Changing Focus

Changing Focus: Kodak and the Battle to Save a Great American Company is a book about the corporate history and future of the Kodak corporation. In particular, it discusses Kodak's efforts to maintain and diversity its photography businesses in the face of challenges from digital photography, and the mixed results of these efforts.


  • Changing focus: Kodak and the battle to save a great American company by Alecia Swasy Publisher: New York : Times Business, c1997. ISBN 0-8129-2463-0 LCC: HD9708



AECOM ( ay-ee-KOM) (formerly known as AECOM Technology Corporation) is an American multinational engineering firm that provides design, consulting, construction, and management services to a wide range of clients.

AECOM has approximately 87,000 employees, and is number 164 on the 2018 Fortune 500 list. This is down from 87,500 employees and number 156 on the 2016 list. Fortune named AECOM as one of 2015 World's Most Admired Companies, and again in 2016 & 2017. Engineering News-Record ranked AECOM as Number 1 Global Design Firm.The company's official name from 1990 to early January 2015 was AECOM Technology Corporation. Today, it is known simply as AECOM. The company is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) under the ticker symbol ACM and on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol E6Z.

American Motors Corporation

American Motors Corporation (AMC) was an American automobile company formed by the 1954 merger of Nash-Kelvinator Corporation and Hudson Motor Car Company. At the time, it was the largest corporate merger in U.S. history.AMC went on to compete with the US Big Three—Ford, General Motors and Chrysler—with its small cars including the Rambler American, Hornet, Gremlin and Pacer; muscle cars including the Marlin, AMX and Javelin; and early four-wheel-drive variants of the Eagle, the U.S. market's first true crossover.

The company was known as "a small company deft enough to exploit special market segments left untended by the giants", and was widely known for the design work of chief stylist, Dick Teague, who "had to make do with a much tighter budget than his counterparts at Detroit's Big Three" but "had a knack for making the most of his employer's investment".After periods of intermittent but unsustained success, Renault acquired a major interest in AMC in 1979—and the company was ultimately acquired by Chrysler. At its 1987 demise, The New York Times said AMC was "never a company with the power or the cost structure to compete confidently at home or abroad."

Conjugate eye movement

Conjugate eye movement refers to motor coordination of the eyes that allows for bilateral fixation on a single object.

A conjugate eye movement is a movement of both eyes in the same direction to maintain binocular gaze (also referred to as “yoked” eye movement). This is in contrast to vergence eye movement, where binocular gaze is maintained by moving eyes in opposite directions, such as going “cross eyed” to view an object moving towards the face. Conjugate eye movements can be in any direction, and can accompany both saccadic eye movements and smooth pursuit eye movements.Conjugate eye movements are used to change the direction of gaze without changing the depth of gaze. This can be used to either follow a moving object, or change focus entirely. When following a moving object, conjugate eye movements allow individuals to stabilize their perception of the moving object, and focus on the object rather than the rest of the visual world. When changing focus, conjugate eye movements allow for the perception of a stabilized world relative to an individual, rather than the perception of the world “jumping” as the individual’s gaze shifts. Without conjugate eye movements, there would be no synchronicity of the information obtained by each eye, so an individual would not be able to willingly move their eyes around a scene while still maintaining depth perception and scene or object stability.Several centers in the brainstem are involved. Horizontal conjugate gaze is controlled by the nuclei of the Ocular Nerve, CN III, and the Abducens nerve, CN VI, the paramedian pontine reticular formation, and the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi-medial vestibular nucleus. Vertical conjugate gaze is controlled by the nuclei of CN III and the Trochlear nerve, CN IV, the rostral interstitial nucleus of medial longitudinal fasciculus (riMLF), and the interstitial nucleus of Cajal.Disorders of conjugate gaze typically consist of the inability to move one or both eyes in the desired direction, or the inability to prevent eyes from making vergence movements.

