Charles Bell

Sir Charles Bell KH FRS FRSE FRCSE MWS (12 November 1774 – 28 April 1842) was a Scottish surgeon, anatomist, physiologist, neurologist, artist, and philosophical theologian. He is noted for discovering the difference between sensory nerves and motor nerves in the spinal cord. He is also noted for describing Bell's palsy.

His three older brothers included Robert Bell (1757–1816) a Writer to the Signet, John Bell (1763–1820), also a noted surgeon and writer; and the advocate George Joseph Bell (1770–1843) who became a professor of law at the University of Edinburgh and a principal clerk at the Court of Session.[1]

Sir Charles Bell

Photograph of Sir Charles Bell
Sir Charles Bell
Born12 November 1774
Died28 April 1842 (aged 67)
Alma materUniversity of Edinburgh
Known forauthority on the human nervous system
AwardsRoyal Medal (1829)
Scientific career
InstitutionsSurgeon, Edinburgh Royal Infirmary (1799-)
Practising surgeon, London (1804-)
Principal Lecturer, Great Windmill Street School of Anatomy (1812-25)
Lectured at Middlesex Hospital etc (1812-36)
Professor of Surgery, Edinburgh University (1836-42)
Author of "Treatise on Animal Mechanics", "An Essay on the Hand, its Mechanism and Vital Endowments as Evincing Design"

Early life and education

Charles Bell was born in Edinburgh on 12 November 1774,[2] as the fourth son of the Reverend William Bell, a clergyman of the Episcopal Church of Scotland. Charles's father died in 1779 when he was five years old, and thus his mother had a profound influence on his early life teaching him how to read and write.[1] In addition to this, his mother also helped Charles’s natural artistic ability by paying for his regular drawing and painting lessons from David Allan, a well-known Scottish painter.[3] Charles Bell grew up in Edinburgh, and attended the prestigious High School (1784-8). Although he was not a particularly good student, Charles decided to follow in his brother John’s footsteps and enter a career in medicine.[4] In 1792, Charles Bell enrolled at the University of Edinburgh and began assisting his brother John as a surgical apprentice. While at the university, Bell attended the lectures of Dugald Stewart on the subject of spiritual philosophy. These lectures had considerable impact on Bell, for some of Stewart’s teachings can be traced in Bell’s later works in a passage on his Treatise on the Hand.[1] In addition to classes on anatomy, Bell took a course on the art of drawing in order to refine his artistic skill. At the university he was also a member of the Royal Medical Society as a student and spoke at the Society's centenary celebrations in 1837.[5]

In 1798, Bell graduated from the University of Edinburgh and soon after was admitted to the Edinburgh College of Surgeons where he taught anatomy and operated at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary. While developing his talents as a surgeon, Bell’s interests forayed into a field combining anatomy and art. His inherent talent as an artist came to the fore when he helped his brother complete a four-volume work called The Anatomy of the Human Body. Charles Bell completely wrote and illustrated volumes 3 and 4 in 1803, as well as publishing his own set of illustrations in a System of Dissections in 1798 and 1799.[6] Furthermore, Bell uses his clinical experience and his artistic eye to develop the hobby of modeling interesting medical cases in wax. He proceeded to accumulate an extensive collection that he dubbed his Museum of Anatomy, some items of which can still be seen today at Surgeon’s Hall.

Charles Bell’s stay in Edinburgh did not last long due to an infamous feud between John Bell and two faculty members at the University of Edinburgh: Alexander Monro Secundus and John Gregory. John Gregory was the chairman of the Royal Infirmary and had declared that only six full-time surgical staff members would be appointed to work at the infirmary. The Bell brothers were not selected and thus barred from practicing medicine at the Royal Infirmary. Charles Bell, who was not directly involved in his brother’s feuds, attempted to make a deal with the faculty of the University of Edinburgh by offering the university one hundred guineas and his Museum of Anatomy in exchange for allowing him to observe and sketch the operations performed at the Royal Infirmary, but this deal was rejected.

