Chang-Du or Chang-Jing dialect, sometimes called Nanchang dialect (simplified Chinese: 南昌话; traditional Chinese: 南昌話; pinyin: nánchāng huà) after its principal variety, is a dialect of Gan Chinese. It is named after Nanchang and Duchang County, and is spoken in those areas as well as in Xinjian, Anyi, Yongxiu, De'an, Xingzi, Hukou, and bordering regions in Jiangxi and in Pingjiang County, Hunan.
The Nanchang variety will be taken as representative.
The finals of the Nanchang dialect are:
Nanchang has 5 tones, which are neutralized before a syllable-final stop.
|Tone number||Tone name||Tone contour||Description|
|1||yin ping (陰平)||˦˨ (42)||falling|
|2||yang ping (陽平)||˨˦ (24)||rising|
|3||shang sheng (上聲)||˨˩˧ (213)||dipping|
|4||yin qu (陰去)||˥ (5)||high|
|5||yang qu (陽去)||˨˩ (21)||low|
|6||ru sheng (入聲)||˥̚ (5)||checked|
|7||ru sheng (入聲)||˨̚ (2)||checked|
Bbánlám Hōng'ggián Pìngyīm Hōng'àn (Chinese: 閩南方言拼音方案), Bbánlám pìngyīm, Minnan pinyin or simply pingyim, is a romanization system for Hokkien Southern Min, in particular the Amoy (Xiamen) version of this language.Fuzhou Transliteration Scheme
The Fuzhou Transliteration Scheme (Chinese: 福州话拼音方案; pinyin: Fúzhōuhuà Pīnyīn Fāng'àn) refers to the romanization scheme published in 1994 for the Fuzhou Dialect Dictionary (Chinese: 福州方言词典; pinyin: Fúzhōu fāngyán cídiǎn), romanizing the Fuzhou dialect. It does not explicitly state the tones.Hagfa Pinyim
Hagfa Pinyim or HagFa PinYim (客家話拼音, literally "Hakka Pinyin") is a system of romanization used to transcribe Chinese characters as used in Hakka into Latin script. Hagfa Pinyim was developed by Lau Chun-fat (劉鎮發) for use in his Hakka Pinyin Dictionary (客語拼音字彙, literally "Hakka Pinyin Vocabulary") that was published in 1997. The romanization system is named after the Pinyin system used for Mandarin Chinese and is designed to resemble Pinyin.Hainan Romanized
Hainanese Romanized, also known as its local name Bǽh-oe-tu (白話字), is an orthography similar to Pe̍h-oē-jī, and used to write Haikou dialect of the Hainanese language. It was invented by Carl C. Jeremiassen, a Danish pioneer missionary in Fucheng (modern Haikou) in 1881.Hainanese Transliteration Scheme
The Hainanese Transliteration Scheme (Chinese: 海南話拼音方案) refers to a romanization scheme published by the Guangdong Provincial Education Department in September 1960 as one of four systems collectively referred to as Guangdong Romanization. The scheme describes the Wenchang dialect spoken in Wenchang, Hainan which is considered to be the prestige dialect of Hainanese. At the time of the scheme's creation, Hainan was part of Guangdong, until it was separated to form its own province in 1988. This system utilises the Latin alphabet with superscript numbers to represent tone.Hakka Transliteration Scheme
The Hakka Transliteration Scheme (Chinese: 客家話拼音方案) refers to a romanization scheme published by the Guangdong Provincial Education Department in September 1960 as one of four systems collectively referred to as Guangdong Romanization. The scheme describes the Meixian dialect spoken in Meizhou, Guangdong which is considered to be the prestige dialect of Hakka. This system utilizes the Latin alphabet with superscript numbers to represent tone.Hinghwa Romanized
Hinghwa Romanized, also known as Hing-hua̍ báⁿ-uā-ci̍ (興化平話字) or Báⁿ-uā-ci̍ (平話字), is a Latin alphabet of the Putian dialect of Pu-Xian Chinese. It was invented by William N. Brewster (蒲魯士), an American Methodist pioneer missionary in Hinghwa (modern Putian) in 1890.Hong Kong name
Personal names in Hong Kong generally contain differences from those in mainland China due to a lack of pinyin standardization, ethnic diversity, and the presence of English as a second language.
Generally, the Cantonese majority employ one or another romanization of Cantonese. However, non-Cantonese immigrants may retain their hometown spelling in English. For example, use of Shanghainese romanization in names is more common in Hong Kong English than in official use in Shanghai where pinyin is used.Chinese names and sometimes Chinese surnames in Hong Kong may be supplemented by or replaced by an English name when using English. As with the unrelated actors Tony Leung Chiu-Wai and Tony Leung Ka-fai, Hong Kong names may follow an English personal name + Cantonese family name + Cantonese personal name format. The use of English names in Hong Kong is not well researched or documented. English names in Hong Kong can include names that are not often found in the Western world, with some examples being Rimsky Yuen, York Chow, and Moses Chan. Inspiration for English names in Hong Kong can come from the names of months, sports brands, and luxury labels. More conventional English names can undergo distortion by the adding, substitution, or deletion of letters (e.g. Sonija, Garbie, Kith), as well using suffixes like -son (e.g. Rayson). They also sometimes come from mimicking the sounds of the Chinese name, like Hacken Lee from Lee Hak-kan (李克勤). These categories (addition, substitution, phonetic-based, etc) are the fundamental ways of generating creative Hong Kong names.Lessing-Othmer
Lessing-Othmer is a romanisation of Mandarin Chinese that was once used by Germans written by F. Lessing and Dr. W. Othmer, who in 1912 printed their book "Lehrgang der nordchinesischen Umgangssprache" (Course in the North Chinese Colloquial Language) in Qingdao (Chinese: 青島; pinyin: Qīngdǎo) whilst it was a German colony in 1912 through the "Deutsch-Chinesische Druckerei und Verlagsanstalt."