Conjugate gaze palsy: Conjugate gaze palsies typically affect horizontal gaze, although some affect upward gaze. Few affect downward gaze. These effects can range in severity from a complete lack of voluntary eye movement to mild impairments in speed, accuracy or range of eye movement.Internuclear ophthalmoplegia: Internuclear ophthalmoplegia affects horizontal gaze, such that one eye is capable of full horizontal movement, while the other is incapable of gazing in the direction contralateral to the affected eye.One and a half syndrome: “One and a half syndrome” also affects horizontal gaze. One eye is completely incapable of horizontal movement, while the other eye is capable of horizontal movement only in one direction away from the midline.

Discovery Channel

Discovery Channel (known as The Discovery Channel from 1985 to 1995, and often referred to as simply Discovery) is an American pay television network and flagship channel owned by Discovery, Inc., a publicly traded company run by CEO David Zaslav. As of June 2012, Discovery Channel is the third most widely distributed subscription channel in the United States, behind TBS and The Weather Channel; it is available in 409 million households worldwide, through its U.S. flagship channel and its various owned or licensed television channels internationally.It initially provided documentary television programming focused primarily on popular science, technology, and history, but by the 2010s had expanded into reality television and pseudo-scientific entertainment. Programming on the flagship Discovery Channel in the U.S. is primarily focused on reality television series, such as speculative investigation (with shows such as MythBusters, Unsolved History, and Best Evidence), automobiles, and occupations (such as Dirty Jobs and Deadliest Catch); it also features documentaries specifically aimed at families and younger audiences.

A popular annual feature on the channel is Shark Week, which airs on Discovery during the summer months. Despite its popularity and success, the program has garnered criticism, especially from the scientific community, for being scientifically inaccurate.As of January 2016, Discovery Channel is available to approximately 94,456,000 pay television households in the United States.

Ecofeminist art

Ecofeminist art emerged in the 1970s in response to ecofeminist philosophy, that was particularly articulated by writers such as Carolyn Merchant, Val Plumwood, Donna Haraway, Starhawk, Greta Gaard, Karen J. Warren and Rebecca Solnit. Those writers emphasized the significance of relationships of cultural dominance and ethics (Merchant, Plumwood, Donna Haraway) expressed as sexism (Haraway), spirituality (Starhawk), speciesism (Warren, Gaard), capitalist values that privilege objectification and the importance of vegetarianism in these contexts (Gaard). The main issues Ecofeminism aims to address revolve around the effects of a "Eurocentric capitalist patriarchal culture built on the domination of nature, and the domination of woman 'as nature'. The writer Luke Martell in the Ecology and Society journal writes that 'women' and 'nature' are both victims of patriarchal abuse and "ideological products of the Enlightenment culture of control." Ecofeminism argues that we must become a part of nature, living with and among it. We must recognize that nature is alive and breathing and work against the passivity surrounding it that is synonymous with the passive roles enforced upon women by patriarchal culture, politics, and capitalism.The relevance of Ecofeminism was discussed in feminist art programs at the college and university level, including at the Institute for Social Ecology at Goddard College, Vermont. In the USA, as far back as 1962, an overwhelming series of lawsuits against the corporate world came from the kitchens of mothers and grandmothers. In 1964, Brazilian women set up the Acào Democràtica Feminina Gaucha which soon evolved into an advocacy group for sustainable agriculture. Women around the world were coming together in an effort to break the "continuum of Eurocentric patriarchal capitalist exploitation of natural resources, women, and of indigenous peoples."

Evolution of Management Systems

'A management system is the framework of processes and procedures used to ensure that an organization can fulfill all tasks required to achieve its objectives.

After World War II, the reigning paradigm of product-oriented mass production had reached its peak. Examples of management systems at that time are linear assembly lines, organizational hierarchies of command, product quality control and mass consumption.

Soon afterwards, the Deming-Juran process-quality teachings spearheaded a new quality orientation (later referred to as Total quality management) and propelled Japan directly to the post-war process focus (process quality control, just-in-time, continuous improvement). The US responded by a painful and prolonged product-to-process transformation, ultimately leveling the playing field again by the mid 1980s.