Professional career

In 1804, Charles Bell left for London and in 1805 had established himself in the city by buying a house on Leicester Street. From this house Bell taught classes in anatomy and surgery for medical students, doctors, and artists. In 1809, Bell volunteered to attend to the British troops wounded at Corunna and was one of the few civilian surgeons to do so. Bell primarily attended to amputees but was not very successful in his amputation surgeries, producing a 92% mortality rate.[7] In addition to the amputation surgeries, Bell was quite fascinated by musket-ball injuries and in 1814, he published a Dissertation on Gunshot Wounds. A number of his illustrations of the wounds are displayed in the hall of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh.[8]

In 1811, Charles Bell married Marion Shaw. Using money from his wife's dowry, Bell purchased a share of the Great Windmill Street School of Anatomy which had been founded by the anatomist William Hunter. Bell transferred his practice from his house to the Windmill Street School Bell ended up teaching students and conducting his own research until 1824. In 1813-14, he was appointed as a member of the London College of Surgeons and as a surgeon at the Middlesex Hospital.

In addition to his domestic pursuits, Bell also served as a military surgeon, making elaborate recordings of neurological injuries at the Royal Hospital Haslar and famously documenting his experiences at Waterloo in 1815. For three consecutive days and nights, he operated on French soldiers in the Gens d'Armerie Hospital. The condition of the French soldiers was quite poor, and thus many of his patients died shortly after he operated on them. Dr. Robert Knox, who was one of Bell’s surgical assistants at Brussells, was quite critical of Bell’s surgical skills. He commented very negatively on Bell's surgical abilities; (the mortality rate of amputations carried out by Bell ran at about 90%).

Bell was instrumental in the creation of the Middlesex Hospital Medical School, and became, in 1824, the first professor of Anatomy and Surgery of the College of Surgeons in London. In that same year Bell sold his collection of over 3,000 wax preparations to the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh for £3000.

In 1829, the Windmill Street School of Anatomy was incorporated into the new King's College London. Bell was invited to be its first professor of physiology, and helped establish the Medical School at the University of London, gave the inaugural address when it formally opened, and even helped contribute to the requirements of its certification program.[9] Bell's stay at the Medical School did not last long and he resigned from his chair due to differences of opinion with the academic staff. For the next seven years, Bell gave clinical lectures at the Middlesex Hospital and in 1835 he accepted the position of the Chair of Surgery at the University of Edinburgh[10] following the premature death of Prof John William Turner.[11]

He was made a Knight of the Royal Guelphic Order in 1833.

Bell died at Hallow Park near Worcester in the Midlands, while travelling from Edinburgh to London, in 1842.

He is buried in Hallow Churchyard near Worcester.[12]

Honours and awards

Bell was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh on 8 June 1807, on the nomination of Robert Jameson, William Wright and Thomas Macknight. He served as a Councillor of the RSE from 1836-9.

He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London on 16 November 1826,[13] and was awarded the Royal Society's Gold Medal for his numerous discoveries in science. Bell was knighted as a Knight of the Guelphic Order of Hanover in 1831 and, like Sir Richard Owen, was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.


Charles Bell - The Maniac
The Maniac by Charles Bell (1806)
Opisthotonus in a patient suffering from tetanus - Painting by Sir Charles Bell - 1809
Opisthotonus (Tetanus) by Charles Bell (1809)

Charles Bell was a prolific author who combined his anatomical knowledge with his artistic eye to produce a number of highly detailed and beautifully illustrated books. In 1799, Bell published his first work “A System of Dissections, explaining the Anatomy of the Human Body, the manner of displaying Parts and their Varieties in Disease”. His second work was the completion of his brother’s four-volume set of “The Anatomy of the Human Body” in 1803. In that same year, Bell published his three series of engravings titled “Engravings of the Arteries”, “Engravings of the Brain”, and “Engravings of the Nerves.” These set of engravings consisted of intricate and detailed anatomical diagrams accompanied with labels and a brief description of their functionality in the human body and were published as an educational tool for aspiring medical students. The “Engravings of the Brain” are of particular importance for this marked Bell’s first published attempt at fully elucidating the organization of the nervous system. In his introduction to the work, Bell comments on the ambiguous nature of the brain and its inner workings, a topic that would hold his interest for the remainder of his life.[14]