In 1979, the State Council of the People's Republic of China for Romanisation ruled that translations of foreign-language publications should use Lessing romanisation in German-speaking countries, and Pinyin in English-speaking countries.Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II
Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II (Chinese: 國語注音符號第二式), abbreviated MPS II, is a romanization system formerly used in the Republic of China (Taiwan). It was created to replace the complex tonal-spelling Gwoyeu Romatzyh, and to co-exist with the popular Wade–Giles (romanization) and Zhuyin (non-romanization). It is sometimes referred to as Gwoyeu Romatzyh 2 or GR2.Meyer–Wempe
Meyer–Wempe romanization was the system used by two Roman Catholic missionaries in Hong Kong, Bernard F. Meyer and Theodore F. Wempe, for romanizing Cantonese in their Student's Cantonese English Dictionary published in 1935.Peng'im
Peng'im (Chinese: 潮州话拼音方案: Diê⁵ziu¹uê⁷ Pêng¹im¹ huang¹uan³ (Teochew) Dio⁷ziu¹uê⁷ Pêng¹im¹ huang¹uan³ (Swatow)) is a Teochew dialect romanisation system as a part of Guangdong Romanisation published by Guangdong Provincial Education Department in 1960. Tone of this system is based on Swatow dialect. The system uses Latin alphabet to transcript pronunciation and numbers to note tones. Since Teochew has high phonetic similarity with Hokkien, another Southern Min variety, Pe̍h-ōe-jī and Tai-lo can also be used to transcribe Teochew. The name "Peng'im" is a transcription of "拼音" using this system.Pha̍k-fa-sṳ
Pha̍k-fa-sṳ (Chinese: 白話字) is an orthography similar to Pe̍h-ōe-jī and used to write Hakka, a variety of Chinese. Hakka is a whole branch of Chinese, and Hakka dialects are not necessarily mutually intelligible with each other, considering the large geographical region. This article discusses a specific variety of Hakka. It was invented by the Presbyterian church in the 19th century. The Hakka New Testament published in 1924 is written in this system.Pha̍k-oa-chhi romanization
Pha̍k-oa-chhi (白話字) is a Latin script based orthography for the Nanchang dialect of the Gan language. Pha̍k-oa-chhi is based on Pe̍h-ōe-jī for Hokkien, and it is also related to the orthographies of Pha̍k-fa-sṳ for Hakka, Bàng-uâ-cê for Fuzhou dialect and Pêh-uē-jī for Teochew dialect.Sichuanese Pinyin
Sichuanese Pinyin (Si4cuan1hua4 Pin1yin1; simplified Chinese: 四川话拼音; traditional Chinese: 四川話拼音; pinyin: Sìchuānhuà pīnyīn), is a romanization system specifically designed for the Chengdu dialect of Sichuanese. It is mostly used in selected Sichuanese dictionaries, such as the Sichuan Dialect Dictionary, Sichuan Dialect's Vocabulary Explanation, and the Chengdu Dialect Dictionary. Sichuanese Pinyin is based on Hanyu Pinyin, the only Chinese romanization system officially instructed within the People's Republic of China, for convenience amongst users. However, there is also the problem that it is unable to match the phonology of Sichuanese with complete precision, especially in the case for the Minjiang dialect, as there are many differences between Sichuanese and Standard Chinese in phonology.Sidney Lau romanisation
Sidney Lau romanisation is a system of romanisation for Cantonese that was developed in the 1970s by Sidney Lau for teaching Cantonese to Hong Kong Government expatriates. It is based on the Hong Kong Government's Standard Romanisation which was the result of the work of James D. Ball and Ernst J. Eitel about a century earlier.Standard Romanization (Cantonese)
Standard Romanization is a romanization system for Cantonese developed by Christian missionaries in South China in 1888, particularly relying upon the work of John Morrison Chalmers. By 1914, it had become well established in Canton and Hong Kong (there being no other system of significance in published literature) and publications using it having been issued by the British and Foreign Bible Society, the China Baptist Publication Society, and the Pakhoi Mission Press from as early as 1906. It is the foundation of the current system of Romanisation used by the Hong Kong Government.Taiwanese Language Phonetic Alphabet
Taiwanese language Phonetic Alphabet (Chinese: 台灣語言音標方案; pinyin: Táiwān yǔyán yīnbiāo fāng'àn; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tâi-ôan gí-giân im-piau hong-àn), more commonly known by its initials TLPA, is a romanization for the Taiwanese language, Taiwanese Hakka language, and Formosan languages. Based on Pe̍h-ōe-jī and first published in full in 1998, it was intended as a transcription system rather than as a full-fledged orthography.Yale romanization of Cantonese
The Yale romanization of Cantonese was developed by Gerard P. Kok for his and Parker Po-fei Huang's textbook Speak Cantonese initially circulated in looseleaf form in 1952 but later published in 1958. Unlike the Yale romanization of Mandarin, it is still widely used in books and dictionaries, especially for foreign learners of Cantonese. It shares some similarities with Hanyu Pinyin in that unvoiced, unaspirated consonants are represented by letters traditionally used in English and most other European languages to represent voiced sounds. For example, [p] is represented as b in Yale, whereas its aspirated counterpart, [pʰ] is represented as p. Students attending The Chinese University of Hong Kong's New-Asia Yale-in-China Chinese Language Center are taught using Yale romanization.