At the end of the 1980s, business process reengineering focused on the radical redesign of the production process through the reintegration of task, labor and knowledge. As a result, lean, flexible and streamlined production processes were created, capable of fast response and internet-based integration necessary for the upcoming phase of supply chains - business-to-business (B2B) – as well as demand chains – business-to-customer (B2C).In the above three stages of Evolution of Management Systems, the competitive advantage was derived almost exclusively from the internal resources of the firm. At the end of the 1980s, a radical fourth shift has occurred: the competitive advantage became increasingly derived from the external resources of the firm – through the extended networks of suppliers and customers.

Figure 1 refers to the basic scheme of production and service delivery process. It represents the traditional linear input-process-output management system. This system has been fixed and unchanging for centuries. The only change has been in terms of changing focus on individual components of the system, emphasizing different parts of this basic scheme.

Although the scheme itself (inputs → process → outputs) remains mostly unchallenged, there are some indications that this business model will undergo major restructurings in the future (in the emerging stages of Evolution of Management Systems). It will become disaggregated and distributed, subjected to non-linear modularity and bringing forth new ways of making things and delivering services. Then it will become reintegrated again, tying together globally distributed components into a unified recycling whole.

Follow focus

A follow focus is a focus control mechanism used in filmmaking with film cameras and in television production with professional video cameras. It is ergonomic rather than strictly necessary; in other words it does not contribute to the basic functionality of a camera but instead helps the operator be more efficient and precise. It is usually operated by a focus puller (often called the 1st assistant camera, or 1st AC) but some camera operators prefer to pull their own focus (the act of changing focus is called "pulling" or racking focus).

Kodak DC Series

The Kodak DC series was Kodak's pioneering consumer-grade line of digital cameras; as distinct from their much more expensive professional Kodak DCS series. Cameras in the DC series were manufactured and sold during the mid-to-late 1990s and early 2000s. Some were branded as "Digital Science". Most of these early digital cameras supported RS-232 serial port connections because USB hardware was not widely available before 1998.

The DC series was superseded by the Kodak EasyShare camera line.

Lens (anatomy)

The lens is a transparent, biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina. The lens, by changing shape, functions to change the focal distance of the eye so that it can focus on objects at various distances, thus allowing a sharp real image of the object of interest to be formed on the retina. This adjustment of the lens is known as accommodation (see also below). Accommodation is similar to the focusing of a photographic camera via movement of its lenses. The lens is more flat on its anterior side than on its posterior side.

The lens is also known as the aquula (Latin, a little stream, dim. of aqua, water) or crystalline lens. In humans, the refractive power of the lens in its natural environment is approximately 18 dioptres, roughly one-third of the eye's total power.

New Reliable Press

New Reliable Press was a Canadian comic book and graphic novel publishing company, owned and operated by Ed Brisson.

New Reliable Press is probably best known for publishing the anthology series You Ain't No Dancer, which has contained the work of well-known indie artists like Jeffrey Brown, Lilli Carré, Nicholas Gurewitch, K. Thor Jensen, Jason Turner, Hope Larson, Mitch Clem, Liz Prince, Neil Babra, Jim Mahfood, Bryan Lee O'Malley, Dean Trippe, Kate Beaton, Lucy Knisley and Jen Wang.

New Reliable Press ceased operations as a comic publisher in 2010, changing focus to comic and publishing production for other organizations.

Occupy Sandy

Occupy Sandy is an organized relief effort created to assist the victims of Hurricane Sandy in the northeastern United States. Like other Occupy Movement offshoots, such as Occupy Our Homes, Occupy University, Occupy the SEC, and Rolling Jubilee, Occupy Sandy is made up of former and present Occupy Wall Street protesters, other members of the Occupy movement, and former non-Occupy volunteers. The effort has worked in partnership with many local community organizations in New York City and New Jersey and has focused on mutual aid in affected communities rather than charity, and long-term rebuilding for more robust, sustainable neighborhoods.

Political campaign

A political campaign is an organized effort which seeks to influence the decision making progress within a specific group. In democracies, political campaigns often refer to electoral campaigns, by which representatives are chosen or referendums are decided. In modern politics, the most high-profile political campaigns are focused on general elections and candidates for head of state or head of government, often a president or prime minister.

