Chang'an ([ʈʂʰǎŋ.án] (listen); simplified Chinese: 长安; traditional Chinese: 長安) was an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi'an. Chang'an means "Perpetual Peace" in Classical Chinese since it was a capital that was repeatedly used by new Chinese rulers. During the short-lived Xin dynasty, the city was renamed "Constant Peace" (Chinese: 常安; pinyin: Cháng'ān); the old name was later restored. By the time of the Ming dynasty, a new walled city named Xi'an, meaning "Western Peace", was built at the Sui and Tang Dynasty city's site, which has remained its name to the present day.
Chang'an had been settled since Neolithic times, during which the Yangshao Culture was established in Banpo in the city's suburb. Also in the northern vicinity of the modern Xi'an, Qin Shi Huang of the Qin dynasty held his imperial court, and constructed his massive mausoleum guarded by the famed Terracotta Army.
From its capital at Xianyang, the Qin dynasty ruled a larger area than either of the preceding dynasties. The imperial city of Chang'an during the Han dynasty was located northwest of today's Xi'an. During the Tang dynasty, the area to be known as Chang'an included the area inside the Ming Xi'an fortification, plus some small areas to its east and west, and a major part of its southern suburbs. The Tang Chang'an hence, was 8 times the size of the Ming Xi'an, which was reconstructed upon the premise of the former imperial quarter of the Sui and Tang city. During its heyday, Chang'an was one of the largest and most populous cities in the world. Around AD 750, Chang'an was called a "million people's city" in Chinese records, while modern estimates put it at around 800,000–1,000,000 within city walls. According to the census in 742 recorded in the New Book of Tang, 362,921 families with 1,960,188 persons were counted in Jingzhao Fu (京兆府), the metropolitan area including small cities in the vicinity.
|Literal meaning||"Perpetual Peace"|
The strategic and economic importance of ancient Chang'an was mainly due to its central position. The roads leading to Gansu, Sichuan, Henan, Hubei and Shanxi all converged there. The mountainous country surrounding the Wei River basin led to the existence of only two practicable roads through to the south, and two through mountainous Gansu to the west, forming the beginning of the ancient Silk Routes. Chinese itineraries gave the following distances:
The site of the Han capital was located 3 km northwest of modern Xi'an. As the capital of the Western Han, it was the political, economic and cultural center of China. It was also the eastern terminus of the Silk Road, and a cosmopolitan metropolis. It was a consumer city, a city whose existence was not primarily predicated upon manufacturing and trade, but rather boasted such a large population because of its role as the political and military center of China. By 2 AD, the population was 246,200 in 80,000 households. This population consisted mostly of the scholar gentry class whose education was being sponsored by their wealthy aristocratic families. In addition to these civil servants was a larger underclass to serve them.
Initially, Emperor Liu Bang decided to build his capital at the center of the sun, which according to Chinese geography was in modern Luoyang. This location was the site of the holy city Chengzhou, home of the last Zhou emperors. The magical significance of this location was believed to ensure a long-lasting dynasty like the Zhou, whom the Han sought to emulate. However, in practice the strategic military value of a capital located in the Wei Valley became the deciding factor for locating the new capital. To this end, it is recorded c 200 BC he forcibly relocated thousands of clans in the military aristocracy to this region. The purpose was twofold. First, it kept all potential rivals close to the new Emperor, and second, it allowed him to redirect their energy toward defending the capital from invasion by the nearby Xiongnu. His adviser Liu Jing described this plan as weakening the root while strengthening the branch.
After the necessary political structure was set up, the area of the capital was divided into three prefectures and construction began. At its founding in 195 BC, the population of Changan was 146,000. During the reign of Emperor Wu of Han, the diplomat Zhang Qian was dispatched westward into Central Asia. Since then, Chang'an city became the Asian gateway to Europe as the point of departure of the famous Silk Road. On 4 October 23 AD, Chang'an was captured and sacked during a peasant rebellion. The emperor, Wang Mang was killed and decapitated by the rebels two days later. After the Western Han period, the Eastern Han government settled on Luoyang as the new capital. Chang'an was therefore also sometimes referred to as the Western Capital or Xijing (西京) in some Han dynasty texts. In 190 AD during late Eastern Han, the court was seized and relocated back to Chang'an by the notorious Prime Minister Dong Zhuo, as it was a strategically superior site against the mounting insurgency formed against him. After Dong's death (192) the capital was moved back to Luoyang in August 196, and to Xuchang in autumn 196. By this time, many dynasties came to regard Chang'an as the symbolic site of supreme power and governance.
