George Clinton and former Ambassador James Monroe both challenged Madison for leadership of the party, but Madison won his party's nomination and Clinton was re-nominated as vice president. The Federalists chose to re-nominate Pinckney, a former ambassador who had served as the party's 1804 nominee.
Despite the unpopularity of the Embargo Act of 1807, Madison won the vast majority of electoral votes outside of the Federalist stronghold of New England. Clinton received six electoral votes for president from his home state of New York. This election was the first of two instances in American history in which a new president was selected but the incumbent vice president won re-election, the other being in 1828.1808 United States presidential election in Connecticut
The 1808 United States presidential election in Connecticut took place between November 4 and December 7, 1808, as part of the 1808 United States presidential election. The state legislature chose nine representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice President.
During this election, Connecticut cast its nine electoral votes to Federalist candidate Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. Four of the five New England states voted for Pinckney, barring Vermont, which voted for Democratic Republican candidate and Secretary of State James Madison, who nationally won the election.1808 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania
The 1808 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania took place as part of the 1808 United States presidential election. Voters chose 20 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice President.
Pennsylvania voted for the Democratic-Republican candidate, James Madison, over the Federalist candidate, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. Madison won Pennsylvania by a margin of 56.74%.1808 United States presidential election in Vermont
The 1808 United States presidential election in Vermont took place between November 4 and December 7, 1808, as part of the 1808 United States presidential election. The state legislature chose six representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice President.
During this election, Vermont cast its six electoral votes to Democratic Republican candidate and Secretary of State James Madison. As the other four New England states cast their electoral votes for Federalist candidate Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Vermont became the only state in New England to vote for Madison.Charles Pinckney
Charles Pinckney may refer to:
Charles Pinckney (South Carolina chief justice) (died 1758), father of Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
Colonel Charles Pinckney (1731–1782), South Carolina politician, loyal to British during Revolutionary War, father of Charles Pinckney, the governor
Charles Pinckney (governor) (1757–1824), South Carolina governor, drafter of U.S. Constitution, second cousin of Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney (1746–1825), U.S. vice presidential candidate (1800), U.S. presidential candidate (1804 and 1808)Charles Pinckney (governor)
Charles Pinckney (October 26, 1757 – October 29, 1824) was an American planter and politician who was a signer of the United States Constitution. He was elected and served as the 37th Governor of South Carolina, later serving two more non-consecutive terms. He also served as a US Senator and a member of the House of Representatives. He was first cousin once removed of fellow signer Charles Cotesworth Pinckney.
Pinckney's descendants included seven future South Carolina governors, including men related to the Maybank and Rhett families.College of Charleston
The College of Charleston (also known as CofC, The College, or Charleston) is a public sea-grant and space-grant university in Charleston, South Carolina. Founded in 1770 and chartered in 1785, it is the oldest college in South Carolina, the 13th oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, and the oldest municipal college in the country. The founders of the college include three future signers of the Declaration of Independence (Edward Rutledge, Arthur Middleton, and Thomas Heyward) and three future signers of the United States Constitution (John Rutledge, Charles Pinckney, and Charles Cotesworth Pinckney). Founded to "encourage and institute youth in the several branches of liberal education," it is one of the oldest universities in the United States.Franklin Prophecy
"The Franklin Prophecy", sometimes called "The Franklin Forgery", is an antisemitic speech falsely attributed to Benjamin Franklin, warning of the supposed dangers of admitting Jews to the nascent United States. The speech was purportedly transcribed by Charles Cotesworth Pinckney during the Constitutional Convention of 1787, but was unknown before its appearance in 1934 in the pages of William Dudley Pelley's Silver Legion pro-Nazi weekly magazine Liberation. No evidence exists for the document's authenticity, and some of the author's claims have actively been disproven.Middleton-Rutledge-Pinckney family
The Middleton-Rutledge-Pinckney family is a family of politicians from the United States.
