The Avenue des Champs-Élysées (French pronunciation: [av(ə).ny de ʃɑ̃z‿e.li.ze]) is an avenue in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, France, 1.9 kilometres (1.2 mi) long and 70 metres (230 ft) wide, running between the Place de la Concorde and the Place Charles de Gaulle, where the Arc de Triomphe is located. It is known for its theatres, cafés, and luxury shops, for the annual Bastille Day military parade, and as the finish of the Tour de France cycle race.
|Avenue des Champs-Élysées|
The Champs-Élysées as seen from the Arc de Triomphe
Shown within Paris
|Length||1,910 m (6,270 ft)|
|Width||70 m (230 ft)|
|Quarter||Champs-Élysées. Faubourg du Roule.|
|From||Place de la Concorde|
|To||Place Charles de Gaulle|
|Denomination||2 March 1864|
The avenue runs for 1.91 km (1.19 mi) through the 8th arrondissement in northwestern Paris, from the Place de la Concorde in the east, with the Obelisk of Luxor, to the Place Charles de Gaulle (formerly the Place de l'Étoile) in the west, location of the Arc de Triomphe. The Champs-Élysées forms part of the Axe historique.
The lower part of the Champs-Élysées, from the Place de la Concorde to the Rond-Point, runs through the Jardin des Champs-Élysées, a park which contains the Grand Palais, the Petit Palais, the Théâtre Marigny, and several restaurants, gardens and monuments. The Élysée Palace, the official residence of the Presidents of France, borders the park, but is not on the Avenue itself. The Champs-Élysées ends at the Arc de Triomphe, built to honour the victories of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Until the reign of Louis XIV, the land where the Champs-Élysées runs today was largely occupied by fields and kitchen gardens. The Champs-Élysées and its gardens were originally laid out in 1667 by André Le Nôtre as an extension of the Tuileries Garden, the gardens of the Tuileries Palace, which had been built in 1564, and which Le Nôtre had rebuilt in his own formal style for Louis XIV in 1664. Le Nôtre planned a wide promenade between the palace and the modern Rond Point, lined with two rows of elm trees on either side, and flowerbeds in the symmetrical style of the French formal garden. The new boulevard was called the "Grand Cours", or "Grand Promenade". It did not take the name of Champs-Élysées until 1709.
In 1710 the avenue was extended beyond the Rond-Pont as far as the modern Place d'Étoile. In 1765 the garden was remade in the Le Nôtre style by Abel François Poisson, the marquis de Marigny, brother of the Madame de Pompadour and Director-General of the King's Buildings. Marigny extended the avenue again in 1774 as far as the modern Porte Maillot.
By the late 18th century, the Champs-Élysées had become a fashionable avenue; the trees on either side had grown enough to form rectangular groves (cabinets de verdure). The gardens of the town houses of the nobility built along the Faubourg Saint-Honoré backed onto the formal gardens. The grandest of the private mansions near the Avenue was the Élysée Palace, a private residence of the nobility which during the Third French Republic became the official residence of the Presidents of France.
Following the French Revolution, two equestrian statues, made in 1745 by Nicolas and Guillaume Coustou, were transferred from the former royal palace at Marly and placed at the beginning of the boulevard and park. After the downfall of Napoleon and the restoration of the French monarchy, the trees had to be replanted, because the occupation armies of the Russians, British and Prussians during the Hundred Days had camped in the park and used the trees for firewood.
The avenue from the Rond-Point to the Étoile was built up during the Empire. The Champs-Élysées itself became city property in 1828, and footpaths, fountains, and, later, gas lighting were added.
In 1834, under King Louis Philippe, the architect Mariano Ruiz de Chavez was commissioned to redesign the Place de la Concorde and the gardens of the Champs-Élysées. He kept the formal gardens and flowerbeds essentially intact, but turned the garden into a sort of outdoor amusement park, with a summer garden café, the Alcazar d'eté, two restaurants, the Ledoyen and the restaurant de l'Horloge; a theater, the Lacaze; the Panorama, built in 1839, where large historical paintings were displayed, and the cirque d'eté (1841), a large hall for popular theater, musical and circus performances. He also placed several ornamental fountains around the park, of which three are still in place.
