Chapter VIII of the United Nations Charter deals with regional arrangements. It authorizes regional organizations (such as the African Union) and even requires attempts to resolve disputes through such agencies (if available) prior to intervention by the UN Security Council. However, Article 53 provides that "no enforcement action shall be taken under regional arrangements or by regional agencies without the authorization of the Security Council."
Chapter VIII makes reference to enemy states, which were powers such as Japan and Germany that remained enemies of the UN signatories at the time of the promulgation of the UN Charter (in the closing months of World War II in mid-1945). There have been proposals to remove these references, but none have come to fruition. Chapter VIII is analogous to Article 21 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, which provides, "Nothing in this Covenant shall be deemed to affect the validity of international engagements, such as treaties of arbitration or regional understandings like the Monroe doctrine, for securing the maintenance of peace."African Standby Force
The African Standby Force (ASF) (French: Force africaine en attente) is an international, continental African, and multidisciplinary peacekeeping force with military, police and civilian contingents that acts under the direction of the African Union. The ASF is to be deployed in times of crisis in Africa. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, serves as the Force's Headquarters. Douala, Cameroon, was selected in 2011 as the site of the AU's Continental Logistics Base (LOGBASE).In 2003, a 2010 operational date for the force was set.Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization. Its mandate includes issues such as arms control, promotion of human rights, freedom of the press, and fair elections. It employs around 3,460 people, mostly in its field operations but also in its secretariat in Vienna, Austria and its institutions. It has its origins in the 1975 Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE) held in Helsinki, Finland.
The OSCE is concerned with early warning, conflict prevention, crisis management, and post-conflict rehabilitation. Its 57 participating states are located in Europe, northern and central Asia, and North America. The participating states cover much of the land area of the Northern Hemisphere. It was created during the Cold War era as an East–West forum.United Nations Security Council Resolution 1132
United Nations Security Council resolution 1132, adopted on 8 October 1997, after expressing concern at the situation in Sierra Leone, the Council, acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, imposed an oil and arms embargo on the country.United Nations Security Council Resolution 1197
United Nations Security Council resolution 1197, adopted unanimously on 18 September 1998, after reaffirming its primary responsibility to maintain international peace and security, the Council addressed co-operation efforts with the Organisation of African Unity (OAU).The Security Council considered the recommendations in a report by the Secretary-General Kofi Annan on "The causes of conflict and the promotion of durable peace and sustainable development in Africa" regarding the need for the United Nations to provide support and assistance to regional and subregional organisations in the area of conflict prevention. It recalled the provisions of Chapter VIII of the United Nations Charter to this effect.
The Secretary-General was invited to assist the OAU and African subregional organisations to establish logistics assessment teams and to determine the logistical and financial requirements of regional or subregional peacekeeping operations. He was also asked to further the development of a commonly accepted peacekeeping doctrine with Member States and share existing concepts of peacekeeping operations with the OAU and subregional organisations. They were also asked to establish logistics assessment teams. Partnerships between countries and regional organisations involved in peace operations were encouraged, and the Council welcomed a proposal by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) to establish a "council of elders" within its "Mechanism for the Prevention, Management, Resolution of Conflict, Peacekeeping and Security" to facilitate mediation efforts and asked for preparations to be made towards its establishment.