The 25.7 km long city wall was initially 3.5 m wide at the base tapering upward 8 m for a top width of 2 m. Beyond this wall, a 6.13 m wide moat with a depth of 4.62 m was spanned by 13.86 m long stone bridges. The wall was later expanded to 12–16 m at base and 12 m high. The moat was expanded to 8 m wide and 3 m deep. The expansion of the wall was likely a solution to flooding from the Wei River. The entire city was sited below the 400 m contour line which the Tang Dynasty used to mark the edge of the floodplain.
Twelve gates with three gateways each per the ritual formulas of Zhou dynasty urban planning pierced the wall. These gates were distributed three per a side and from them eight 45 m wide main avenues extended into the city. These avenues were also divided into three lanes aligned with the three gateways of each gate. The lanes were separated by median strips planted with Pine, Elm, and Scholar trees. Bachengmen Avenue was an exception with a width of 82 m and no medians. Four of the gates opened directly into the palaces.
The overall form of the city was an irregular rectangle. The ideal square of the city had been twisted into the form of the Big Dipper for astrological reasons, and also to follow the bank of the Wei River. The eight avenues divided the city into nine districts. These nine main districts were subdivided into 160 walled 1×1 li wards. About 50-100 families lived in each ward. Historically, Chang'an grew in four phases: the first from 200-195 BC when the palaces were built; the second 195-180 BC when the outer city walls were built; the third between 141-87 BC with a peak at 100 BC; and the fourth from 1 BC-24 AD when it was destroyed.
The Xuanpingmen gate was the main gate between the city and suburbs. The district north of the Weiyang Palace was the most exclusive. The main market, called the Nine Markets, was the eastern economic terminus of the Silk Road. Access to the market was from the Northeast and Northwest gates, which were the most heavily used by the common people. The former connect with a bridge over the Wei River to the northern suburbs and the latter connected with the rest of China to the east. An intricate network of underground passages connected the imperial harem with other palaces and the city. These passages were controlled by underground gatehouses and their existence was unknown.
In 200 BC after marking the boundaries of the three prefectures, which comprised the metropolitan region of Xianyang, Liu Bang appointed Xiao He to design and build the new capital. He chose to site the city on ruins of the Qin Dynasty Apex Temple (formerly, Xin Palace). This old Qin palace was meant to be the earthly mirror of Polaris, the apex star, where the heavenly emperor resided. This site, thus represented the center of the earth lying under the center of heaven with an axis mundi running upward from the imperial throne to its heavenly counterpart. The ruins were greatly expanded to 7×7 li in size and renamed Changle Palace (长乐宫; 長樂宮; Chánglè Gōng). Two years later, a new palace called Weiyang Palace (未央宮; Wèiyāng Gōng) was constructed 5×7 li. Prime minister Xiao He convinced Liu Bang that both the excessive size and multiplicity of palaces was necessary to secure his rule by creating a spectacle of power.
In 195 BC, his son, Emperor Hui of Han began the construction of the walls of Chang'an and finished them in September 191 BC. The grid north of the palaces was built at this time with a 2° difference in alignment to the grid of the palaces. The city remained quite static after this expansion.
Wu-ti began a third phase of construction which peaked on 100 BC with the construction of many new palaces. He also added the nine temples complex south of the city, and built the park. In 120 BC, Shanglin Park, which had been used for agriculture by the common people since Liu Bang was sealed off, was turned into an imperial park again. In the center of the park was a recreation of the three fairy islands in Kunming Lake.
Chang'an was briefly the capital of the Western Jin dynasty from 312 to 316. It was also the capital of Former Zhao (318–329), Former Qin (351–385) and Later Qin (384–417). In 417, a century after the Western Jin lost Chang'an, the city reconquered by Liu Yu of Eastern Jin, who founded the Liu Song dynasty in 420. The city was lost to Northern Wei by 439. When Northern Wei split in two, Chang'an became the capital of Western Wei (535–557), and also of its successor state Northern Zhou (557–581).