The major monument of the Boulevard, the Arc de Triomphe, had been commissioned by Napoleon after his victory at the Battle of Austerlitz, but it was not finished when he fell from power in 1815. The monument remained unfinished until 1833-36, when it was completed by King Louis Philippe.
In 1855 Emperor Napoleon III selected the park at the beginning of the avenue as the site of the first great international exposition to be held in Paris, the Exposition Universelle. The park was the location of the Palace of Industry, a giant exhibit hall which covered thirty thousand square meters, where the Grand Palais is today. In 1858, following the Exposition, the Emperor's prefect of the Seine, Georges-Eugène Haussmann, had the gardens transformed from a formal French garden into a picturesque English style garden, based on a small town called Southport, with groves of trees, flowerbeds and winding paths. The rows of elm trees, which were in poor health, were replaced by rows of chestnut trees.
The park served again as an exposition site during the Universal Exposition of 1900; it became the home of the Grand Palais and Petit Palais. It also became the home of a new panorama theater, designed by Gabriel Davioud, the chief architect of Napoleon III, in 1858. The modern theater Marigny was built by Charles Garnier, architect of the Paris Opera, in 1883.
Throughout its history, the avenue has been the site of military parades; the most famous were the victory parades of German troops in 1871 and again in 1940 celebrating the Fall of France on 14 July 1940, and the three most joyous were the parades celebrating the Allied victory in the First World War in 1919, and the parades of Free French and American forces after the liberation of the city, respectively, the French 2nd Armored Division on 26 August 1944, and the U.S. 28th Infantry Division on 29 August 1944.
In 1860, the merchant joined together to form the Syndicat d'Initiative et de Défense des Champs-Élysées, to an association to promote commercially the Avenue. In 1980, the group changed its name to the Comité des Champs-Élysées and to Comité Champs-Élysées in 2008. It is the oldest standing committee in Paris. The committee has always dedicated itself to seeking public projects to enhance the Avenue's unique atmosphere, and to lobby the authorities for extended business hours and to organizing special events. Today, the committee, in coordination with other professional organisations, may review with the Parisian administration the addition to the Avenue of new businesses whose floor area would exceed 1000 square meters. The arrival of global chain stores in recent years has strikingly changed its character, and in a first effort to stem these changes, the City of Paris (which has called this trend "banalisation") initially decided in 2007 to prohibit the Swedish clothing chain H&M from opening a store on the Avenue; however, a large H&M store opened two years later at 88 Champs-Élysées. In 2008, American clothing chain Abercrombie & Fitch was given permission to open a store. The Champs Elysees have mid-size shopping malls, extending the shopping area : Elysees 26 (26) with Agatha jewellery and l'Eclaireur fashion, Galeries du Claridge (74) with Annick Goutal perfumes, Fnac, Paul & Shark, Arcades des Champs Elysees (78) with Starbucks. The list of fashion stores include Banana Republic (22), Abercrombie Fitch (23), Gap (36), Zara (40, 44), Levi's (76), H & M (88), Lacoste (93-95), Marks & Spencer (100), Louis Vuitton (101), Hugo Boss (115), Petit Bateau116). The list of perfume stores include Guerlain (68) (Le 68 de Guy Martin), Sephora multi brand (70), Yves Rocher (102). Jewellers: Tiffany & Co (62). Book and music store: FNAC (74). The list of car show-rooms include Citroen (42), Renault (53), Toyota (79), Mercedes (118), Peugeot (136).
Every year during Advent, Christmastide, and Epiphany, the 'Champs-Élysées' Committee contribute for the holidays seasons lighting of the Champs-Élysées. This generally occurs from late November until early January.