In 1806, with his eye on a teaching post at the Royal Academy, Bell published his Essays on The Anatomy of Expression in Painting (1806), later re-published as Essays on The Anatomy and Philosophy of Expression in 1824. In this work, Bell followed the principles of natural theology, asserting the existence of a uniquely human system of facial muscles in the service of a human species with a unique relationship to the Creator, ideals which paralleled with those of William Paley.[15] After the failure of his application (Sir Thomas Lawrence, later President of the Royal Academy, described Bell as "lacking in temper, modesty and judgement"), Bell turned his attentions to the nervous system.

Bell published detailed studies of the nervous system in 1811, in his privately circulated book An Idea of a New Anatomy of the Brain.[16] In this book, Bell described his idea of the different nervous tracts connecting with different parts of brain and thus leading to different functionality. His experiments to investigate this consisted of cutting open the spinal cord of a rabbit and touching different columns of the cord.[17] He found that an irritation of the anterior columns led to a convulsion of the muscles, while an irritation of the posterior columns had no visible effect. These experiments led Bell to declare that he was the first to distinguish between sensory and motor nerves.[18] While this essay is considered by many to be the founding stone of clinical neurology, it was not well received by Bell’s peers. His experimentation was criticized and the idea that he presented of the anterior and posterior roots being connected to the cerebrum and cerebellum respectively, was rejected. Furthermore, Bell's original essay of 1811 did not actually contain a clear description of motor and sensory nerve roots as Bell later claimed, and he seems to have issued subsequent incorrectly dated revisions with subtle textual alterations.[4]

Plate 10
Plate 10 from “Anatomy of the Brain Explained in a Series of Engravings” Image credited to Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library.

Despite this lukewarm response, Charles Bell continued to study the anatomy of the human brain and laid his focus upon the nerves connected to it. In 1821, Bell published the “On the Nerves: Giving an Account of some Experiments on Their Structure and Functions, Which Lead to a New Arrangement of the System” in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. This paper held Bell’s most famous discovery, that the facial nerve or seventh cranial nerve is a nerve of muscular action. This was quite an important discovery because surgeons would often cut this nerve as an attempted cure for facial neuralgia, but this would often render the patient with a unilateral paralysis of the facial muscles, now known as Bell’s Palsy.[17] Due to this publication, Charles Bell is regarded as one of the first physicians to combine the scientific study of neuroanatomy with clinical practice.

Bell's studies on emotional expression played a catalytic role in the development of Darwin's considerations of the origins of human emotional life; and, while he rejected Bell's theological arguments, Darwin very much agreed with Bell's emphasis on the expressive role of the muscles of respiration. Darwin detailed these opinions in his The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872), written with the active collaboration of the psychiatrist James Crichton-Browne. Bell was one of the first physicians to combine the scientific study of neuroanatomy with clinical practice. In 1821, he described in the trajectory of the facial nerve and a disease, Bell's Palsy which led to the unilateral paralysis of facial muscles, in one of the classics of neurology, a paper delivered to the Royal Society entitled On the Nerves: Giving an Account of some Experiments on Their Structure an Functions, Which Lead to a New Arrangement of the System.

Bell also combined his many artistic, scientific, literary and teaching talents in a number of wax preparations and detailed anatomical and surgical illustrations, paintings and engravings in his several books on these subjects, such as in his book Illustrations of the Great Operations of Surgery: Trepan, Hernia, Amputation, Aneurism, and Lithotomy (1821). He wrote also the first treatise on notions of anatomy and physiology of facial expression for painters and illustrators, titled Essays on the Anatomy of Expression in Painting (1806).