Both Sui and Tang empires occupied the same location. In 582, Emperor Wen of the Sui dynasty sited a new region southeast of the much ruined Han Dynasty Chang'an to build his new capital, which he called Daxing (大興, “Great Prosperity”). Daxing was renamed Chang'an in year 618 when the Duke of Tang, Li Yuan, proclaimed himself the Emperor Gaozu of Tang. Chang'an during the Tang dynasty (618–907) was, along with Constantinople (Istanbul) and Baghdad, one of the largest cities in the world. It was a cosmopolitan urban center with considerable foreign populations from other parts of Asia and beyond. This new Chang'an was laid out on a north-south axis in a grid pattern, dividing the enclosure into 108 wards and featuring two large marketplaces, in the east and west respectively. Everyday, administrators of the two marketplaces would beat gong for three hundred times in the morning and evening to signify the start and stop of business. People lived in the wards were not allowed to go outside after curfew. Officials with higher-ranking had the privilege to live closer to the central avenue. Chang'an's layout influenced city planning of several other Asian capitals for many years to come. Chang'an's walled and gated wards were much larger than conventional city blocks seen in modern cities, as the smallest ward had a surface area of 68 acres and the largest ward had a surface area of 233 acres (0.94 km2). The height of the walls enclosing each ward were on average 9 to 10 ft (3.0 m) in height. The Japanese built their ancient capitals, Heijō-kyō (today's Nara) and later Heian-kyō or Kyoto, modelled after Chang'an in a more modest scale yet was never fortified. The modern Kyoto still retains some characteristics of Sui-Tang Chang'an. Similarly, the Korean Silla dynasty modeled their capital of Gyeongju after the Chinese capital. Sanggyeong, one of the five capitals of the state of Balhae, was also laid out like Chang'an.
Much of Chang'an was destroyed during its repeated sacking during the An Lushan Rebellion and several subsequent events. Chang'an was occupied by the forces of An Lushan and Shi Siming, in 756; then taken back by the Tang government and allied troops, in 757. In 763, Chang'an was briefly occupied by the Tibetan Empire. And, in 765, Chang'an was besieged by the alliance of the Tibetan Empire and the Uyghur Khaganate. Several laws enforcing segregation of foreigners from Han Chinese were passed during the Tang dynasty. In 779, the Tang dynasty issued an edict which forced Uighurs in the capital, Chang'an, to wear their ethnic dress, stopped them from marrying Chinese females, and banned them from pretending to be Chinese. Between 783 and 784, it was again occupied by the rebels during the Jingyuan Rebellion (涇原兵變). In 881, Chang'an was occupied by Huang Chao. In 882, Chang'an was taken back by Tang dynasty, however, the Tang forces, although welcomed by the inhabitants, looted Chang'an before being driven back by the forces of Huang Chao shortly afterward. In revenge Huang Chao conducted a systematic slaughter of the inhabitants after retaking the city. Chang'an was finally retaken by the Tang government in 883. However, in 904, Zhu Quanzhong ordered the city's buildings demolished and the construction materials moved to Luoyang, which became the new capital. The residents together with the emperor Zhaozong were also forced to move to Luoyang. Chang'an never recovered after the apex of the Tang dynasty, but there are still some monuments from the Tang era that are still standing.
After Zhu Quanzhong moved the capital to Luoyang, Youguojun (佑國軍) was established in Chang'an, with Han Jian being the Youguojun Jiedushi (佑國軍節度使). Han Jian rebuilt Chang'an on the basis of the old Imperial City. Much of Chang'an was abandoned and the rebuilt Chang'an, called "Xincheng (lit. new city)" by the contemporary people, was less than 1/16 of the old Chang'an in area.
