Charles Caesar

Sir Charles Caesar (27 January 1590 – 6 December 1642), of Benington in Hertfordshire, was an English judge who served as Master of the Rolls in the period leading up to the outbreak of the English Civil War; his father Sir Julius Caesar had held the same office for many years.

Caesar entered Magdalen College, Oxford, aged 12 in 1602, and was a fellow of All Souls from 1605 to 1611. He was incorporated at Cambridge with a LL.B. in 1609,[1] but continued at Oxford, where he was made Doctor of Civil and Canon Law in 1612. In 1611 he joined the Middle Temple and began to practice in the ecclesiastical courts; he was knighted in 1613, and served as MP for Weymouth in the Addled Parliament of 1614. In 1615 he was appointed a master in chancery, no doubt through the influence of his father, and continued in this post until 1639; he was also from before 1626 a judge of the Court of Audience and Master of the Faculties, both appointments which held until his death. In 1639 the Mastership of the Rolls became vacant on the death of Sir Dudley Digges, and Caesar consulted Archbishop Laud on whether he might obtain it, but was warned "that as things then stood, the place was not like to go without more money than he thought any wise man would give for it". Caesar, perhaps more ambitious than wise, apparently paid the King £15,000 in a lump sum with a further £2,000 loan, and was duly appointed.

Foss in his Lives of the Judges comments that "It is difficult to regret that he did not live long enough to profit by this iniquitous traffic of the judicial seat, as disgraceful to one party as the other". He had made little mark through his tenure of the post when his family was struck down by smallpox in November 1642: one of his daughters died on 2 November, he himself did so on 6 December 1642 (even though, as he declared in the will he made on his death-bed, he had already had the disease as a younger man), and his eldest son, Julius, followed five days later. He was succeeded by his second son, Henry, still a minor at the time of his father's death.

Sir

Charles Caesar
SirCharlesCaesar
Master of the Rolls
Nominated byLord Hardwicke
Preceded bySir Dudley Digges
Succeeded bySir John Colepeper
In office
30 March 1639 – 28 January 1643
Personal details
Born27 February 1590
Died6 December 1642 (aged 52)
NationalityBritish
Spouse(s)Anne Vanlore, Jane Barkham
ChildrenJulius Caesar, Henry Caesar, Charles Caesar
ResidenceBenington, Hertfordshire
Alma materMagdalen College, Oxford
ProfessionBarrister, Judge, Politician

References

  1. ^ "Caesar, Charles (CSR609C)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  • Edward Foss, The Judges of England, Volume 6 (London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans & Roberts, 1857) [1]
  • Edward Wedlake Brayley, The Beauties of England and Wales (London: Longman, Hurst, Rees & Orme, etc., 1808) [2]
  • Evan Haynes, The Selection and Tenure of Judges (Newark: The National Conference of Judicial Councils, 1944, reprinted January 2005 by the Lawbook Exchange, Ltd) [3]
  • Maija Jansson (ed.), Proceedings in Parliament, 1614 (House of Commons) (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1988) [4]

External links

Parliament of England
Preceded by
Viscount Cranborne
Robert Myddelton
Bernard Michell
Sir John Hanham
Member of Parliament for Weymouth and Melcombe Regis
1614
With: Robert Bateman (MP)
Bernard Michell
John Roy
Succeeded by
Matthew Pitt
Giles Green
John Freke
Christopher Erle
Legal offices
Preceded by
Sir Dudley Digges
Master of the Rolls
30 March 1639 — 28 January 1643
Succeeded by
Sir John Colepeper
1590

1590 (MDXC)

was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1590th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 590th year of the 2nd millennium, the 90th year of the 16th century, and the 1st year of the 1590s decade. As of the start of 1590, the Gregorian calendar was

10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1642

1642 (MDCXLII)

was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1642nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 642nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 42nd year of the 17th century, and the 3rd year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1642, the Gregorian calendar was

10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Charles Caesar (Treasurer of the Navy)

Charles Caesar (21 November 1673 – 2 April 1741) of Benington, Hertfordshire was a British Member of Parliament, a lawyer, a Tory and a Jacobite.