Huge gatherings occasionally take place on the Champs-Élysées in celebration of popular events, such as New Year's Eve, or when France won the 1998 FIFA World Cup. The Champs-Élysées has occasionally been the site of large political protest meetings.
On 20 April 2017, a police officer was shot dead on the Champs-Élysées by an extremist and two other officers were injured. They were all sitting in a parked police van, when the attacker pulled up in front of the van. The attacker tried to shoot civilians (including a tourist) and was immediately shot dead by other police on the spot. The shooting happened two days before the first round of voting in the 2017 French presidential election.
Paris Métro Line 1 runs under the Champs-Élysées. Station Charles de Gaulle – Étoile is at the street's west end, and there are three stations with entrances on the street itself; from west to east these are: George V by the Hôtel George-V, Franklin D. Roosevelt at the rond-point des Champs-Élysées, Champs-Élysées – Clemenceau at place Clemenceau and Concorde at the southern end of the avenue, where the Place de la Concorde is located.
The fourth annual edition of the Champs-Élysées Film Festival was held from 10 to 16 June 2015.8th arrondissement of Paris
The 8th arrondissement of Paris (VIIIe arrondissement) is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is colloquially referred to as huitième (eighth/the eighth).
The arrondissement, called Élysée, is situated on the right bank of the River Seine and centred on the Champs-Élysées. The 8th is, together with the 1st, 9th, 16th, and 17th arrondissements, one of Paris's main business districts. According to the 1999 census, it was the place of employment of more people than any other single arrondissement of the capital. It is also the location of many places of interest, among them the Champs-Élysées, the Arc de Triomphe (partial), and the Place de la Concorde, as well as the Élysée Palace, the official residence of the President of France. Most French fashion luxury brands have their main store in 8th arrondissement, Avenue Montaigne or Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré, both in the Champs-Elysees Avenue shopping district.April 2017 Champs-Élysées attack
On 20 April 2017, three French National Police officers were shot by Karim Cheurfi, a French national wielding an AK-47 rifle on the Champs-Élysées, a shopping boulevard in Paris, France. One officer, French National Police Captain Xavier Jugelé, was killed and two other French National Police officers and a German female tourist, were seriously wounded. Karim Cheurfi was then shot dead by police. Amaq News Agency, which is linked to the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), claimed the attacker was an ISIS fighter. French police and prosecutors are investigating the attack as terrorism, and have launched a counter-terrorism prosecution.The attacker was identified as French national Karim Cheurfi, who had an extensive criminal record that included a conviction and a twelve-year prison sentence for an earlier attempt to murder two police officers. Police found a note praising ISIS, along with addresses of police stations, on his body. Because the attack took place immediately before the country's 2017 presidential election, media reports commented on its possible influence in the election's tone.Arc de Triomphe
The Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile (French pronunciation: [aʁk də tʁijɔ̃f də letwal] (listen), Triumphal Arch of the Star) is one of the most famous monuments in Paris, standing at the western end of the Champs-Élysées at the center of Place Charles de Gaulle, formerly named Place de l'Étoile — the étoile or "star" of the juncture formed by its twelve radiating avenues. The location of the arc and the plaza is shared between three arrondissements, 16th (south and west), 17th (north), and 8th (east).
The Arc de Triomphe should not be confused with a smaller arch, the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, which stands west of the Louvre. The Arc de Triomphe honours those who fought and died for France in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, with the names of all French victories and generals inscribed on its inner and outer surfaces. Beneath its vault lies the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier from World War I.
As the central cohesive element of the Axe historique (historic axis, a sequence of monuments and grand thoroughfares on a route running from the courtyard of the Louvre to the Grande Arche de la Défense), the Arc de Triomphe was designed by Jean Chalgrin in 1806, and its iconographic program pits heroically nude French youths against bearded Germanic warriors in chain mail. It set the tone for public monuments with triumphant patriotic messages.
