Charles Anderson Dana (August 8, 1819 – October 17, 1897) was an American journalist, author, and senior government official. He was a top aide to Horace Greeley as the managing editor of the powerful Republican newspaper New York Tribune until 1862. During the American Civil War, he served as Assistant Secretary of War, playing especially the role of the liaison between the War Department and General Ulysses S. Grant. In 1868 he became the editor and part-owner of the New York Sun. He at first appealed to working class Democrats but after 1890 became a champion of business-oriented conservatism. Dana was an avid art collector of paintings and porcelains and boasted of being in possession of many items not found in several European museums.
Charles Anderson Dana
|Born||August 8, 1819|
|Died||October 17, 1897 (aged 78)|
|Relatives||Ruth Draper (granddaughter)|
Dana was born in Hinsdale, New Hampshire on August 8, 1819. He was a descendant of Richard Dana, progenitor of most of the Danas in the United States, who emigrated from England, settled in Cambridge in 1640, and died there about 1695. At the age of twelve, Charles Dana became a clerk in his uncle's general store at Buffalo, until the store failed in 1837. At this time, he began the study of Latin grammar, and prepared himself for college. In 1839 he entered Harvard, but the impairment of his eyesight forced him to leave college in 1841. He also abandoned his intentions to study in Germany and enter the ministry. From September 1841 until March 1846 he lived at Brook Farm, where he was made one of the trustees of the farm, was head waiter when the farm became a Fourierite phalanx, and was in charge of the Phalanx's finances when its buildings were burned in 1846. During his time with Brook Farm, he also wrote for the Transcendental publication, the Harbinger. In 1846, he married widow Eunice MacDaniel.
Dana had written for and managed the Harbinger, the Brook Farm publication, devoted to social reform and general literature. Later, beginning 1844, he also wrote for and edited the Boston Chronotype of Elizur Wright for two years. In 1847 he joined the staff of the New York Tribune, and in 1848 he wrote from Europe letters to it and other papers on the revolutionary movements of that year. In Cologne he visited Karl Marx and Ferdinand Freiligrath. (From 1852 to 1861, Marx was one of the main writers for the New York Daily Tribune).
Returning to the Tribune in 1849, Dana became a proprietor and its managing editor, and in this capacity actively promoted the anti-slavery cause, seeming to shape the paper's policy at a time when Horace Greeley was undecided and vacillating. However, his writing expressed racist feelings towards blacks on at least one occasion. In 1895, as editor of the New York Sun, he wrote "we are in the midst of a growing menace," the year of eventual black heavy weight champion Jack Johnson's first professional fight. "The black man is rapidly forging to the front ranks in athletics, especially in the field of fisticuffs. We are in the midst of a black rise against white supremacy." The extraordinary influence and circulation attained by the newspaper during the ten years preceding the Civil War was in a degree due to the development of Dana's genius for journalism, reflected not only in the making of the Tribune as a newspaper, but also in the management of its staff of writers, and in the steadiness of its policy as the leading organ of anti-slavery sentiment.
In 1861, Dana went to Albany to advance the cause of Greeley as a candidate for the U. S. Senate, and nearly succeeded in nominating him. The caucus was about equally divided between Greeley's friends and those of William M. Evarts, while Ira Harris had a few votes which held the balance of power. At the instigation of Thurlow Weed, the supporters of Evarts went over to Harris.
During the first year of the war, the ideas of Greeley and those of Dana in regard to the proper conduct of military operations were somewhat at variance; the board of managers of the Tribune asked for Dana's resignation in 1862, apparently because of this disagreement and wide temperamental differences between him and Greeley.