During Tang, the main exterior walls of Chang'an rose 18 ft (5.5 m) high, were 5 miles (8.0 km) by six miles in length, and formed a city in a rectangular shape, with an inner surface area of 30 square miles (78 km2). The areas to the north that jutted out like appendages from the main wall were the West Park, the smaller East Park, and the Daming Palace, while the southeasternmost extremity of the main wall was built around the Serpentine River Park that jutted out as well. The West Park walled off and connected to the West Palace (guarded behind the main exterior wall) by three gates in the north, the walled-off enclosure of the Daming Palace connected by three gates in the northeast, the walled-off East Park led in by one gate in the northeast, and the Serpentine River Park in the southeast was simply walled off by the main exterior wall, and open without gated enclosures facing the southeasternmost city blocks. There was a Forbidden Park to the northwest outside of the city, where there was a cherry orchard, a Pear Garden, a vineyard, and fields for playing popular sports such as horse polo and cuju (ancient Chinese football). On the northwest section of the main outer wall there were three gates leading out to the Forbidden Park, three gates along the western section of the main outer wall, three gates along the southern section of the main outer wall, and three gates along the eastern section of the main outer wall. Although the city had many different streets and roads passing between the wards, city blocks, and buildings, there were distinct major roads (lined up with the nine gates of the western, southern, and eastern walls of the city) that were much wider avenues than the others. There were six of these major roads that divided the city into nine distinct gridded sectors (listed below by cardinal direction). The narrowest of these streets were 82 ft (25 m) wide, those terminating at the gates of the outer walls being 328 ft (100 m) wide, and the largest of all, the Imperial Way that stretched from the central southern gate all the way to the Administrative City and West Palace in the north, was 492 ft (150 m) wide. Streets and roads of these widths allowed for efficient fire breaks in the city of Chang'an. For example, in 843, a large fire consumed 4,000 homes, warehouses, and other buildings in the East Market, yet the rest of the city was at a safe distance from the blaze (which was largely quarantined in East Central Chang'an). The citizens of Chang'an were also pleased with the government once the imperial court ordered the planting of fruit trees along all of the avenues of the city in 740.
Within the West Park was a running stream and within the walled enclosure of the West Palace were two running streams, one connecting three ponds and another connecting two ponds. The small East Park had a pond the size of those in the West Palace. The Daming Palace and the Xingqing Palace (along the eastern wall of the city) had small lakes to boast. The Serpentine River Park had a large lake within its bounds that was bigger than the latter two lakes combined, connected at the southern end by a river that ran under the main walls and out of the city.
There were five transport and sanitation canals running throughout the city, which had several water sources, and delivered water to city parks, gardens of the rich, and the grounds of the imperial palaces. The sources of water came from a stream running through the Forbidden Park and under the northern city wall, two running streams from outside the city in the south, a stream that fed into the pond of the walled East Park, which in turn fed into a canal that led to the inner city. These canal waterways in turn streamed water into the ponds of the West Palace; the lake in the Xingqing Palace connected two canals running through the city. The canals were also used to transport crucial goods throughout the city, such as charcoal and firewood in the winter.
For different buildings and locations in the entire city, the total numbers for each were:
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| Capital of China
206 BCE-25 CE
Air Chang'an (simplified Chinese: 长安航空; traditional Chinese: 長安航空; pinyin: Cháng'ān Hángkōng) is a Chinese domestic airline. Its main operating base is Xi'an Xianyang International Airport, serving several cities in Shaanxi Province. Initially an independent carrier, Air Chang'an merged with Hainan Airlines in 2000 and was later absorbed into that airline. Air Chang'an resumed service as an independent airline in May 2016, providing flights to four Chinese cities with three Boeing 737-800 aircraft.An Lushan Rebellion
The An Lushan Rebellion was a devastating rebellion against the Tang dynasty of China. The rebellion overtly began on 16 December 755, when general An Lushan declared himself emperor in Northern China, thus establishing a rival Yan Dynasty, and ended when Yan fell on 17 February 763 (although the effects lasted past this). This event is also known (especially in Chinese historiography) as the An–Shi Rebellion or An–Shi Disturbances (simplified Chinese: 安史之乱; traditional Chinese: 安史之亂; pinyin: Ān Shǐ zhī luàn), as it continued after An Lushan's death under his son An Qingxu and his deputy and successor Shi Siming, or as the Tianbao Rebellion (天寶之乱), as it began in the 14th year of that era.