Inspired by the Arch of Titus in Rome, Italy, the Arc de Triomphe has an overall height of 50 metres (164 ft), width of 45 m (148 ft), and depth of 22 m (72 ft), while its large vault is 29.19 m (95.8 ft) high and 14.62 m (48.0 ft) wide. The smaller transverse vaults are 18.68 m (61.3 ft) high and 8.44 m (27.7 ft) wide. Three weeks after the Paris victory parade in 1919 (marking the end of hostilities in World War I), Charles Godefroy flew his Nieuport biplane under the arch's primary vault, with the event captured on newsreel.Paris's Arc de Triomphe was the tallest triumphal arch until the completion of the Monumento a la Revolución in Mexico City in 1938, which is 67 metres (220 ft) high. The Arch of Triumph in Pyongyang, completed in 1982, is modelled on the Arc de Triomphe and is slightly taller at 60 m (197 ft). La Grande Arche in La Defense near Paris is 110 metres high. Although it is not named an Arc de Triomphe, it has been designed on the same model and in the perspective of the Arc de Triomphe. It qualifies as the world's tallest arch.Art Blakey et les Jazz Messengers au Théâtre des Champs-Élysées
Art Blakey et les Jazz Messengers au Théâtre des Champs-Élysées is a live album by Art Blakey & the Jazz Messengers recorded at the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées in Paris on November 15, 1959 and originally released on the French RCA Records label.Axe historique
The Axe historique (pronounced [aks istɔʁik]; English: historical axis) is a line of monuments, buildings and thoroughfares that extends from the centre of Paris, France, to the west. It is also known as the Voie Triomphale ("triumphal way").
The Axe Historique began with the creation of the Champs Élysées, designed in the 17th century to create a vista to the west, extending the central axis of the gardens to the royal Palace of the Tuileries. Today the Tuileries Gardens (Jardins des Tuileries) remain, preserving their wide central pathway, though the palace was burned down during the Paris Commune, 1871.
Between the Tuileries gardens and the Champs Élysées extension a jumble of buildings remained on the site of Place de la Concorde until early in the reign of Louis XV, for whom the square was at first named. Then the garden axis could open through a grand gateway into the new royal square.
To the east, the Tuileries Palace faced an open square, the Place du Carrousel. There, by order of Napoleon, the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel was centered on the palace (and so on the same axial line that was developing beyond the palace). Long-standing plans to link the entrance court of the "Vieux Louvre", as the disused palace was called, with the court of the Tuileries, by sweeping away the intervening buildings, finally came to fruition in the early 19th century. Consequently, the older axis extending from the courtyard of the Louvre is slightly skewed to the rest of what has become the Axe historique, but the Arc du Carrousel, at the fulcrum between the two, serves to disguise the discontinuity.
To the west, the completion of the Arc de Triomphe in 1836 on the Place de l'Étoile at the western end of the Champs Élysées formed the far point of this line of perspective, which now starts at the equestrian statue of Louis XIV placed by I.M. Pei adjacent to his Pyramide du Louvre in the Cour Napoléon of the Musée du Louvre.
The axis was extended again westwards along the Avenue de la Grande Armée, past the city boundary of Paris to La Défense. This was originally a large junction, named for a statue commemorating the defence of Paris in the Franco-Prussian War.
In the 1950s, the area around La Défense was marked out to become a new business district, and high-rise office buildings were built along the avenue. The axis found itself extended yet again, with ambitious projects for the western extremity of the modern plaza.
It was not until the 1980s, under president François Mitterrand, that a project was initiated, with a modern 20th century version of the Arc de Triomphe. This is the work of Danish architect Johann Otto von Spreckelsen, La Grande Arche de la Fraternité (also known as simply La Grande Arche or L'Arche de la Défense), a monument to humanity and humanitarian ideals rather than militaristic victories. It was inaugurated in 1989.
The network of railway lines and road tunnels beneath the elevated plaza of La Défense prevented the pillars supporting the arch from being exactly in line with the axis: it is slightly out of line, bending the axis should it be extended further to the west. From the roof of the Grande Arche, a second axis can be seen: the Tour Montparnasse stands exactly behind the Eiffel Tower.