When Dana left the Tribune, Secretary of War, Edwin Stanton, immediately made him a special Investigating Agent of the War Department during the American Civil War. In this capacity, Dana discovered frauds committed by quartermasters and contractors. As the eyes of the administration, as Abraham Lincoln called him, Dana spent much time at the front, and sent to War Secretary Edwin Stanton frequent reports concerning the capacity and methods of various generals in the field. In particular, the War Department was concerned about rumors of Ulysses S. Grant's alcoholism. Dana spent considerable time with Grant, becoming a close friend and assuaging administration concerns. Dana reported to Secretary of War Edwin Stanton that he found Grant "modest, honest, and judicial. . . . 'not an original or brilliant man, but sincere, thoughtful, deep, and gifted with a courage that never faltered.' Although quiet and hard to know, he loved a humorous story and the company of his friends." Dana also observed the growing problem of cotton speculators, who were often going beyond established limits into rebel territory with the purpose of trading and often collaborating with the rebels. Dana warned President Lincoln and Stanton that the cotton trading and all related activity needed to be stopped, maintaining that general Grant was in full agreement with his assessment and recommendations. Dana went through the Vicksburg Campaign and was present at the Battle of Chickamauga and the Chattanooga Campaign. He urged placing General Grant in supreme command of all the armies in the field, which happened in March 1864. After returning to Washington Dana received a telegram from assistant Secretary of War H.P. Watson, instructing him to go to Washington to pursue another investigation, and was received by Stanton, who offered him the position of Assistant Secretary of War, which he accepted. It was reported in the New York papers the next morning. Dana held this position from 1863 to 1865. With the likely exception of John Rawlins, Dana had a greater influence over Grant's military career than any other political or military man.
In 1865–1866, Dana conducted the newly established and unsuccessful Chicago Republican, when the paper was owned by Jacob Bunn, and published by Alonzo Mack. He became the editor and part-owner of The Sun (New York) in 1868, and remained in control of it until his death. Upon taking control over the organization, he announced his credo:
It will study condensation, clearness, point, and will endeavor to present its daily photograph of the whole world's doings in the most luminous and lively manner.
Under Dana's control, The Sun opposed the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson; it supported Grant for the presidency in 1868; it was a sharp critic of Grant as president; and in 1872 took part in the Liberal Republican revolt and urged Greeley's nomination.
Dana made the Sun a Democratic newspaper, independent and outspoken in the expression of its opinions respecting the affairs of either party. His criticisms of civil maladministration during General Grant's terms as president led to a notable attempt on the part of that administration, in July 1873, to take him from New York on a charge of libel, to be tried without a jury in a Washington police court. Application was made to the United States District Court in New York for a warrant of removal, but in a memorable decision Judge Blatchford, later a justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, refused the warrant, holding the proposed form of trial to be unconstitutional. Perhaps to a greater extent than in the case of any other conspicuous journalist, Dana's personality was identified in the public mind with the newspaper that he edited.
In 1876, the Sun favored Samuel J. Tilden, the Democratic candidate for the presidency, opposed the Electoral Commission, and continually referred to Rutherford B. Hayes as the "fraud president". In 1884 it supported Benjamin Butler, the candidate of Greenback-Labor and Anti-Monopolist parties, for the presidency, and opposed James G. Blaine (Republican) and even more bitterly Grover Cleveland (Democrat). Circulation peaked about 150,000, and the advent of Joseph Pulitzer and the New York World cut deeply into the Sun's circulation. Dana was a very old-fashioned publisher who distrusted the Linotype and relied not on advertising but on the two-cent cover price for his funding.
In 1888 it supported Cleveland and opposed Benjamin Harrison, although it had bitterly criticized Cleveland's first administration, and was to criticize nearly every detail of his second, with the exception of Federal interference in the Pullman strike of 1894; and in 1896, on the free silver issue, it opposed William Jennings Bryan, the Democratic candidate for the presidency. In a word, the Sun had abandoned its original working-class clientele and was now a staunch supporter of the conservative business community.
Dana's literary style came to be the style of The Sun—simple, strong, clear, boiled down. He recorded no theories of journalism other than those of common sense and human interest. He was impatient of prolixity, cant, and the conventional standards of news importance. Three of his lectures on journalism were published in 1895 as the Art of Newspaper Making.