Charles Caesar (disambiguation)

Charles Caesar may refer to:

Sir Charles Caesar (1590–1642), English judge, Master of the Rolls

Sir Charles Caesar (1653–1694), English Member of Parliament (MP) for Hertford and Hertfordshire (UK Parliament constituency)

Charles Caesar (Treasurer of the Navy) (1673–1741), English Tory MP, Treasurer of the Navy 1711–1714

Edward Barkham (Lord Mayor)

Sir Edward Barkham (died 15 January 1634) was and English merchant who was Lord Mayor of London in 1621.

Barkham was a city of London merchant and a member of the Worshipful Company of Leathersellers. He was Master of the Leathersellers Company for 1605 to 1606, and for 1608 to 1609. On 28 February 1611, he was elected an alderman of the City of London for Farringdon Within ward. He was Sheriff of London for the period 1611 to 1612. He translated to the Worshipful Company of Drapers on 10 July 1621 and became alderman for Cheap ward in the same year. Also in 1621, he was chosen as Lord Mayor of London. He was knighted on 16 June 1622 and was Master of the Drapers Company from 1622 to 1623. He was the great-great grandfather of former Prime Minister Robert Walpole.

Barkham was the father of Sir Edward Barkham, 1st Baronet, of South Acre, Sir Robert Barkhham, and Jane Barkham wife of Sir Charles Caesar Master of the Rolls.

Henry Caesar

Sir Henry Caesar (2 October 1630 – 6 January 1668 ) was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons in 1660 and 1666 through 1668.

Caesar was the son of Sir Charles Caesar, by his wife Jane Barkham, and succeeded to the estate of Bennington, Hertfordshire, in 1642. He was admitted at Jesus College, Cambridge, on 10 June 1646 and admitted at Inner Temple in 1647.In 1660, Caesar was elected Member of Parliament for Hertfordshire in the Convention Parliament. He regained his seat in Cavalier Parliament in a by-election in April 1666. He was knighted on 7 July 1660.Caesar married Elizabeth (1630 - 1670) daughter of Robert Angell a merchant of London by his wife Susan Bateman, on 6 November 1649 at St Olave, Hart Street, London.

Caesar died of smallpox in 1668 at the age of 37. He was survived by his son Charles who became a member of parliament and his daughter Jane wife of Sir Thomas Pope Blount, 1st Baronet.

Henry Caesar (priest)

Henry Caesar (1562?–1636), Dean of Ely, fifth and youngest son of Giulio Cesare Adelmare, the Italian physician to Queens Mary and Elizabeth, and brother of Sir Julius Caesar, was born, according to his epitaph, in 1564, although other evidence gives the more probable date of 1562.

He was also known as Henry Adelmare.

Hertford (UK Parliament constituency)

Hertford was the name of a parliamentary constituency in Hertfordshire, which elected Members of Parliament (MPs) from 1298 until 1974. It was represented in the House of Commons of England from 1298 to 1707, then of the House of Commons of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800, and finally in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1974.

From 1298 it was a borough consisting of the town of Hertford, electing two MPs until 1868 and one from 1868 to 1885. In 1885 the borough was abolished and the name was transferred to the county constituency which contained the town.

The constituency disappeared in the redistribution at the February 1974 general election, being mostly included in the new Hertford and Stevenage constituency.

Hertfordshire (UK Parliament constituency)

Hertfordshire was a county constituency covering the county of Hertfordshire in England. It returned two Knights of the Shire to the House of Commons of England until 1707, then to the House of Commons of Great Britain until 1800, and to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1800 until 1832. The Reform Act 1832 gave the county a third seat with effect from the 1832 general election.

Elections were held using the bloc vote system, when contested. However, even after the 1832 reforms, contested elections were the exception: of the 17 elections from 1832 to 1880, 9 were uncontested, including the 1880 general election. In such cases all the nominated candidates were returned without a vote.

James Butler (1680–1741)

James Butler (1680 – 17 May 1741), was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1705 and 1741.

