Chapter (religion)

A chapter (Latin: capitulum [1] or capitellum) [2] is one of several bodies of clergy in Roman Catholic, Anglican, and Nordic Lutheran churches or their gatherings.

Sala capitular pamplona
The chapter room of the Cathedral of Pamplona.
Dean William A. Dimmick 1960
Dean William Dimmick and other canons of St Mary's Cathedral in Memphis, Tennessee, in 1960.
The group photo at the 2006 general chapter of the Premonstratensians.


The name derives from the habit of convening monks or canons for the reading of a chapter of the Bible or a heading of the order's rule.[2] The 6th-century St Benedict directed that his monks begin their daily assemblies with such readings[1] and over time expressions such as "coming together for the chapter" (convenire ad capitulum) found their meaning transferred from the text to the meeting itself and then to the body gathering for it.[2] The place of such meetings similarly became known as the "chapter house" or "room".

Cathedral chapter

A cathedral chapter is the body ("college") of advisors assisting the bishop of a diocese at his/her cathedral church. These were a development of the presbyteries (presbyteria) made up of the priests and other church officials of cathedral cities in the early church. In the Catholic Church, they are now only established by papal decree.[1]

Cathedral chapters are sometimes charged with election of the bishop's replacement and with the government of the diocese during vacancies of his/her office. They are made up of canon priests.[1] "Numbered" chapters are made up of a fixed number of prebendaries, while "unnumbered" chapters vary in number according to the direction of the bishop. The chapters were originally led by the cathedral's archdeacon but, since the 11th century,[1] have been directed by a dean or provost.[2]

In the Catholic Church, the chapter appoints its own treasurer, secretary, and sacristan and—since the Council of Trent—canon theologian[3] and canon penitentiary.[4] The same council approved of other local offices,[5] which might include precentors, chamberlains (camerarii), almoners (eleemosynarii), hospitalarii, portarii, primicerii, or custodes. Canons are sometimes given the functions of punctator and hebdomadarius as well.[1] In the Church of England, the chapter includes lay members, a chancellor who oversees its educational functions, and a precentor who oversees its musical services. Some Church of England cathedrals have "lesser" and "greater" chapters with separate functions.

Collegiate chapter

A collegiate chapter is a similar body of canons who oversee a collegiate church other than a cathedral.

General chapter

A general chapter is a general assembly of monks, typically composed of representatives from all the monasteries of an order or congregation. The equivalent meetings of provincial representatives of Franciscan orders is called a Chapter of Mats.

Chapter of faults

A chapter of faults is a gathering for public correction of infractions against community rules and for self-criticism separate from standard confession.

Orders of knighthood

The assembled body of knights of a military or knightly order was also referred as a "chapter”.


  1. ^ a b c d e f Cath. Enc. (1910).
  2. ^ a b c d EB (1911).
  3. ^ Sess. V, Cap. i.
  4. ^ Sess. XXIV, Cap. viii.
  5. ^ Sess. XXV, cap. vi.


  • Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Chapter" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 5 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 855.
  • Wikisource-logo.svg Fanning, William (1908). "Chapter" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. 3. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Further reading

  • Wikisource Baynes, T.S., ed. (1878). "Chapter" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 5 (9th ed.). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 398.
  • Cripps, H. W. (1937). A Practical Treatise on the Law Relating to the Church and Clergy (8th ed.). K. M. Macmorran. pp. 127–146.
Basilica of Our Lady of Mercy (Yarumal)

The Basilica of Our Lady of Mercy (Spanish: Basílica Menor de Nuestra Señora de la Merced) is a minor basilica in Yarumal, Colombia. It belongs to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Santa Rosa de Osos, and is the seat of the parish of the same name. The basilica is devoted to the Virgin Mary, and the patron saint is the Virgin of Mercy. It is the titular church of Saint Aloysius Gonzaga.

It was designed and built in the Renaissance Revival style as a larger replacement for Yarumal's first church. Begun in 1866, the construction project suffered from multiple difficulties including its enormous cost, the civil wars in the late nineteenth century, its partial collapse in 1890, and an earthquake in 1938. These delayed completion of the church until 1944, at which point it was consecrated. During construction, the Chapel of Saint Aloysius (formerly the cemetery chapel) was made a parish church.