Dana had an interest in literature. His first book was a volume of stories translated from German, entitled The Black Aunt (New York and Leipzig, 1848). In 1857, he edited an anthology, The Household Book of Poetry. His translation from German of "Nutcracker and Sugardolly: A Fairy Tale" was published in 1856 by the Philadelphia publisher C.G. Henderson & Co. In addition to translating German, Dana could read the Romance and Scandinavian languages. With Rossiter Johnson, he edited, Fifty Perfect Poems (New York, 1883).
Dana edited A Campaign Life of U. S. Grant, published over his name and that of General James H. Wilson in 1868. His Recollections of the Civil War and Eastern Journeys, Some Notes of Travel in Russia, in the Caucasus, and to Jerusalem were published in 1898.
Early in his journalism career, 1849, he wrote a series of newspaper articles in defense of anarchist philosopher Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and his mutual banking ideas. They were published in collected form in 1896 as Proudhon and His Bank of the People by Benjamin Tucker, who did so partly to expose Dana's radical past as Dana had late in life become quite conservative, editorializing against radicals, "reds", and the free silver movement. This book remains in print today through a Charles H. Kerr Company Publishers edition with an introduction by Paul Avrich.
Dana was an art connoisseur. In 1880 he built a large residence in New York City on the corner of Madison Avenue and Sixtieth Street and furnished it with paintings, tapestries, and Chinese porcelains, giving his greatest attention to his porcelains. He devoted much time and historical study in the these areas of art throughout his life, boasting that, "They are not in the British Museum; they are not in the Louvre; and they are conspicuously absent at Dresden."
| Assistant Secretary of War
Thomas T. Eckert
The Annual Cyclopedia was an American yearbook covering the years 1861–1902 by the New York publisher D. Appleton & Company. It was a comprehensive yearbook of events, obituaries and statistics, worldwide, with many articles written by experts, some of them signed.
It was sold as an annual supplement to the New American Cyclopedia in 16 volumes, edited by George Ripley and Charles Anderson Dana, 1857–1863. When that encyclopedia was enlarged as American Cyclopedia (1873–1876), the Cyclopedia started a new series.
Sets are held in major libraries, and some volumes are online.
It appeared under several titles:
The American annual cyclopedia and register of important events. Embracing political, civil, military, and social affairs: public documents; biography, statistics, commerce, finance, literature, science, agriculture, and mechanical industry. (1862–75)
Appletons' annual cyclopedia and register of important events embracing political military, and ecclesiastical affairs; public documents; biography, statistics, commerce, finance, literature, science, agriculture, and mechanical industry : a general and analytical index to the American cyclopaedia.
The Annual Cyclopedia
Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia
Appleton's American Annual Cyclopedia
American annual cyclopedia and register of important events (1876-1903)
American Annual CyclopediaAppleton also published a six volume biographical compendium, many of whose articles are linked in Wikipedia:
James Grant Wilson, and John Fiske, eds. Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography (D. Appleton and company, 1887) online vol 2
The editors included fake biographies to spot copyright violators, but no such accusation was made against the Annual Cyclopedia.Charles Dana
Charles Dana may refer to:
Charles A. Dana (philanthropist) (1881–1975) of the Dana Foundation, and New York State legislator and industrialist
Charles Anderson Dana (1819–1897), U.S. journalist, author, government official
Charles Loomis Dana (1852–1935), neurologist
Charles R. Dana (1802–1868), Latter-day Saint leader and politician
Charles S. Dana (1862–1939), Speaker of the Vermont House of Representatives
Charles W. Dana, 19th-century California State Assembly memberChristopher Wolcott
Christopher Parsons Wolcott was a Republican politician from the state of Ohio. He was Ohio Attorney General 1856–1860 and United States Assistant Secretary of War from 1862 to 1863.Edward Page Mitchell
Edward Page Mitchell (1852–1927) was an American editorial and short story writer for The Sun, a daily newspaper in New York City. He became that newspaper's editor in 1897, succeeding Charles Anderson Dana. Mitchell was recognized as a major figure in the early development of the science fiction genre. Mitchell wrote fiction about a man rendered invisible by scientific means ("The Crystal Man", published in 1881) before H.G. Wells's The Invisible Man, wrote about a time-travel machine ("The Clock that Went Backward") before Wells's The Time Machine, wrote about faster-than-light travel ("The Tachypomp"; now perhaps his best-known work) in 1874, a thinking computer and a cyborg in 1879 ("The Ablest Man in the World"), and also wrote the earliest known stories about matter transmission or teleportation ("The Man without a Body", 1877) and a superior mutant ("Old Squids and Little Speller"). "Exchanging Their Souls" (1877) is one of the earliest fictional accounts of mind transfer. Mitchell retired in 1926, a year before dying of a cerebral hemorrhage.