The rebellion spanned the reigns of three Tang emperors before it was finally quashed, and involved a wide range of regional powers; besides the Tang dynasty loyalists, others involved were anti-Tang families, especially in An Lushan's base area in Hebei, and Arab, Uyghur and Sogdian forces or influences, among others. The rebellion and subsequent disorder resulted in a huge loss of life and large-scale destruction. It significantly weakened the Tang dynasty, and led to the loss of the Western Regions.BBK Electronics
BBK Electronics Corporation (Chinese: 广东步步高电子工业有限公司) is a Chinese multinational firm specializing in electronics such as television sets, MP3 players, digital cameras and cell phones. It markets smartphones under the Realme , OPPO, Vivo and OnePlus brands, and Blu-ray players, headphones and headphone amplifiers under the OPPO Digital division. BBK Electronics' headquarters and production base are located in Chang'an, Dongguan. The latest member of the BBK Electronics group is "imoo".The corporate address is 23 Bubugao Avenue, Wusha Village, Chang'an Dist, Dongguan, 523860 China. It is the highest taxpayer in Chang'an.In Q1 2017, BBK Electronics shipped 56.7 million smartphones, surpassing both Huawei and Apple to become the 2nd largest smartphone manufacturer in the world, just behind Samsung. In September 2017, BBK toppled Samsung to become the largest smartphone seller in India.Baicheng Chang'an Airport
Baicheng Chang'an Airport (IATA: DBC, ICAO: ZYBA) is an airport serving the city of Baicheng in China's northeastern Jilin Province. It is located in the town of Taohe (洮河) in Taobei District, 16.5 kilometres (10.3 mi) from the city center. The airport received approval from the central government on October 14, 2012, and construction began on October 26, 2012. The total investment is 480 million yuan. The airport was opened on 31 March 2017, the fifth civil airport in Jilin province.Chang'an, Dongguan
Chang'an Town (Chinese: 长安镇; pinyin: Cháng'ān zhèn) is an industrial town in the southwest of the Dongguan prefecture-level city in the Pearl River Delta of Guangdong Province, China. The population of Chang'an was 594,809 at the 2000 Census, making it the most populous town (zhèn) in China at that count.Chang'an Avenue
Chang'an Avenue (simplified Chinese: 长安街; traditional Chinese: 長安街; pinyin: Cháng'ān Jiē), literally "Eternal Peace Street", is a major thoroughfare in Beijing, China.
It is often referred to as the Shili Changjie (simplified Chinese: 十里长街; traditional Chinese: 十里長街; pinyin: Shílǐ Chǎngjiē), meaning the Ten Li Long street.
Chang'an is the old name for Xi'an which was the capital of China during the Tang Dynasty and other periods.
Strictly speaking, Chang'an Avenue only encompasses West Chang'an Avenue and East Chang'an Avenue. However, it is also used to refer to the stretch from Fuxingmen on the Western 2nd Ring Road to Jianguomen on the Eastern 2nd Ring Road.
In very broad terms, it refers to the stretch of road (the Extended Chang'an Avenue) as the route from Shijingshan District through to Tongzhou District, including portions of the Jingtong Expressway.
This article, and related articles, consider it to be the road from Fuxing Road through to the beginning of the Jingtong Expressway (E. 5th Ring Road). Others have defined it as the road from Shijingshan Road through to Dawangqiao on Jianguo Road.
In 2009 the road was widened to 10 lanes, as part of the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China.Chang'an District, Shijiazhuang
Chang'an District (simplified Chinese: 长安区; traditional Chinese: 長安區; pinyin: Cháng'ān Qū) is in the northeast of the urban core of Shijiazhuang, the capital of Hebei province, China. The area is 110.24 km2 (42.56 sq mi). There are 426,500 residents, among which 109,700 residents are farmers. The leading pharmaceutical manufacturer in China, North China Pharmaceutical Group Corp (NCPC) located in Chang'an District, Shijiazhang.