The basilica is rectangular, divided longitudinally into three parts. The main façade is made up of two domed towers joined by the central nave. It is home to several works of art, notably Nuestra Señora de la Merced, a 1798 painting of the Virgin of Mercy that is considered to be miraculous.In 1998, the Municipal Council of Yarumal declared the basilica and the Chapel of Saint Aloysius a cultural and architectural landmark of the municipality. On 12 August 1999, Pope John Paul II granted the church the title of minor basilica. Since 2000, the church has been home to the remains of the poet Epifanio Mejía, the author of the Himno Antioqueño.


Within criticism of religion, counter-apologetics is a field of thought that criticizes religious apologetics. Every religious apologist criticizes the defense of other religions, though the term counter-apologetics is frequently applied to criticism of religion in general by freethinkers and atheists. Luke Muehlhauser, the former executive director of the Machine Intelligence Research Institute, defines counter-apologetics as "a response to Christian apologetics...examining the claims and tactics of Christian apologists and then equipping [a thinker] with skeptical responses to them".In 2006, television host and blogger Matt Dillahunty founded Iron Chariots, a counter-apologetics encyclopedia (the name is derived from Judges 1:19), using MediaWiki software. Christian apologist and blogger J.W. Wartick has responded to Iron Chariots with posts he termed "counter-counter apologetics".On his blog, as part of his "why they don't believe" series ("why they reject Christianity and/or theism"), Christian apologist and theologian Randal Rauser invited an anonymous blogger who calls himself Counter Apologist to explain his counter-apologetics, and Rauser provided his own counter-arguments.The New Testament is well understood to contain apologetics, but counter-apologetics also appears in Christian theology. Theologian John Milbank has written in a 2012 work that Christianity "makes room for" counter-apologetics by not being a Gnostic system of thought, and notes the "authentic Christian fusion of apologetic and counter-apologetic" as it stands in opposition to the anti-materialist nihilism of Browning's Caliban. Likewise, Biblical scholar and theologian Loveday Alexander has written that analysis of the Bible's books Luke and Acts by two other authors shows they contain counter-apologetic features perhaps to convey a pro-Roman perspective to the reader.

Florida Southern College

Florida Southern College (Florida Southern, Southern or FSC) is a private college in Lakeland, Florida. In 2019, the student population at FSC consisted of 3,000+ students along with 130 full-time faculty members. The college offers 50 undergraduate majors and pre-professional programs, graduate programs in nursing, business, and education as well as post-graduate programs in nursing, education, and physical therapy.Florida Southern is the home of the world's largest single-site collection of Frank Lloyd Wright architecture. For its 2011 and 2012 rankings, The Princeton Review selected Florida Southern's campus as the most beautiful in the country.Florida Southern has won 30 national titles in NCAA Division II competition in several sports, men's golf (13 titles), baseball (9), women's golf (4), men's basketball (2), softball (1) and women's lacrosse (1). The college's official mascot is Mocsie the water moccasin, but they are also referenced by their nickname, the Mocs. The official colors of the college and its athletic teams are scarlet and white.

Hermann of Baden-Baden

Margrave (Prince) Hermann of Baden-Baden (12 October 1628 in Baden-Baden; died 30 October 1691 in Regensburg) was a general and diplomat in the imperial service. He was Field Marshal, president of the Hofkriegsrat, and the representative of the Emperor in the Perpetual Diet of Regensburg.

Inside the Neolithic Mind

Inside the Neolithic Mind: Consciousness, Cosmos and the Realm of the Gods is a cognitive archaeological study of Neolithic religious beliefs in Europe co-written by the archaeologists David Lewis-Williams and David Pearce, both of the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa. It was first published by Thames and Hudson in 2005. Following on from Lewis-Williams' earlier work, The Mind in the Cave (2002), the book discusses the role of human cognition in the development of religion and Neolithic art.

The premise of Inside the Neolithic Mind is that irrespective of cultural differences, all humans share in the ability to enter into altered states of consciousness, in which they experience entoptic phenomenon, which the authors discern as a three-stage process leading to visionary experiences. Arguing that such altered experiences have provided the background to religious beliefs and some artistic creativity throughout human history, they focus their attention on the Neolithic, or "New Stone Age" period, when across Europe, communities abandoned their nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyles and settled to become sedentary agriculturalists.