The gradual rediscovery of Mitchell and his work is a direct result of the publication in 1973 of a book-length anthology of his stories, compiled by Sam Moskowitz with a detailed introduction by Moskowitz giving much information about Mitchell's personal life. Because Mitchell's stories were not by-lined on original publication, nor indexed, Moskowitz expended major effort to track down and collect these works by an author whom Moskowitz cited as "the lost giant of American science fiction".Mitchell's stories show the strong influence of Edgar Allan Poe. Among other traits, Mitchell shares Poe's habit of giving a basically serious and dignified fictional character a humorous name, such as "Professor Dummkopf" in Mitchell's "The Soul Spectroscope" and "The Man Without a Body". Since Mitchell's fictions were originally published in newspapers, typeset in the same format as news articles and not identified as fiction, he may possibly have used this device to signal to his readers that this text should not be taken seriously.I briganti (Mercadante)
I briganti is an 1836 opera by Saverio Mercadante for the Théâtre-Italien in Paris, based on Schiller’s Die Räuber. The lead role, Ermano, was written for the tenor Giovanni Battista Rubini, the supporting cast included soprano Giulia Grisi, baritone Antonio Tamburini and the bass Luigi Lablache. Nevertheless, the opera failed, and Rubini departed for London.Laeken Cemetery
The Laeken Cemetery (French: Cimetière de Laeken, Dutch: Begraafplaats van Laken), located in Laeken in the northern part of Brussels, is one of the major old catholic cemeteries in Belgium.Libyan Sea
The Libyan Sea (Greek Λιβυκό πέλαγος, Latin Libycum Mare, Arabic البحر الليبي) is the portion of the Mediterranean Sea north of the African coast of ancient Libya, i.e. Cyrenaica, and Marmarica
(the coast of what is now eastern Libya and western Egypt, between Tobruk and Alexandria). This designation was used by ancient geographers describing the southern Mediterranean, but the term is also used by modern travel writers and cartographers. The southern coastline of Crete which borders the Libyan Sea includes the Asterousia Mountains and Mesara Plain; this area is the locus of considerable ancient Bronze Age settlement including the sites of Kommos, Hagia Triada and Phaistos.Not counting Crete, other islands in Libyan sea are Gavdos, Gavdopoula, Koufonisi and Chrysi.
To the east is the Levantine Sea, to the north the Ionian Sea, and to the west the Strait of Sicily.Louis de Revol
Louis De Revol (1531 – 24 September 1594) was the first French Foreign Minister from 1589 until his death in 1594. He is considered world's first foreign minister entrusted with all foreign relations.Man bites dog (journalism)
The phrase man bites dog is a shortened version of an aphorism in journalism which describes how an unusual, infrequent event (such as a man biting a dog) is more likely to be reported as news than an ordinary, everyday occurrence with similar consequences, such as a dog biting a man. An event is usually considered more newsworthy if there is something unusual about it; a commonplace event is less likely to be seen as newsworthy, even if the consequences of both events have objectively similar outcomes. The result is that rarer events more often appear as news stories, while more common events appear less often, thus distorting the perceptions of news consumers of what constitutes normal rates of occurrence.