In 1829, Francis Egerton, the eighth Earl of Bridgewater, died and in his will, he left a large sum of money to the President of the Royal Society of London. The will stipulated that the money was to be used to write, print, and publish one thousand copies of a work On the Power, Wisdom, and Goodness of God. The President of the Royal Society, Davies Gilbert appointed eight gentlemen to write separate treatises on the subject. In 1833, he published the fourth Bridgewater Treatise, The Hand: Its Mechanism and Vital Endowments as Evincing Design.[19] Charles Bell published four editions of The Hand. In the first few chapters, Bell organizes his treatise as an early textbook of comparative anatomy. The book is full of pictures where Bell compares “hands” of different organisms ranging from human hands, chimpanzee paws, and fish feelers. After the first few chapters, Bell orients his treatise around the significance of the hand and its importance in its use in anatomy. He emphasizes that the hand is as important as the eye in the field of surgery and that it must be trained.


A number of discoveries received his name:

Charles Bell House, part of University College London, is used for teaching and research in surgery.[23]


  1. ^ a b c Pichot, Amédée (1860-01-01). The life and labours of Sir Charles Bell ... London :. hdl:2027/uc2.ark:/13960/t4th8dz6z.
  2. ^ Kazi, Rehan; Rhys-Evans, P. (April 1, 2004). "Sir Charles Bell: The artist who went to the roots!". Journal of Postgraduate Medicine.
  3. ^ Grzybowski, Andrzej; Kaufman, Matthew H. (2007). "Sir Charles Bell (1774−1842): contributions to neuro-ophthalmology". Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica. 85 (8): 897–901. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0420.2007.00972.x. ISSN 1395-3907. PMID 17680840.
  4. ^ a b van Gijn J (2011). "Charles Bell (1774-1842)". J. Neurol. 258 (6): 1189–90. doi:10.1007/s00415-011-5912-5. PMC 3101348. PMID 21267589.
  5. ^ Gray, James (1952). History of the Royal Medical Society 1737-1937. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. pp. 91, 166.
  6. ^ Gibson, William (1841-01-01). Rambles in Europe, in 1839.With sketches of prominent surgeons, physicians, medical schools, hospitals, literary personages, scenery, etc. Philadelphia. hdl:2027/nyp.33433082468293.
  7. ^ Howard, Martin R (2005). "A Surgical Artist at War: the Paintings and Sketches of Sir Charles Bell 1809–1815". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 98 (11): 517. ISSN 0141-0768. PMC 1276004.
  8. ^ Grzybowski, Andrzej; Kaufman, Matthew H. (2007-12-01). "Sir Charles Bell (1774−1842): contributions to neuro-ophthalmology". Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica. 85 (8): 897–901. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0420.2007.00972.x. ISSN 1600-0420. PMID 17680840.
  9. ^ Berkowitz, Carin (2014-12-01). "Charles Bell's seeing hand: Teaching anatomy to the senses in Britain, 1750–1840". History of Science. 52 (4): 377–400. doi:10.1177/0073275314559334. ISSN 0073-2753.
  10. ^ Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bell, Sir Charles". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  11. ^ Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal Jan 1836
  12. ^
  13. ^ "Library and Archive Catalogue". Royal Society. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
  14. ^ Bell, Charles (1802-01-01). The anatomy of the brain, explained in a series of engravings. London. hdl:2027/nyp.33433011665720.
  15. ^ Hughes, Sean; Gardner-Thorpe, Christopher (2018-08-31). "Charles Bell (1774–1842) and Natural Theology". Journal of Medical Biography: 0967772018790736. doi:10.1177/0967772018790736. ISSN 0967-7720. PMID 30165759.(subscription required)
  16. ^ Bell C, Shaw A (Nov 1868). "REPRINT OF THE "IDEA OF A NEW ANATOMIY OF THE BRAIN". J Anat Physiol. 3 (Pt 1): 147–82. PMC 1318665. PMID 17230788.
  17. ^ a b Dalton, John Call (1867-01-01). Vivisection; what it is, and what it has accomplished. New York :. hdl:2027/miun.agq7673.0001.001.
  18. ^ Dalton, John Call (1882-01-01). The experimental method in medical science. New York. hdl:2027/hvd.32044106446636.
  19. ^ Bell, Charles (1833). The Hand, Its Mechanism and Vital Endowments as Evincing Design. London: William Pickering.
  20. ^ Video demonstrating Bell's Phenomenon. OPD Mayo Hospital Lahore.
  21. ^ Jones, David H (2001). "Bell's phenomenon should not be regarded as pathognomonic sign". BMJ: British Medical Journal. 323 (7318): 935. doi:10.1136/bmj.323.7318.935. PMC 1121451.
  22. ^ Robinson, Victor, ed. (1939). "Bell's Law, within the description of Bell's Palsy, including a brief discussion about Charles Bell, 1774-1842". The Modern Home Physician, A New Encyclopedia of Medical Knowledge. WM. H. Wise & Company (New York)., page 92.
  23. ^ "Charles Bell House". UCL. UCL. Retrieved 8 October 2016.