Adopting case studies from the opposite ends of Neolithic Europe, Lewis-Williams and Pearce discuss the archaeological evidence from both the Near East – including such sites as Nevalı Çori, Göbekli Tepe and Çatalhöyük – and Atlantic Europe, including the sites of Newgrange, Knowth and Bryn Celli Ddu. The authors argue that these monuments illustrate the influence of altered states of consciousness in constructing cosmological views of a tiered universe, in doing so drawing ethnographic parallels with shamanistic cultures in Siberia and Amazonia.

Academic reviews published in such peer-reviewed journals as Antiquity were mixed. Critics argued that the use of evidence was selective, and that there was insufficient evidence for the authors' three-stage model of entopic phenomenon. Others praised the accessible and engaging writing style.


Newmilns and Greenholm is a small burgh in East Ayrshire, Scotland. It has a population of 3,057 people (2001 census) and lies on the A71, around seven miles east of Kilmarnock and twenty-five miles southwest of Glasgow. It is situated in a valley through which the River Irvine runs and, with the neighbouring towns of Darvel and Galston, forms an area known as the Upper Irvine Valley (locally referred to as The Valley). As the name suggests, the burgh exists in two parts - Newmilns to the north of the river and Greenholm to the south. The river also divides the parishes of Loudoun and Galston, which is why the burgh, although generally referred to as Newmilns, has retained both names.

Religious naturalism

Religious naturalism (RN) combines a naturalist worldview with perceptions and values commonly associated with religions. In this, "religious" is understood in general terms, separate from established traditions, in designating feelings and concerns (e.g. gratitude, wonder, humility, compassion) that are often described as spiritual or religious. Naturalism refers to a view that the natural world is all we have substantiated reason to believe exists, and there is no substantiated reason to believe that anything else, including deities, exists or may act in ways that are independent of the natural order.Areas of inquiry include attempts to understand the natural world and the spiritual and moral implications of naturalist views. Understanding is based in knowledge obtained through scientific inquiry and insights from the humanities and the arts. Religious naturalists use these perspectives in responding to personal and social challenges (e.g. finding purpose, seeking justice, coming to terms with mortality) and in relating to the natural world.

Triple Goddess (Neopaganism)

The Triple Goddess is a deity or deity archetype revered in many Neopagan religious and spiritual traditions. In common Neopagan usage, the Triple Goddess is viewed as a triunity of three distinct aspects or figures united in one being. These three figures are often described as the Maiden, the Mother, and the Crone, each of which symbolizes both a separate stage in the female life cycle and a phase of the Moon, and often rules one of the realms of heavens, earth, and underworld. In various forms of Wicca, her masculine consort is the Horned God.

The Triple Goddess was the subject of much of the writing of the prominent early and middle 20th-century poet, novelist and mythographer Robert Graves, in his books The White Goddess and The Greek Myths as well as in his poetry and novels. Modern neopagan conceptions of the Triple Goddess have been heavily influenced by Graves, who regarded her as the continuing muse of all true poetry, and who speculatively reconstructed her ancient worship, drawing on the scholarship of his time, in particular Jane Ellen Harrison and other Cambridge Ritualists. The influential Hungarian scholar of Greek mythology Karl Kerenyi likewise perceived an underlying triple moon goddess in Greek mythology. More recently, the prominent archaeologist Marija Gimbutas has argued for the ancient worship of a Triple Goddess in Europe, attracting much controversy. Many neopagan belief systems follow Graves in his use of the figure of the Triple Goddess, and it continues to be an influence on feminism, literature, Jungian psychology and literary criticism.


Vlamertinge is a village in the Belgian province of West Flanders and a borough of the city of Ypres. The village center of Vlamertinge lies just outside the city center of Ypres, along the main road N38 to the nearby town of Poperinge.

In addition to the city center of Ypres itself, Vlamertinge is the largest borough of Ypres. In the west of Vlamertinge, along the road to Poperinge, is the hamlet of Brandhoek.

Zeme, Lombardy

Zeme is a village and comune in the Province of Pavia, in the Lombardy region of northwest Italy.

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