Butler was the son of James Butler of Amberley Castle and his wife Grace Caldecott, daughter of Richard Caldecott of Hawkhurst, Kent. His father, who had been MP for Arundel died in 1696. He was probably admitted at Trinity Hall, Cambridge in 1698. He married Elizabeth Bennet, widow of Sir Richard Bennet, 3rd Baronet and daughter of Sir Charles Caesar of Bennington, Hertfordshire on 31 January 1704. He bought the estate of Warminghurst in 1792 or 1707, from William Penn.A Whig supporter, he was returned as Member of Parliament for Arundel at the 1705 general election but did not stand in 1708. He was elected MP for Sussex at the 1715 general election but did not stand in 1722. However he was returned as MP for Sussex at a by-election on 22 February 1728 and retained the seat at the elections of 1734 and 1741.Butler died of smallpox aged 61 on 17 May 1741, ten days after his re-election. His only son John was also an MP.

Julius Caesar (judge)

Sir Julius Caesar (1557/1558 – 18 April 1636) was an English lawyer, judge and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1589 and 1622. He was also known as Julius Adelmare.

King (playing card)

The king is a playing card with a picture of a king on it. The king is usually the highest-ranking face card. In French playing cards and tarot decks, the king immediately outranks the queen. In Italian and Spanish playing cards, the king immediately outranks the knight. In German and Swiss playing cards, the king immediately outranks the Ober. In some games, the king is the highest-ranked card; in others, the ace is higher. Aces began outranking kings around 1500 with Trappola being the earliest known game in which the aces were highest in all four suits. In the Ace-Ten family of games such as pinochle and schnapsen, both the ace and the 10 rank higher than the king.

Ralph Freman (1627–1714)

Ralph Freman (1627–1714), of Aspenden, Hertfordshire, was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1685 and 1695.

Freman was baptized on 29 May 1627, the eldest son of Ralph Freman of Aspenden and his wife Mary Hewett, daughter of Sir William Hewett of Pishiobury, Sawbridgeworth. He was educated privately under Seth Ward. He married Elizabeth Aubrey, daughter of Sir John Aubrey, 1st Baronet of Llantrithyd, Glamorganshire on 10 February 1662. He succeeded his father in 1665.

Offices Held

in October 1660, Freman was appointed Commissioner for sewers for Essex. He was appointed Commissioner for assessment for Hertfordshire in 1661 and held the post until 1680. In 1663 he became a JP for Hertfordshire. In 1681 he was appointed Deputy Lieutenant for Hertfordshire. He was returned unopposed as Member of Parliament (MP) for Hertfordshire in 1685. In 1687 he lost his position as Deputy Lieutenant and his seat on the commission of the peace. However he was restored to these positions in 1689 and also became Commissioner for Assessment again. He was elected Member of Parliament for Hertfordshire at the 1690 general election and though he was not invited to stand in 1695, he was a candidate, but unsuccessful. After leaving Parliament Freman continued in politics supporting the Tories locally. He made improvements to his house at Aspenden, casing the house with brick and beautifying the gardens. He may have built up an extensive library, mainly of devotional works. He encouraged Bonnell to translate Erasmus’ paraphrases into English. He was treated by Dr Sloane for loss of appetite and swollen legs but died on 17 November 1714. He and his wife had three sons and seven daughters. His eldest son Ralph, who became an MP, inherited Aspenden and erected a monument to his parents describing them as having been ‘amiable and delightful’. His daughter Mary married Charles Caesar.

Ralph Freman (1666–1742)

Ralph Freman (1666–1742), of Aspenden Hall and Hamels, Hertfordshire, was an English politician who sat in the English and British House of Commons for 30 years from 1697 to 1727.