Further reading

  • Bell, C., The Hand. Its Mechanism and Vital Endowments as Evincing Design; Bridgewater Treatises, W. Pickering, 1833 (reissued by Cambridge University Press, 2009; ISBN 978-1-108-00088-8)
  • Berkowitz, Carin. Charles Bell and the Anatomy of Reform. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2015.

External links

Bell's palsy

Bell's palsy is a type of facial paralysis that results in an inability to control the facial muscles on the affected side. Symptoms can vary from mild to severe. They may include muscle twitching, weakness, or total loss of the ability to move one or rarely both sides of the face. Other symptoms include drooping of the eyelid, a change in taste, pain around the ear, and increased sensitivity to sound. Typically symptoms come on over 48 hours.The cause of Bell's palsy is unknown. Risk factors include diabetes and a recent upper respiratory tract infection. It results from a dysfunction of cranial nerve VII (the facial nerve). Many believe that this is due to a viral infection that results in swelling. Diagnosis is based on a person's appearance and ruling out other possible causes. Other conditions that can cause facial weakness include brain tumor, stroke, Ramsay Hunt syndrome, myasthenia gravis, and Lyme disease.The condition normally gets better by itself with most achieving normal or near-normal function. Corticosteroids have been found to improve outcomes, while antiviral medications may be of a small additional benefit. The eye should be protected from drying up with the use of eye drops or an eyepatch. Surgery is generally not recommended. Often signs of improvement begin within 14 days, with complete recovery within six months. A few may not recover completely or have a recurrence of symptoms.Bell's palsy is the most common cause of one-sided facial nerve paralysis (70%). It occurs in 1 to 4 per 10,000 people per year. About 1.5% of people are affected at some point in their life. It most commonly occurs in people between ages 15 and 60. Males and females are affected equally. It is named after Scottish surgeon Charles Bell (1774–1842), who first described the connection of the facial nerve to the condition.

Bell's phenomenon

Bell's phenomenon (also known as the palpebral oculogyric reflex) is a medical sign that allows observers to notice an upward and outward movement of the eye, when an attempt is made to close the eyes. The upward movement of the eye is present in the majority of the population, and is a defensive mechanism. The phenomenon is named after the Scottish anatomist, surgeon, and physiologist Charles Bell.

Bell's phenomenon is a normal defense reflex present in about 75% of the population, resulting in elevation of the globes when blinking or when threatened (e.g. when an attempt is made to touch a patient's cornea). It becomes noticeable only when the orbicularis oculi muscle becomes weak as in, for example, bilateral facial palsy associated with Guillain–Barré syndrome. It is, however, present behind forcibly closed eyelids in most healthy people and should not be regarded as a pathognomonic sign.

Also, traumatic abrasions are generally located in the central or inferior cornea due to Bell's phenomenon.Bell's phenomenon does not occur during short blinks.

Charles Alfred Bell

Sir Charles Alfred Bell, KCIE CMG (October 31, 1870 – March 8, 1945) was the British Political Officer for Bhutan, Sikkim and Tibet. He was known as "British India's ambassador to Tibet" before retiring and becoming a noted tibetologist.

Charles Bell (British architect)

Charles Bell FRIBA (1846–99) was a British architect who designed buildings in the United Kingdom, including over 60 Wesleyan Methodist chapels.

Charles Bell (London MP)

Charles Bell (1805 – 9 February 1869) was a British Conservative Party politician.

He was elected MP for City of London in November 1868 but died just four months later in February 1869.

