Charles Brenton Huggins

Charles Brenton Huggins (September 22, 1901 – January 12, 1997) was a Canadian-American physician, physiologist and cancer researcher at the University of Chicago specializing in prostate cancer.[1] He was awarded the 1966 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for discovering in 1941 that hormones could be used to control the spread of some cancers.[2] This was the first discovery that showed that cancer could be controlled by chemicals.

Charles Brenton Huggins
Charles Brenton Huggins nobel
Charles Brenton Huggins
BornSeptember 22, 1901
DiedJanuary 12, 1997 (aged 95)
CitizenshipCanadian / American
Alma materAcadia University
Harvard University
Known forprostate cancer
hormones
AwardsNobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine (1966)
Gairdner Foundation International Award (1966)
Scientific career
Fieldsphysiology
InstitutionsUniversity of Michigan, University of Chicago

Early life and education

Huggins was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. He graduated from Acadia University with a BA degree in 1920. He went on to study medicine at Harvard Medical School and received his MD degree in 1924. He served his internship and residency in general surgery with Frederick A. Coller at the University of Michigan.[3]

Work

Huggins established a method to measure the effect hormone changes have on prostatic function. He found out that castration or estrogen administration led to glandular atrophy, which could be reversed by re-administration of androgen. In 1941 the beneficial effect of androgen ablation on metastatic prostate cancer was realised when Huggins and Clarence Hodges treated patients by either castration or estrogen therapy. They monitored the prostate size and therapeutic efficacy by measuring serum prostatic acid phosphatase levels and concluded that androgenic activity in the body influences prostate cancer, at least with respect to serum phosphatase. Huggins was the first to use a systemic approach to treat prostate cancer.

Huggins was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine on October 13, 1966.[4]

Huggins died 1997 in Chicago, Illinois at the age of 95 years. His wife died in 1983.

Notes

  1. ^ Altman, Lawrence K. (January 15, 1997), "C. B. Huggins Dies at 95; Won Nobel for Cancer Work", The New York Times, retrieved October 13, 2017
  2. ^ Huggins C, Hodges CV (2002). "Studies on prostatic cancer. I. The effect of castration, of estrogen and of androgen injection on serum phosphatases in metastatic carcinoma of the prostate. 1941". The Journal of Urology. 167 (2): 948–951. doi:10.1097/00005392-200207000-00004. PMID 11905923.
  3. ^ "Charles B. Huggins, MD, 1901-1997". University of Chicago Medicine 1997 Press Releases. University of Chicago. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
  4. ^ Denmeade, SR; Isaacs, JT (May 2002). "A history of prostate cancer treatment". Nature Reviews. Cancer. 2 (5): 389–96. doi:10.1038/nrc801. PMC 4124639. PMID 12044015.

References

  • Toledo-Pereyra, L H (2001). "Discovery in surgical investigation: the essence of Charles Brenton Huggins". Journal of Investigative Surgery. 14 (5): 251–2. doi:10.1080/089419301753170011. PMID 11700917.
  • Forster, R E (June 1999). "Charles Brenton Huggins (22 September 1901–12 January 1997)". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 143 (2): 325–31. PMID 11623829.
  • Raju, T N (August 1999). "The Nobel chronicles. 1966: Francis Peyton Rous (1879–1970) and Charles Brenton Huggins (1901–97)". Lancet. 354 (9177): 520. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)75563-X. PMID 10465213.
  • Schmähl, D (1980). "[Charles Brenton Huggins, Nobel Prize for Medicine 1966: "Discovery is our business"]". Chirurgisches Forum für experimentelle und klinische Forschung: VI–VIII. PMID 6993114.
  • Drucker, W R (1973). "Charles B. Huggins, MD, FACS (hon)". Surgical forum. 24: V. PMID 4618632.
  • "Classics in oncology. Charles Brenton Huggins". CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 22 (4): 230–1. 1972. doi:10.3322/canjclin.22.4.230. PMID 4625048.
  • Kenéz, J (October 1971). "[Ch. B. Huggins at the age of 70]". Orvosi hetilap. 112 (42): 2535–7. PMID 4943846.
  • Morii, S (May 1971). "[My professor, Dr. Huggins]". Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica. 17 (5): 295–6. PMID 4933515.
  • Fukunishi, R (October 1967). "[Pioneer of cancer research: Dr. Charles B. Huggins]". Nippon Rinsho. 25 (8): 1709–12. PMID 4868962.
  • Schmähl, D (December 1966). "[Charles Brenton Huggins]". Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 91 (51): 2308–9. PMID 5333371.
  • Frenkel, M (November 1966). "[Charles Brenton Huggins, co-winner of the Nobel Prize in physiology and medicine, 1966]". Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde. 110 (45): 1994–5. PMID 5342106.
  • Luft, R (November 1966). "[Nobel prize in physiology and medicine 1966. Charles Brenton Huggins]". Nordisk medicin. 76 (44): 1269–71. PMID 5337055.
  • Franksson, C (October 1966). "[Nobel Prize of the year. II. Charles B. Huggins]". Lakartidningen. 63 (43): 4102–4. PMID 5343069.
  • TALALAY, P (June 1965). "The Scientific Contributions Of Charles Brenton Huggins". JAMA. 192: 1137–40. doi:10.1001/jama.1965.03080260025007. PMID 14301033.