Freman was the eldest son of Ralph Freman, MP of Aspenden and his wife Elizabeth Aubrey (died 1720), daughter of Sir John Aubrey, 1st Baronet of Llantrithyd, Glamorgan. He was educated privately under the pious James Bonnell and Daniel Duckfield, and travelled abroad in Holland, France and Italy from about 1678 to 1684. He married Elizabeth Catesby, the daughter and coheiress of Thomas Catesby of Ecton, Northamptonshire with £4,000, under a settlement dated 17 February 1700.Freman was elected Member of Parliament (MP) for Hertfordshire at a contested by-election on 30 December 1697 and again at the general election of 1698. He was very active politically, tightening his grip on his own constituency, and speaking and participating in parliamentary business in the House. His particular speciality was in dealing with electoral disputes. He was returned unopposed at the two general elections of 1701 and in 1702 and won contests at the general elections of 1705 and 1708. He was returned unopposed at the 1710 general election and chaired the Committee of privileges and elections from 1710 to 1713. He was returned unopposed at the 1713 general election. In 1714 he succeeded his father.

Freman was re-elected MP in a contest at Hertfordshire at the 1715 general election. He was a Tory who supported the Hanoverian succession, and was said to have refused the offer of a seat on the Admiralty Board. He was re-elected at the 1722 general election, but defeated by his brother-in-law Charles Caesar at the 1727 general election. He subsequently colluded with the Whigs in promoting William Plumer to defeat Caesar at the following election.Freman commissioned the building of Hamels mansion in Braughing, Hertfordshire in 1713. He died on 8 June 1742, aged 76 leaving three sons.

Sir Thomas Sebright, 4th Baronet

Sir Thomas Sebright, 4th Baronet (1692–1736) of Beechwood Park was a British landowner and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1715 to 1736.

Sebright was born on 11 May 1692, the eldest son of Sir Edward Sebright, 3rd Baronet of Besford, Worcestershire and his wife Anne Saunders, daughter and coheiress of Thomas Saunders of Beechwood, Hertfordshire. He succeeded his father in the baronetcy on 15 December 1702. He matriculated at Jesus College, Oxford on 3 June 1705 In November 1718, he married Henrietta Dashwood, daughter of Sir Samuel Dashwood, MP and Lord Mayor of London. Sebright had inherited from his mother the Beechwood estate in Hertfordshire. He was elected Member of Parliament for Hertfordshire at the 1715 general election. He was re-elected at the succeeding elections of 1722, 1727 and 1734.Sebright died on 12 April 1736. He was a notable book collector. He left two sons, of whom Thomas inherited the baronetcy.

Sir William Monson, 4th Baronet

William Monson (ca. 1653 – 7 March 1727), of Broxbourne, Hertfordshire, was an English politician who sat in the English House of Commons between 1695 and 1707 and in the British House of Commons between 1708 and 1722.

Monson was the second son of Sir John Monson KB, of Burton, Lincolnshire and his wife Judith Pelham, daughter of Sir Thomas Pelham, 2nd Baronet, of Halland, Laughton, Sussex. He married Laetitia Poulett daughter of John Poulett, 3rd Baron Poulett on 18 July 1688.

Monson was elected Member of Parliament (MP) for Lincoln at the general election of 1695 and sat until 1698. He was returned unopposed as MP for Heytesbury at the general elections of 1702 and 1705. He was elected as MP for Hertford in 1708 general election but was defeated there in 1710. He was returned as MP for Aldborough at a by-election on 16 April 1715. He succeeded his brother Henry in the baronetcy on 6 April 1718. He did not stand again at the 1722 general election.Monson died without issue on 7 March 1727. His property and the baronetcy passed to his nephew, John Monson.

Thomas Clarke (died 1754)

Sir Thomas Clarke (c. 1672–1754), of Brickendon, Hertfordshire, was a British lawyer and politician who sat in the English and British House of Commons between 1705 and 1741.