Henry Middleton 1717-1784, Delegate to the Continental Congress from South Carolina 1774, South Carolina State Senator 1778.Arthur Middleton 1742-1787, Delegate to the South Carolina Constitutional Convention 1776, Delegate to the Continental Congress from South Carolina 1776, South Carolina State Representative 1778, South Carolina State Senator 1781. Son of Henry Middleton.Henry Middleton 1770-1846, South Carolina State Representative 1802, South Carolina State Senator 1810, Governor of South Carolina 1810-1812, U.S. Representative from South Carolina 1815-1819, U.S. Minister to Russia 1820-1830. Son of Arthur Middleton.
Edward Rutledge 1749-1800, Delegate to the Continental Congress 1774-1776, South Carolina State Representative 1782, Governor of South Carolina 1798-1800. Brother-in-law of Henry Middleton.
John Rutledge 1739-1800, Delegate to the Continental Congress from South Carolina 1774, President of South Carolina 1776-1778, Governor of South Carolina 1779, Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court 1789-1791, Chief Justice of the South Carolina Supreme Court 1791-1794, Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court 1795. Brother to Edward Rutledge.Charles Cotesworth Pinckney 1746-1825, South Carolina State Senator 1799-1804, U.S. Minister to France 1796-1797, candidate for Vice President of the United States 1800, candidate for President of the United States 1804, 1808. Son-in-law of Henry Middleton.John Rutledge, Jr. 1766-1819, member of the South Carolina State Legislature, U.S. Representative from South Carolina 1797-1803. Son of John Rutledge.NOTE: Charles Cotesworth Pinckney was also brother of South Carolina Governor Thomas Pinckney and cousin of U.S. Senator Charles Pinckney.Pinckney (surname)
Pinckney is an English surname. Notable people with the surname include:
Pinckney political family of South CarolinaCharles Pinckney (South Carolina chief justice) (died 1758), South Carolina politician, father of Charles Cotesworth Pinckney and Thomas Pinckney, and uncle of Colonel Charles Pinckney
Colonel Charles Pinckney (1731–1782), South Carolina politician, British Loyalist during Revolutionary War, father of the Governor Charles Pinckney
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney (1746–1825), Revolutionary War general and vice presidential candidate
Charles Pinckney (governor) (1757–1824), drafter of the United States Constitution, father of Henry Laurens Pinckney, and second cousin of Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
Eliza Lucas Pinckney, South Carolina planter
Thomas Pinckney (1750–1828), South Carolina governor, ambassador to Britain, diplomat who arranged Pinckney's Treaty, and a brother of Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
Henry L. Pinckney, U.S. Representative from South Carolina
John M. Pinckney, U.S. Representative from Texas; his parents were from South CarolinaOthersClementa C. Pinckney (1973–2015), American politician
Darryl Pinckney, American author and critic
Ed Pinckney (born 1963), American basketball player
Violet Millicent Pinckney (1871–1955), English tennis playerPinckney Island National Wildlife Refuge
The Pinckney Island National Wildlife Refuge is a 4,053-acre (16 km2) National Wildlife Refuge located in Beaufort County, South Carolina between the mainland and Hilton Head Island. Named after Major General Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, it was established to provide a nature and forest preserve for aesthetic and conservation purposes.
The refuge is one of seven refuges administered by the Savannah Coastal Refuges Complex in Savannah, Georgia. The complex has a combined staff of 31 with a fiscal year 2005 budget of $3,582,000.Pinckneyville, Illinois
Pinckneyville is a city in and the county seat of Perry County, Illinois, United States. The population was 5,464 at the 2000 census. It is named for Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, an early American diplomat and presidential candidate.
Pinckneyville is the location of the Pinckneyville Power Plant, a combustion turbine generator (CTG)-type power plant run by Ameren.St. Michael's Churchyard
St. Michael's Churchyard, adjacent to historic St. Michael's Episcopal Church on the corner of Meeting and Broad Streets, in Charleston, South Carolina is the final resting place of some famous historical figures, including two signers of the Constitution of the United States. The church was established in 1751 as the second Anglican parish in Charleston, South Carolina.