External links

1901

1901 (MCMI)

was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1901st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 901st year of the 2nd millennium, the 1st year of the 20th century, and the 2nd year of the 1900s decade. As of the start of 1901, the Gregorian calendar was

13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1901 in Canada

Events from the year 1901 in Canada.

1966 in science

The year 1966 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.

1997

1997 (MCMXCVII)

was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1997th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 997th year of the 2nd millennium, the 97th year of the 20th century, and the 8th year of the 1990s decade.

1997 in Canada

Events from the year 1997 in Canada.

A. Hari Reddi

A. Hari Reddi (born October 20, 1942) is a Distinguished Professor and holder of the Lawrence J. Ellison Endowed Chair in Musculoskeletal Molecular Biology at the University of California, Davis. He was previously the Virginia M. and William A. Percy Chair and Professor in Orthopaedic Surgery, Professor of Biological Chemistry, and Professor of Oncology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Professor Reddi's research played an indispensable role in the identification, isolation and purification of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) that are involved in bone formation and repair. The molecular mechanism of bone induction studied by Professor Reddi led to the conceptual advance in tissue engineering that morphogens/metabologens bound to an insoluble extracellular matrix scaffolding act in collaboration to stimulate stem cells to form cartilage and bone. The Reddi laboratory has also made important discoveries unraveling the role of the extracellular matrix in bone and cartilage tissue regeneration and repair.

Acadia University

Acadia University is a predominantly undergraduate university located in Wolfville, Nova Scotia, Canada with some graduate programs at the master's level and one at the doctoral level. The enabling legislation consists of Acadia University Act and the Amended Acadia University Act 2000.The Wolfville Campus houses Acadia University Archives and the Acadia University Art Gallery. Acadia offers over 200 degree combinations in the Faculties of Arts, Pure and Applied Science, Professional Studies, and Theology. The student-faculty ratio is 15:1 and the average class size is 28. Open Acadia offers correspondence and distance education courses.

Dallas B. Phemister

Dallas Burton Phemister (; July 15, 1882 – December 28, 1951) was an American surgeon and researcher who gave his name to several medical terms. During his career, he was the president of the American Surgical Association and the American College of Surgeons, and was a member of the editorial board of the journal Annals of Surgery.

Harvard Medical School

Harvard Medical School (HMS) is the graduate medical school of Harvard University. It is located in the Longwood Medical Area of the Mission Hill neighborhood in Boston, Massachusetts. Founded in 1782, HMS is one of the oldest medical schools in the United States and is consistently ranked 1st among research-oriented medical schools by U.S. News and World Report. Unlike most other leading medical schools, HMS does not operate in conjunction with a single hospital but is directly affiliated with several teaching hospitals in the Boston area. The HMS faculty comprises of approximately 2,900 full- and part-time voting faculty members consisting of assistant, associate, and full professors, and over 5,000 full- and part-time, non-voting instructors. The majority of the faculty receive their appointments through an affiliated teaching hospital.