Clarke was the eldest son of Sir Edward Clarke of St. Vedast's, London, Lord Mayor of London, and his second wife Jane Clutterbuck, daughter of Richard Clutterbuck. He was admitted at St Catharine's College, Cambridge on 20 March 1689 and at Middle Temple on 17 March 1690. He married Elizabeth Pinfold, daughter of Alexander Pinfold of Hoxton, Middlesex on. 9 January 1699. Clarke may be the ‘Thomas Clerk’ who was named with his brother-in-law, Maynard Colchester as one of the founding members of the Society of the Propagation of the Gospel in 1701. They had both been educated at the Middle Temple and shared an interest in landscape gardening. In 1703 he succeeded his father to Brickendon, and assumed the role of a county country gentleman. In 1704 he became Freeman of Hertford. He carried out charitable works in his neighbourhood among which he ‘built a gallery in the church, set up chimes in the steeple, put 90 poor children to school, gave bibles, catechisms etc, and distributed half-peck loaves and two oxen among the poor at Christmas’.Clarke probably met William Cowper, at Middle Temple. Soon after coming of age he stood for Parliament at Hertford at the 1705 general election on the Cowper interest. Though defeated in the poll, he petitioned and was seated as a Whig Member of Parliament on 6 December 1705. In the House, he supported the Government, in February 1706, on the ‘place clause’ of the regency bill but made little other impression in the House. After presenting an address from his borough congratulating the Queen on the Duke of Marlborough's victory, he was knighted on 24 July 1706. He was called to the bar in 1706 and became an practicing lawyer. He was re-elected MP for Hertford at the 1708 general election and was appointed Commissioner for Charitable Uses at Hertford. He was listed as a Whig, and during the 1708 Parliament he followed the party line, supporting the naturalization of the Palatines in 1709. He was a teller for committing the bill for restraining buildings on new foundations on 10 March 1709 and voted for the impeachment of Sacheverell in 1710. He was defeated by the resurgent Tory interest at the 1710 general election and again in 1713.Clarke regained his seat at Hertford after the Hanoverian succession. At the 1715 general election he was again defeated in the poll but seated on petition on 24 May 1715. He generally acted with the government. For the third time at the 1722 general election he was defeated at the poll and seated on petition on 22 January 1723. In 1723 he became a bencher of his Inn. He was returned unopposed at the 1727 general election. He supported the Government, except on the civil list arrears in 1729 and on the later stages of the excise bill, having originally voted for it. In 1731 he became Treasurer of his Inn. He was returned unopposed for Hertford again in 1734 but retired at the 1741 general election.Clarke died without issue on 26 October 1754, and left his estate to his niece Jane Morgan, wife of Thomas Morgan of Ruperra, Glamorgan.

Treasurer of the Navy

The Treasurer of the Navy originally called Treasurer of Marine Causes also originally called Paymaster of the Navy was a civilian officer of the Royal Navy, he was one of the Principal Commissioners of the Navy Board responsible for Naval Finance from 1524 to 1832. The treasurer was based at the Navy Pay Office.

William Plumer (died 1767)

William Plumer (c.1686-1767) was a British lawyer and Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons intermittently between 1721 and 1761.

Plumer was the second surviving son of John Plumer, a wealthy London merchant of Blakesware, Hertfordshire, and his wife Mary Hale, daughter of William Hale of King’s Walden, Hertfordshire. He had brothers Richard and Walter Plumer. He was educated at Bishop’s Stortford and was admitted at Peterhouse, Cambridge on 9 May 1702. In 1702, he was admitted at Gray’s Inn and was called to the bar in 1708. He succeeded to some of his father’s estates in 1719.

Plumer was returned as Member of Parliament for Yarmouth (Isle of Wight) at a by-election on 10 February 1721. He was brought in on the Treasury interest to replace Sir Theodore Janssen, who had been expelled over the South Sea Bubble and did not stand in 1722.Plumer was out of Parliament for over ten years, but was politically active in supporting Charles Caesar at elections at Hertfordshire . He became a bencher of his Inn in 1728 and married Elizabeth Byde, daughter of Thomas Byde of Ware Park, Hertfordshire on 9 October 1731.At the 1734 Plumer was selected as candidate for Hertfordshire at a meeting of county electors and was elected MP, defeating Caesar. There is no record of votes by Plumer although he was described as supporting the administration. He did not stand in the 1741 general election.Plumer succeeded to some of the estates of his brother Walter in 1746. He was returned as MP for Hertfordshire at a by-election on 1 May 1755 but did not stand again at the 1761 general election.Plumer died 12 December 1767 and was buried at Eastwick, Hertfordshire. He and his wife had two sons and four daughters. He was succeeded by his son William who was also an MP.

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