Interred in St. Michael's Churchyard are:
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney (1746–1825) Colonel in the Continental Army, member of the U.S. Constitutional Convention and signer of the U.S. Constitution, U.S. Minister to France, Federalist candidate for Vice President, and later candidate for President of the United States in 1804 and 1808
John Rutledge (1739–1800) Governor of South Carolina, 1779, member of the U.S. Constitutional Convention and signer of the U.S. Constitution, Chief Justice of U.S. Supreme Court
Robert Young Hayne (1791–1839) Senator, Governor of South Carolina, and mayor of Charleston
Arthur Peronneau Hayne (c.1789-1867) U.S. Senator from South Carolina
William Dickinson Martin (1789–1833) U.S. Congressman from South Carolina
Mordecai Gist (1742–1792) American Revolutionary War general
Thomas M. Wagner, Civil War Lieutenant Colonel and namesake for Battery Wagner.
Henrietta Johnston and her second husbandAcross the street is St. Michael's Church Cemetery. Interred here is Francis Kinloch (1755–1826) a delegate to Second Continental Congress from South Carolina.
J. A. W. Iusti, Frederick Julius Ortmann, and Christopher Werner were three German born forgers of wrought iron in Charleston. Iusti's creation of the St. Michael's Cemetery Gate "Sword Gate" is one of the two most notable iron gates in Charleston, the other being the "Sword Gate" by Werner.Thomas Pinckney
Thomas Pinckney (October 23, 1750 – November 2, 1828) was an early American statesman, diplomat, and soldier in both the American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812, achieving the rank of major general. He served as Governor of South Carolina and as the U.S. minister to Great Britain. He was also the Federalist candidate for vice president in the 1796 election.
Born into a prominent Charleston, South Carolina family, Pinckney studied in Europe before returning to America. He supported the independence cause and worked as an aide to General Horatio Gates. After the Revolutionary War, Pinckney managed his plantation and won election as Governor of South Carolina, serving from 1787 to 1789. He presided over the state convention which ratified the United States Constitution. In 1792, he accepted President George Washington's appointment to the position of minister to Britain, but was unable to win concessions regarding the impressment of American sailors. He also served as an envoy to Spain and negotiated the Treaty of San Lorenzo, which defined the border between Spain and the United States.
Following his diplomatic success in Spain, the Federalists chose Pinckney as John Adams's running mate in the 1796 presidential election. Under the rules then in place, the individual who won the most electoral votes became president, while the individual who won the second most electoral votes became vice president. Although Adams won the presidential election, Democratic-Republican candidate Thomas Jefferson won the second most electoral votes and won election as vice president. After the election, Pinckney served in the United States House of Representatives from 1797 to 1801. His brother, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, was the Federalist vice presidential nominee in 1800 and the party's presidential nominee in 1804 and 1808. During the War of 1812, Pinckney was commissioned as a major general.Woodburn (Pendleton, South Carolina)
Woodburn or the Woodburn Plantation is an antebellum house near Pendleton in Anderson County, South Carolina. It is at 130 History Lane just off of U.S. 76. It was built as a summer home by Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. Woodburn was named to the National Register of Historic Places on May 6, 1970. It also is part of the Pendleton Historic District.XYZ Affair
The XYZ Affair was a political and diplomatic episode in 1797 and 1798, early in the presidency of John Adams, involving a confrontation between the United States and Republican France that led to the Quasi-War. The name derives from the substitution of the letters X, Y and Z for the names of French diplomats Jean Conrad Hottinguer (X), Pierre Bellamy (Y), and Lucien Hauteval (Z) in documents released by the Adams administration.
An American diplomatic commission was sent to France in July 1797 to negotiate a solution to problems that were threatening to break out into war. The diplomats, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, John Marshall, and Elbridge Gerry, were approached through informal channels by agents of the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand, who demanded bribes and a loan before formal negotiations could begin. Although such demands were not uncommon in mainland European diplomacy of the time, the Americans were offended by them, and eventually left France without ever engaging in formal negotiations. Gerry, seeking to avoid all-out war, remained for several months after the other two commissioners left. His exchanges with Talleyrand laid groundwork for the eventual end to diplomatic and military hostilities.
The failure of the commission caused a political firestorm in the United States when the commission's dispatches were published. It led to the undeclared Quasi-War (1798–1800). Federalists, who controlled both houses of Congress and held the presidency, took advantage of the national anger to build up the nation's military. They also attacked the Democratic-Republicans for their pro-French stance, and Elbridge Gerry (a nonpartisan at the time) for what they saw as his role in the commission's failure.
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