The phenomenon is also described in the journalistic saying, "You never read about a plane that did not crash".The phrase was coined by Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe (1865–1922), a British newspaper magnate, but is also attributed to New York Sun editor John B. Bogart (1848–1921): "When a dog bites a man, that is not news, because it happens so often. But if a man bites a dog, that is news." The quote is also attributed to Charles Anderson Dana (1819–1897).Some consider it a principle of yellow journalism.Margaret Frances Sullivan
Margaret Frances Sullivan (1847 – 1903) was an Irish-born American author, journalist, and editor. She contributed to the principal American magazines, and her editorials, though unsigned, caused national comment. She was an editorial writer on Chicago daily newspapers and for journals in New York City and Boston; chief editorial writer for the Times-Herald, 1895; and editorial writer and art critic for the Chicago Chronicle, 1901.One of her editorials was on the subject of why there were so few Democrats in the North. It was reproduced by politicians and, at the time of her death, was reprinted as a perfect example of political editorial writing. The Catholic World said, "She was ranked not with the distinguished women of the press but with the ablest men as Charles Anderson Dana of the New York Sun." Newspaper men who knew her admitted that she was, if not the greatest American editorial writer, at least the greatest that the city of Chicago had ever known.
Sullivan was sent to Paris, in 1889, as special cable correspondent of the Associated Press for the Universal Exposition. At its opening ceremony, she was the only writer to whom a seat was assigned in line with the French president, and the only representative of the press thus invited to assist at the ceremony. She was an authority on art, literature, science, politics, music and economics. Naturally gifted as she was, her remarkable power of concentration and the intense tenacity with which she applied herself made it easy for her to master any subject to which she devoted herself. Sullivan's Ireland of Today reached a sale of 30,000 copies. She co-authored Mexico, Picturesque, Political and Progressive with Mary Elizabeth McGrath Blake, of Boston.New-York Tribune
The New-York Tribune was an American newspaper, first established in 1841 by editor Horace Greeley. Between 1842 and 1866, the newspaper bore the name New-York Daily Tribune. From the 1840s through the 1860s it was the dominant Whig Party and then Republican newspaper in the United States. The paper achieved a circulation of approximately 200,000 in the 1850s, making it the largest daily paper then in New York City. The Tribune's editorials were widely read, shared, and copied in other city newspapers, helping to shape national American opinion. It was one of the first papers in the north to send reporters, correspondents, and illustrators to cover the campaigns of the American Civil War.
In 1924, after 83 years of independent existence, the New-York Tribune merged with another major daily newspaper in New York City, the New York Herald, to form the New York Herald Tribune. The "Trib", as it was known, ceased publication in 1966.New American Cyclopædia
The New American Cyclopædia was an encyclopedia created and published by D. Appleton & Company of New York in 16 volumes, which initially appeared between 1858 and 1863. Its primary editors were George Ripley and Charles Anderson Dana.
The New American Cyclopædia was revised and republished as the American Cyclopædia in 1873.New York Star (1800s newspaper)
The New York Star or the Daily Star (1868–1891) was a New York City newspaper.