January 12

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List of Nobel laureates

The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: Nobelpriset, Norwegian: Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. They were established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which dictates that the awards should be administered by the Nobel Foundation. The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was established in 1968 by the Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, for contributions to the field of economics. Each recipient, or "laureate", receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money, which is decided annually by the Nobel Foundation.

List of Nobel laureates affiliated with Johns Hopkins University

This list of Nobel laureates affiliated with Johns Hopkins University comprehensively shows the alumni, faculty members as well as researchers of the Johns Hopkins University who were awarded the Nobel Prize and the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. The Nobel Prizes, established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, are awarded to individuals who make outstanding contributions in the fields of Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine. An associated prize, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (commonly known as the Nobel Prize in Economics), was instituted by Sweden's central bank, Sveriges Riksbank, in 1968 and first awarded in 1969.As of October 2018, there have been 37 Nobel laureates affiliated with Johns Hopkins University, and 27 of them are officially listed as "Johns Hopkins' Nobel Laureates" by the university. Among the 37 laureates, 16 are Johns Hopkins' alumni (graduates and attendees), 14 are long-term faculty members and 14 are researchers (seven overlaps). Subject-wise, 16 Johns Hopkins laureates have won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, more than any other category.

Woodrow Wilson, who received his Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins in 1886, was the first Johns Hopkins-affiliated laureate, winning the Nobel Peace Prize in 1919. Four Nobel Prizes were shared by Johns Hopkins laureates: George Minot and George Whipple won the 1934 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Joseph Erlanger and Herbert Spencer Gasser won the 1944 Nobel Prize in Physiology in Medicine, Daniel Nathans and Hamilton O. Smith won the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and David H. Hubel and Torsten N. Wiesel won the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

List of Nobel laureates in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Swedish: Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin) is awarded annually by the Swedish Karolinska Institute to scientists and doctors in the various fields of physiology or medicine. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel (who died in 1896), awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. As dictated by Nobel's will, the award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and awarded by a committee that consists of five members and an executive secretary elected by the Karolinska Institute. While commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Medicine, Nobel specifically stated that the prize be awarded for "physiology or medicine" in his will. Because of this, the prize can be awarded in a broader range of fields. The first Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded in 1901 to Emil Adolf von Behring, of Germany. Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award that has varied throughout the years. In 1901, von Behring received 150,782 SEK, which was equal to 7,731,004 SEK in December 2008. The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death.Laureates have won the Nobel Prize in a wide range of fields that relate to physiology or medicine. As of 2009, 8 Prizes have been awarded for contributions in the field of signal transduction by G proteins and second messengers, 13 have been awarded for contributions in the field of neurobiology and 13 have been awarded for contributions in intermediary metabolism. In 1939 Gerhard Domagk, a German, was not allowed by his government to accept the prize. He later received a medal and diploma, but not the money. As of 2018, the prize has been awarded to 216 individuals, twelve of them were women: Gerty Cori (1947), Rosalyn Yalow (1977), Barbara McClintock (1983), Rita Levi-Montalcini (1986), Gertrude B. Elion (1988), Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard (1995), Linda B. Buck (2004), Françoise Barré-Sinoussi (2008), Elizabeth H. Blackburn (2009), Carol W. Greider (2009), May-Britt Moser (2014) and Tu Youyou (2015). There have been nine years in which the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was not awarded (1915–1918, 1921, 1925, 1940–1942).

List of people from the Halifax Regional Municipality

This is a list of people who were born in the communities making up the Halifax Regional Municipality, Nova Scotia or spent a significant part of their lives there.

List of physiologists

This is a list of physiologists who have Wikipedia articles, in alphabetical order by surname.

Passano Foundation

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September 22

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Thomas Dao

Ling Yuan "Thomas" Dao (April 27, 1921 – July 16, 2009) was a Chinese American physician and specialist in breast cancer, its causes and treatment, who was one of the earliest proponents of minimalist alternatives to radical mastectomy as a treatment option for breast cancer, in addition to advocacy of breast self-examination and mammography as means to detect breast cancer as early as possible.

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