Hebei Airlines has its corporate headquarters in the Shijiazhuang World Trade Plaza Hotel (石家庄世贸广场酒店; 石家莊世貿廣場酒店; Shíjiāzhuāng Shìmào Guǎngchǎng Jiǔdiàn) in Chang'an District.Chang'an District, Xi'an
Chang'an District (simplified Chinese: 长安区; traditional Chinese: 長安區; pinyin: Cháng'ān Qū; literally: "long peace") is one of nine districts of Xi'an, the capital of Shaanxi province, China. It is the most spacious of the nine districts and third-largest out of all 13 county-level divisions of Xi'an, while it is also the second most-populous. The district borders the prefecture-level cities of Shangluo to the southeast and Ankang to the southwest, Weiyang and Yanta Districts to the north, Baqiao District to the northeast, Lantian County to the east, and Huyi District to the west.Chang'an University
Chang'an University (Chinese: 长安大学; pinyin: Cháng'ān Dàxué) is a university located in Xi'an, China. Chang'an is the ancient name of Xi'an which means "Perpetual Peace" in Classical Chinese. It is one of the State "211 Project" key development universities and is directly under the administration of the Ministry of Education. The university was formed by the merger of the former Xi'an Highway University, Xi'an Engineering Institute and Northwest Institute of Construction Engineering on April 18, 2000. It has five campuses (The Main, Yanta, Xiaozhai, Weishui and Taibai) in Xi'an.The Weishui Campus is for undergraduates and the other ones are mainly for postgraduates and social practices. Moreover, Chang’an University has the only automobile proving field in Weishui Campus in China. It is a Chinese Ministry of Education Double First Class Discipline University, with Double First Class status in certain disciplines.Changan Automobile
Chang'an Automobile (Group) Co., Ltd. is a Chinese automobile manufacturer headquartered in Chongqing, China, and a state-owned enterprise. Its principal activity is the production of passenger cars, microvans, commercial vans and light trucks.Chang'an designs, develops, manufactures, and sells passenger cars sold under the Chang'an brand and commercial vehicles sold under the Chana brand. It operates joint ventures with Ford (Changan Ford), Groupe PSA (Changan PSA), Mazda (Changan Mazda) and Suzuki (Changan Suzuki) which respectively produce Ford, DS Automobiles, Mazda and Suzuki branded passenger cars for the Chinese market. It also has a joint venture with Jiangling Motor Corporation Group (JMCG), which produces SUVs sold under the Landwind marque.
Chang'an is considered to be one of the "Big Four" Chinese automakers, and manufacture of 3 million units in 2016 saw the company rank fourth among China's automakers by production volume. It is China's second most popular car brand, with 1.4 million Changan cars sold in 2016. A subsidiary of Changan, Chongqing Changan Automobile Company (SZSE: 000625), is listed on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange (but is also state controlled).Changan Ford Mazda
Changan Ford Mazda (officially Changan Ford Mazda Automobile Co., Ltd.) was an automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Chongqing, China and a joint venture between Changan Automobile, Ford Motor Company and Mazda. Its principal activity was the manufacture and sale of Ford and Mazda branded passenger cars in China.
In December 2012 the activities of Changan Ford Mazda were restructured and separated into two new joint ventures: Changan Ford Automobile Co., Ltd. and Changan Mazda Automobile Co., Ltd. Changan Ford was established as a 50:50 joint venture between Changan and Ford incorporated in Chongqing and assumed all of Changan Ford Mazda's Ford-related business. Changan Mazda was established as a 50:50 joint venture between Changan and Mazda incorporated in Nanjing and assumed all of Changan Ford Mazda's Mazda-related business.Changan Suzuki
Changan Suzuki (officially Changan Suzuki Automobile Co., Ltd.) is an automobile manufacturing company headquartered in Chongqing, China and a joint-venture between Chang'an Automobile Group and Suzuki. Chang'an began assembling subcompact commercial trucks under license from Suzuki in 1990, and in 1993 the two companies formed Chang'an Suzuki to build licensed versions of the Suzuki Alto and Suzuki Cultus.Emperor Xizong of Tang
Emperor Xizong of Tang (June 8, 862 – April 20, 888), né Li Yan, later name changed to Li Xuan (Chinese: 李儇, changed 873), was an emperor of the Tang dynasty of China. He reigned from 873 to 888. He was the fifth son of his predecessor Emperor Yizong and was the elder brother of his successor Emperor Zhaozong. His reign saw his realm overrun by the great agrarian rebellions led by Wang Xianzhi and Huang Chao, and while both were eventually defeated, by the end of Emperor Xizong's reign, the Tang state had virtually disintegrated into pieces ruled by individual warlords, rather than the imperial government, and would never recover, falling eventually in 907.Guo Si
Guo Si (pronunciation ) (died 197), also known as Guo Duo, was a military general serving under the warlord Dong Zhuo during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. He assisted Dong Zhuo in his many campaigns and served as a subordinate of Dong Zhuo's son-in-law, Niu Fu, after Dong Zhuo relocated the imperial capital to Chang'an. He later became one of the de facto regents of Emperor Xian, wherein they occupied the capital and held the emperor and imperial officials hostage. However, his downfall came when he quarrelled with his co-regent, Li Jue. He and Li Jue were ultimately defeated by Yang Feng and Dong Cheng, who assisted the emperor to flee the capital. Guo Si was eventually betrayed and murdered by one of his subordinates.Huang Chao
Huang Chao (835 – July 13, 884) was a Chinese smuggler, soldier, and rebel, and is most well known for being the leader of a major rebellion that severely weakened the Tang dynasty.