The paper was founded around early 1868 by employees of The Sun, who feared that the recent purchase of the Sun by Charles Anderson Dana would turn the political bent of that paper Republican. Joe Howard, Jr. soon took control of the paper and remained on as editor, publisher and subsequently chief proprietor until the spring of 1875. A series of other editors and owners followed, each generally unsuccessful in their attempts to make the paper profitable. It went from daily publication to weekly, but then William Dorsheimer purchased the paper in 1885 and restarted daily publication, running the paper until his death in 1888. Finally, Frank Munsey, who would years later be known as a great consolidator of newspapers, took a six-month option from owner Collis Potter Huntington to buy the Star in 1891. Munsey turned the paper into a tabloid and renamed it the Daily Continent as of February 1, 1891. When it did not succeed after a few months, he returned the new paper to Huntington.When Munsey's plan to take over the paper were announced, the Sun, still nursing the slight which led to the founding of the Star, published a piece on the "long, very remarkable, and altogether disastrous history" of the paper.The gossip column Bab's Babble by Isabel Mallon got its start in the Star around 1888.Paul Antoine Dubois
Paul Antoine Dubois (also Paul Antoine Dubis or Paul-Antoine Dubois; 7 December 1795 – December 1871) was a French obstetrician and the son of Antoine Dubois. He was born and died in Paris. In 1823 he succeeded his father at the maternity hospital that later was to become known as the Maison Dubois. In 1830 he was appointed professor of obstetrics in the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris, and soon became distinguished for his skill in diagnosis, his clear and eloquent manner of lecturing, and a peculiar facility for imparting knowledge. He became dean of the faculty in 1852, and in 1863 he was compelled to retire from active occupation, owing to a failure of memory, the first symptom of a mental disorder which became confirmed, and continued during the remainder of his life. His writings consisted entirely of contributions to medical journals.Paul Dana (journalist)
Paul Dana (August 20, 1852 – April 7, 1930) was an American journalist and editor of the New York Sun.Riverside Plaza (Chicago)
The Riverside Plaza is an art deco skyscraper located in Chicago, Illinois, United States. The building was designed by Holabird & Roche/Holabird & Root and completed in 1929. The 26-story building is 302 feet (120.7 m) tall. It was known as the Chicago Daily News Building until the newspaper of the same name ceased publication in 1978.Typically, the buildings along the Chicago River were industrial in nature and butted up against the riverside, which was polluted and not considered a positive asset. This building was the first to develop the Chicago riverfront aesthetically as well as commercially. It was the first American skyscraper with an open-air plaza as part of its design. It was also one of the first buildings in Chicago constructed largely over a railroad right-of-way. A ramped concourse through the south side of this building serves as the main entryway to the Ogilvie Transportation Center in Citigroup Center. This concourse was originally the main lobby, with an even floor in place of the ramp up to the bridge at Canal Street.
An art deco mural by John W. Norton, formerly housed on the ceiling of the building's old lobby, was commissioned by the Chicago Daily News. It was dominated by diagonal lines, and divided into three sections: Gathering the News, Printing the News, & Transporting the News. In the fall of 1993, it was removed and put into storage, where it has remained.The plaza faces the Civic Opera Building directly across the Chicago River to the east. The plaza's edifice features eight important names in journalism history: Benjamin Franklin, Charles Anderson Dana, Horace Greeley, Joseph Pulitzer, Samuel Bowles III, James Gordon Bennett and Joseph Medill.Salting the earth
Salting the earth, or sowing with salt, is the ritual of spreading salt on conquered cities to symbolize a curse on their re-inhabitation. It originated as a symbolic practice in the ancient Near East and became a well-established folkloric motif in the Middle Ages.Slater
A slater, or slate mason, is a tradesman who covers buildings with slate.The Phalanx
The Phalanx; or Journal of Social Science was a Fourierist journal published in New York City, edited by Albert Brisbane and Osborne Macdaniel from 1843 to 1845.
The Phalanx was eventually moved, along with another publication called The Social Reformer to Brook Farm in West Roxbury, Massachusetts. They became one journal called The Harbinger; its first issue was published on June 14, 1845. Its first issue under this title announced its mission:
The interests of Social Reform will be paramount to all others in whatever is admitted into the pages of the Harbinger. We shall suffer no attachment to literature, no taste for abstract discussion, no love of purely intellectual theories, to seduce us from our devotion to the cause of the oppressed, the down trodden, the insulted and injured masses of our fellow men. Every pulsation of our being vibrates in sympathy with the wrongs of the toiling millions; and every wise effort for their speedy enfranchisement will find in us resolute and indomitable advocates.
After Brook Farm's dissolution, the publication was eventually moved to New York City under the editorial control of George Ripley and Charles Anderson Dana where it continued weekly until October 1847. In addition to Ripley and Dana, early contributors to The Harbinger included Parke Godwin, James Russell Lowell, William Wetmore Story, John Greenleaf Whittier, and Nathaniel Parker Willis. Edgar Allan Poe, who strongly distrusted the Utopian movements, referred to The Harbinger as "the most reputable organ of the Crazyites".