In part II of the resolution, the Council endorsed the establishment of a United Nations Preventative Action Liaison Office in the OAU. It encouraged the enhancement of consultation and co-ordination between the United Nations, the OAU and subregional organisations. Finally, the Secretary-General was invited to, and subsequently asked to implement the following measures:
(a) adopt mechanisms to improve the flow of information between the United Nations, OAU and subregional organisations;
(b) develop common indicators for an early warning system and to share this among their field representatives and headquarters;
(c) arrange visits of staff between the United Nations, OAU and subregional organisations;
(d) arrange joint meanings on areas concerning early warning systems and prevention, with the aim of co-ordinating initiatives with existing and potential conflicts.United Nations Security Council Resolution 1318
United Nations Security Council resolution 1318, adopted unanimously on 7 September 2000, after holding a meeting of world leaders on occasion of the Millennium Summit, the Council endorsed the United Nations Millennium Declaration on ensuring an effective role for the Security Council in the maintenance of international peace and security, particularly in Africa.United Nations Security Council Resolution 1464
United Nations Security Council resolution 1464, adopted unanimously on 4 February 2003, after reaffirming its commitment to the sovereignty, territorial integrity and unity of Côte d'Ivoire, the Council called for the implementation of the peace agreement signed at Linas-Marcoussis to end the civil war in the country.United Nations Security Council Resolution 1625
United Nations Security Council resolution 1625, adopted unanimously at the 2005 World Summit on 14 September 2005, the Council adopted a declaration on the role of the Security Council in conflict prevention, particularly in Africa where a large number of armed conflicts were taking place.Resolution 1625, along with Resolution 1624 (2005), was adopted at a meeting of heads of state or government.United Nations Security Council Resolution 1631
United Nations Security Council resolution1631, adopted unanimously on 17 October 2005, after recalling Chapter VIII of the United Nations Charter, the Council addressed co-operation between the United Nations and regional organisations in the maintenance of international peace and security.The resolution was the first time the Council had outlined such co-operation.United Nations Security Council Resolution 1935
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1935, adopted unanimously on July 30, 2010, after reaffirming all previous resolutions and statements on the situation in Sudan, the Council extended the mandate of the African Union – United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) for a further 12 months until July 31, 2011 and demanded an end to fighting and attacks on United Nations personnel and civilians.The resolution, drafted by the United Kingdom, was adopted during a rise in attacks on United Nations peacekeepers and civilians, including ambushes and the holding of a UNAMID helicopter pilot by local groups. The Council also heard that fighting between rebel groups and the government had intensified. The following day after the adoption of Resolution 1935, the Sudanese government requested UNAMID peacekeepers to inform it of its movements, after accusing the United Nations of failing to keep the peace at refugee camps in the west of the country.United Nations Security Council Resolution 795
United Nations Security Council resolution 795, adopted on 11 December 1992, after expressing concern about possible developments which could undermine confidence and stability in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and welcoming the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) mission in Macedonia, the Council recalled Chapter VIII of the United Nations Charter and authorised the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali to deploy a presence of the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) in the border areas of Macedonia.
The UNPROFOR "Macedonian Command" would monitor parts of the border areas with Albania and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro); strengthen the country's stability by providing a preventative force; and reporting on developments that may constitute a threat to Macedonia.The Council requested the Secretary-General to deploy the military, civil affairs, and administrative personnel recommended in his report immediately, upon receiving the consent of the Government of the Republic of Macedonia, urging co-operation with the OSCE mission already there. The military personnel would monitor the border to ensure the conflict in other parts of Yugoslavia did not spill over, while the civilian police contingent would work with local police to maintain order and protect human rights.United Nations Security Council Resolution 875
United Nations Security Council resolution 875, adopted unanimously on 16 October 1993, after recalling resolutions 841 (1993), 861 (1993), 862 (1993), 867 (1993) and 873 (1993), the Council, aware of the continued failure of parties in Haiti implement the Governors Island Agreement, widened international sanctions and imposed a naval blockade against the country.The sanctions were a further measure aimed at removing the military junta in Haiti and restoring democracy. Acting under Chapter VII and Chapter VIII of the United Nations Charter, the Council called upon Member States to halt inward maritime shipping as necessary in order to inspect and verify their cargoes and destinations, as well as implement restrictions on petroleum and liquefied natural gas in accordance with previous resolutions.
The resolution concluded by stating that further measures would be taken if necessary to ensure compliance.Vance plan
The Vance plan (Croatian: Vanceov plan, Serbian Latin: Vensov plan) was a peace plan negotiated by the former United States Secretary of State Cyrus Vance in November 1991 during the Croatian War of Independence. At that time, Vance was the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General of the United Nations; he was assisted by United States diplomat Herbert Okun during the negotiations. The plan was designed to implement a ceasefire, demilitarize parts of Croatia that were under the control of Croatian Serbs and the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA), allow the return of refugees, and create favourable conditions for negotiations on a permanent political settlement of the conflict resulting from the breakup of Yugoslavia.
The Vance plan consisted of two agreements. The first agreement, known as the Geneva Accord, was signed by Yugoslav defence minister General Veljko Kadijević, President of Serbia Slobodan Milošević and Croatian President Franjo Tuđman in Geneva, Switzerland, on 23 November 1991. Because the ceasefire agreed at that time did not hold, further negotiations resulted in the Implementation Agreement of 2 January 1992. The Implementation Agreement, signed in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, by JNA Lieutenant Colonel General Andrija Rašeta and Croatian defence minister Gojko Šušak, produced a longer-lasting ceasefire, which was supervised by the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR). The parties failed to completely implement the remaining major aspects of the Vance plan.