Charles Bell (painter)

Charles Bell (1935–1995) was an American Photorealist who created large scale still lifes.

Charles Bell Birch

Charles Bell Birch (September 28, 1832 – October 16, 1893) was an English sculptor.

Charles Davidson Bell

Charles Davidson Bell FRSE (22 October 1813 – 7 April 1882) was the Surveyor-General in the Cape Colony, an artist, heraldist, and designer of Cape medals and stamps.

David Charles Bell

Professor David Charles Bell (4 May 1817 – 28 October 1902), was a Scottish-born scholar, author and professor of elocution. He was an elder brother to Alexander Melville Bell and uncle to Alexander Graham Bell.

Bell was born in St. Andrews, Fife, Scotland. He married Ellen Adine Highland and together they had eleven children. He later followed his brother Melville to Canada, emigrating from Ireland to Brantford, Ontario along with his wife and several of his children, including Aileen, Lilly, Laura and Charles James. His family's vocations and activities were highly similar to Melville's, its member's being gifted in music and elocution. As did his younger brother, David became a professor of elocution, providing lectures on proper speech.

David Charles, Professor of English Literature and Elocution, had previously taught at Ireland's Dublin University, where one of his students was playwright George Bernard Shaw, whom he later introduced to Melville. Shaw, under Melville's influence was inspired to write the play Pygmalion (which spawned the musical production and movie My Fair Lady and refers directly to "Bell's Visible Speech"), and also became a life-long advocate of phonetic transcription —leaving a large part of his estate to the development of a "fonetic alfabet".While residing at Brantford, Ontario, Bell was an assistant to an important early test of the telephone, newly invented by his nephew Alexander Graham. Bell spoke to his nephew from the Brantford telegraph office, reciting lines from Shakespeare's Hamlet ("To be or not to be...."). The young inventor, positioned at the A. Wallis Ellis store in the neighbouring community of Mount Pleasant, listened to his uncle's voice emanating from his receiver housed in a metal box. Initially David Bell's voice couldn't be heard distinctly as "...all kinds and sizes of wire were used in stringing from the house to Mount Pleasant road." However, the Dominion Telegraph manager, Walter Griffin, decided to attach the wire to a telegraph battery to see if it would improve the transmission, which it did, and then "the voices then came in distinctly."David's son Charles James Bell (Dublin, 12 April 1858 – 1 October 1929) would marry Roberta Wolcott Hubbard (4 June 1859 – 4 July 1885), and then Grace Blatchford Hubbard (9 October 1861 – 16 July 1948), sisters of Mabel Hubbard (Alexander Graham Bell's wife), and become President of the American Security and Trust Company in the Washington, D.C. area.

David Charles wrote several works on elocution and speech, and in 1878 also co-authored Bell's Standard Elocutionist: Principles and Exercises along with his brother Melville. He died in Washington, D.C., age 86, and was survived by three sons and four daughters.

Experimental psychology

Experimental psychology refers to work done by those who apply experimental methods to psychological study and the processes that underlie it. Experimental psychologists employ human participants and animal subjects to study a great many topics, including (among others) sensation & perception, memory, cognition, learning, motivation, emotion; developmental processes, social psychology, and the neural substrates of all of these.

Jonathan Bell (rugby union)

Jonathan Charles Bell (born 7 February 1974 in Belfast) is a rugby union player who played at centre for Ulster, Dungannon, Northampton and Ireland. He made his international debut in 1994 against Australia.

He has now retired from rugby and is a PE teacher at Campbell College Belfast and coaches the 1st XV.

List of public art in Liverpool

The city of Liverpool has a greater number of public sculptures than any other location in the United Kingdom aside from Westminster. Early examples include works by George Frampton, Goscombe John, Thomas Thornycroft, Charles Bell Birch, Richard Westmacott, Francis Chantrey, John Gibson, Thomas Brock and F.W. Pomeroy, while Barbara Hepworth, Jacob Epstein, Mitzi Cunliffe and Elizabeth Frink provide some of the modern offerings. More recently, local artist Tom Murphy has created a dozen sculptures in Liverpool.