Priya Anand

Priya Anand (born 17 September 1986) is an Indian film actress and model who appears in Tamil, Malayalam, Hindi, Kannada and Telugu films. After pursuing higher studies in the US, she began a career in modelling in 2008 before making her acting debut in the Tamil film Vaamanan (2009) and then her Telugu debut in Leader a year later. She made her Bollywood debut in 2012 with a supporting role in English Vinglish and subsequently appeared in the films Fukrey (2013) as Priya and Rangrezz (2013).

Rich Franklin

Richard Jay "Rich" Franklin II (born October 5, 1974) is an American retired mixed martial artist who competed in Ultimate Fighting Championship. He is a former UFC Middleweight Champion. As of June 2014, Franklin has been the Vice President of Asian Mixed Martial Arts company ONE Championship.

Sony HDR-HC1

The Sony HDR-HC1, introduced in mid-2005 (MSRP US$1999), is the first consumer HDV camcorder to support 1080i.

The CMOS sensor has resolution of 1920x1440 for digital still pictures and captures video at 1440x1080 interlaced, which is the resolution defined for HDV 1080i. The camera may also use the extra pixels for digital image stabilization.

The camcorder can also convert the captured HDV data to DV data for editing the video using non-linear editing systems which do not support HDV or for creating edits which are viewable on non-HDTV television sets.

The HVR-A1 is the prosumer version of the HDR-HC1. It has more manual controls and XLR ports.

Sylvan Learning

Sylvan Learning, Inc. (formerly Sylvan Learning Corporation) consists of franchised and corporate supplemental learning centers which provide personalized instruction in reading, writing, mathematics, study skills, homework support, and test preparation for college entrance and state exams. Sylvan provides personalized learning programs and primarily serves students in primary and secondary education.

The Brownies

The Brownies is a series of publications by Canadian illustrator and author Palmer Cox, based on names and elements from English traditional mythology and Scottish stories told to Cox by his grandmother. Illustrations with verse aimed at children, The Brownies was published in magazines and books during the late 19th century and early 20th century. The Brownie characters became famous in their day, and at the peak of their popularity were a pioneering name brand within merchandising.


Whorouly is a town in northeast Victoria, Australia.

The town is in the valley of the Ovens River and in the Rural City of Wangaratta local government area, 274 kilometres (170 mi) northeast of the state capital, Melbourne and 32.3 kilometres (20.1 mi) southeast of the regional centre of Wangaratta. At the 2011 census, Whorouly and the surrounding area had a population of 519. Prior to the 1994 Kennet Government council amalgamations (and the creation of the Rural City of Wangaratta), the township was in the (now disbanded) Shire of Oxley.

The town can easily be missed, sitting as it does off the main valley highways between the Snow Road (the C522 which runs from an interchange on the M31 Hume Freeway) and The Great Alpine Road (the B500, which runs between Wangaratta and Omeo). It is however, only 5 minutes from either road.

The town was surveyed and proclaimed in 1868, adopting the name of a nearby station. Whorouly Primary School opened in 1874. The first European settlers established large grazing properties but after the Victorian gold rush, closer settlement took place. Land was released in 320-acre (130 ha) lots, on the condition that part of the land was cleared for agriculture.Until the 1980s much of the area along the Ovens River was planted with tobacco. Other production in the area included beef and dairy cattle, orchards and market gardens. In recent years, wine grape growing has been introduced to the area so that the area, being at the apex of the Ovens Valley and King Valley, is the centre of a significant food region with many farm gate and cellar door sales.

The local Australian rules football team, Whorouly Football Club, competes in the Ovens and King Football League.

Town facilities currently include churches, children's playground, sporting ground & public hall, a combined primary school & pre-school, a combined hotel/pub/general store, a local well renowned cafe called The 2 Cooks Cafe and several self-catering holiday rentals and B&B's. There is also a garage with fuel facilities. The garage was known as Whorouly Motors but recently changed its name to Alpine Performance changing focus to support the growing performance car and motorbike market in the region.

Zubot and Dawson

Zubot and Dawson were folk duo from Vancouver, Canada, that consisted of Jesse Zubot on fiddle and Steve Dawson on guitar. They played largely folk-inspired acoustic music and released three albums. They toured both North America and Europe. In 2003 they won a Juno award for the album Chicken Scratch.

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