Huang was a salt smuggler before joining Wang Xianzhi's rebellion in the mid-870s. After splitting with Wang, his army turned south and conquered Guangzhou. In 881, his troops captured the capital Chang'an, forcing Emperor Xizong of Tang to flee. Huang proclaimed himself the Qi emperor, but was defeated by the Tang army led by the Shatuo chieftain Li Keyong in 883 and forced to desert Chang'an. Following successive defeats, including to former subordinates Zhu Wen and Shang Rang who had surrendered to Tang, Huang was killed by his nephew Lin Yan.Li Jue (Han dynasty)
Li Jue (pronunciation ) (died 198), courtesy name Zhiran, was a military general serving under the autocratic warlord Dong Zhuo during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. He later succeeded Dong Zhuo as the leader of the Liang Province faction after Dong Zhuo was murdered in a coup d'état, and was able to take over the Han imperial capital Chang'an, keeping Emperor Xian as a hostage. Despite being adept in military affairs, he was inept at politics, quarrelling with his fellow generals and making the bad decision to let Emperor Xian escape, greatly decreasing his power and precipitating his downfall.List of places named after peace
The following is a list of geographic names denoting the concept of peace, in their respective language.Tang dynasty
The Tang dynasty (; Chinese: 唐朝) or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Historians generally regard the Tang as a high point in Chinese civilization, and a golden age of cosmopolitan culture. Tang territory, acquired through the military campaigns of its early rulers, rivaled that of the Han dynasty. The Tang capital at Chang'an (present-day Xi'an) was the most populous city in the world in its day.
The Lǐ family (李) founded the dynasty, seizing power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire. The dynasty was briefly interrupted when Empress Wu Zetian seized the throne, proclaiming the Second Zhou dynasty (690–705) and becoming the only Chinese empress regnant. In two censuses of the 7th and 8th centuries, the Tang records estimated the population by number of registered households at about 50 million people. Yet, even when the central government was breaking down and unable to compile an accurate census of the population in the 9th century, it is estimated that the population had grown by then to about 80 million people. With its large population base, the dynasty was able to raise professional and conscripted armies of hundreds of thousands of troops to contend with nomadic powers in dominating Inner Asia and the lucrative trade-routes along the Silk Road. Various kingdoms and states paid tribute to the Tang court, while the Tang also conquered or subdued several regions which it indirectly controlled through a protectorate system. Besides political hegemony, the Tang also exerted a powerful cultural influence over neighboring East Asian states such as those in Japan and Korea.
The Tang dynasty was largely a period of progress and stability in the first half of the dynasty's rule, until the An Lushan Rebellion and the decline of central authority in the later half of the dynasty. Like the previous Sui dynasty, the Tang dynasty maintained a civil-service system by recruiting scholar-officials through standardized examinations and recommendations to office. The rise of regional military governors known as jiedushi during the 9th century undermined this civil order. Chinese culture flourished and further matured during the Tang era; it is traditionally considered the greatest age for Chinese poetry. Two of China's most famous poets, Li Bai and Du Fu, belonged to this age, as did many famous painters such as Han Gan, Zhang Xuan, and Zhou Fang. Scholars of this period compiled a rich variety of historical literature, as well as encyclopedias and geographical works. The adoption of the title Tängri Qaghan by the Tang Emperor Taizong in addition to his title as emperor was eastern Asia's first "simultaneous kingship".Many notable innovations occurred under the Tang, including the development of woodblock printing. Buddhism became a major influence in Chinese culture, with native Chinese sects gaining prominence. However, in the 840s the Emperor Wuzong of Tang enacted policies to persecute Buddhism, which subsequently declined in influence. Although the dynasty and central government had gone into decline by the 9th century, art and culture continued to flourish. The weakened central government largely withdrew from managing the economy, but the country's mercantile affairs stayed intact and commercial trade continued to thrive regardless. However, agrarian rebellions in the latter half of the 9th century resulted in damaging atrocities such as the Guangzhou massacre of 878–879.