While statues and sculpture are dotted throughout the inner city, there are four primary groupings: inside and around St George's Hall; in St John's Gardens; around the Pier Head; and around the Palm House at Sefton Park. Smaller groups are found in Old Hall Street/Exchange Flags and in and around The Oratory.

The Queen Victoria Monument at Derby Square, an ensemble of 26 bronze figures by C. J. Allen, is described in the Liverpool Pevsner Architectural Guide as one of the most ambitious British monuments to the Queen.NB: the following list does not include the comprehensive collections held by National Museums Liverpool, or the countless ornate features of many Liverpool buildings.

Muscular dystrophy

Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a group of muscle diseases that results in increasing weakening and breakdown of skeletal muscles over time. The disorders differ in which muscles are primarily affected, the degree of weakness, how fast they worsen, and when symptoms begin. Many people will eventually become unable to walk. Some types are also associated with problems in other organs.The muscular dystrophy group contains thirty different genetic disorders that are usually classified into nine main categories or types. The most common type is Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) which typically affects males beginning around the age of four. Other types include Becker muscular dystrophy, facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, and myotonic dystrophy. They are due to mutations in genes that are involved in making muscle proteins. This can occur due to either inheriting the defect from one's parents or the mutation occurring during early development. Disorders may be X-linked recessive, autosomal recessive, or autosomal dominant. Diagnosis often involves blood tests and genetic testing.There is no cure for muscular dystrophy. Physical therapy, braces, and corrective surgery may help with some symptoms. Assisted ventilation may be required in those with weakness of breathing muscles. Medications used include steroids to slow muscle degeneration, anticonvulsants to control seizures and some muscle activity, and immunosuppressants to delay damage to dying muscle cells. Outcomes depend on the specific type of disorder.Duchenne muscular dystrophy, which represents about half of all cases of muscular dystrophy, affects about one in 5,000 males at birth. Muscular dystrophy was first described in the 1830s by Charles Bell. The word "dystrophy" is from the Greek dys, meaning "difficult" and troph meaning "nourish". Gene therapy, as a treatment, is in the early stages of study in humans.


Photorealism is a genre of art that encompasses painting, drawing and other graphic media, in which an artist studies a photograph and then attempts to reproduce the image as realistically as possible in another medium. Although the term can be used broadly to describe artworks in many different media, it is also used to refer specifically to a group of paintings and painters of the American art movement that began in the late 1960s and early 1970s.

Robert Charles Bell

For the Scottish engraver see Robert Charles Bell (engraver).

Robert Charles Bell (1917–2002) was the author of several books on board games, most importantly Board and Table Games 1 & 2 (reprinted as Board and Table Games from Many Civilizations). This work won the Premier Award of the Doctors' Hobbies Exhibition, London. He was instrumental in popularizing traditional games, and is acknowledged as one of 11 "principal sources" in David Parlett's The Oxford History of Board Games.

Roger Charles Bell

Roger Charles Bell is a Canadian former secondary school teacher and convicted criminal from Prince Edward Island. Born in Murray River in 1944, Bell is a graduate of University of Western Ontario and taught high school chemistry at several schools in eastern Prince Edward Island.

Surgeons' Hall

Surgeons' Hall in Edinburgh, Scotland, is the headquarters of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (RCSED). It houses the Surgeons' Hall Museum, and the library and archive of the RCSED. The present Surgeons' Hall was designed by William Henry Playfair and completed in 1832, and is a category A listed building.Surgeons' Hall Museum is the major medical museum in Scotland, and one of Edinburgh's many tourist attractions. The museum is recognised as a collection of national significance by the Scottish Government.

The museum reopened in September 2015, after being closed for an eighteen month period of redevelopment.

Wyoming (1928 film)

Wyoming is a 1928 American Western silent film directed by W. S. Van Dyke and written by Ruth Cummings, Madeleine Ruthven and Ross B. Wills. The film stars Tim McCoy, Dorothy Sebastian, Charles Bell, William Fairbanks and Chief John Big Tree. The film was released on March 24, 1928, by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.

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