The Seine-Arche project is extending the historical axis to the West through the city of Nanterre, but with a slight curve.Champs-Élysées Film Festival
The Champs-Élysées Film Festival is a film festival that takes place annually in Paris, France. The festival comprises competitive sections for American dramatic and documentary independent films, both feature-length films and short films, and a group of out-of-competition selections, mostly retrospectives and avant-premieres. Two film industry targeted events are hosted alongside the Festival, the US in Progress Paris program and the Paris Coproduction Village, the later one being co-organized with Les Arcs European Film Festival. The 2015 Champs-Élysées Film Festival is scheduled from June 10 to 16.Champs-Élysées stage in the Tour de France
The Tour de France has finished on the Champs-Élysées every year since 1975. In the first edition of 1903, the finish was at Ville-d'Avray; from 1904 to 1967 at the Parc des Princes and from 1968 to 1974 at the Vélodrome de Vincennes.
The course is also used for La Course by Le Tour de France, a women's one-day race held since 2014.Champs-Élysées–Clemenceau (Paris Métro)
Champs-Élysées–Clemenceau is a station on Line 1 and Line 13 of the Paris Métro in the 8th arrondissement.
The stations platforms and access tunnels lie beneath Avenue des Champs-Élysées and Place Clemenceau. It is one of the eight original stations opened as part of the first section of line 1 between Porte de Vincennes and Porte Maillot on 19 July 1900. The line 13 platforms were opened on 18 February 1975 as part of the line's extension from Miromesnil. It was the southern terminus of the line until its extension under the Seine to connect with old Line 14, which was then incorporated into Line 13 on 9 November 1976.
Situated to the north of the station is the Élysée Palace, the official residence of the President of France. To the south are the Grand Palais and the Petit Palais. Erected along the outside of Georges Clemenceau Place are statues of world leaders involved in the two world wars: Georges Clemenceau, Charles de Gaulle and Winston Churchill.Franklin D. Roosevelt (Paris Métro)
Franklin D. Roosevelt is a station of the Paris Métro serving both Lines 1 and 9. With 12.19m passengers annually, Franklin D. Roosevelt is the fourteenth busiest station in the Paris Métro system.George V (Paris Métro)
George V is a station on line 1 of the Paris Métro, under the Champs-Élysées.
The station was opened on 13 August 1900, almost a month after trains began running on the original section of line 1 between Porte de Vincennes and Porte Maillot on 19 July 1900.
It was originally called Alma, after the nearby street named in honour of the Battle of Alma in the Crimean War.
On 27 May 1920 the street and station were renamed after George V in appreciation of the United Kingdom's support for France during World War I.
The station entrance is located between Rue de Bassano and Avenue George V on the Champs-Élysées.Hôtel de Marigny
The Hôtel de Marigny is a town house in Paris, France, on the Avenue Marigny, not far from the Elysée Palace. It is used as a residence for state visitors to France. The house has been the property of the French government since 1972. Its history dates back to June 15, 1869, when Baron Gustave de Rothschild paid the Duchesse de Bauffremont 2,700,000 francs for two town houses, at 21 Avenue Marigny and 14 Rue du Cirque, with a total floorspace of approximately 40,000 square feet (3,700 m2).
In 1872, the Baron decided to combine the two buildings into a single property and to erect additional buildings on part of the site. On May 17, 1879, he acquired the town house at 13 Avenue Marigny. Extensive work was carried out on the site from 1873 onwards, lasting for nearly 10 years, under the direction of the Baron's architect, Alfred-Philibert Aldrophe.
Today, the Hôtel Marigny comprises a main building with one two-story wing at right angles, standing above a vast basement area for the domestic services. The main emphasis is on the monumental central part of the façade: the entrance to the main lobby comprises two lower-level reception areas beneath the raised ground-floor, while the upper portion contains four Corinthian columns framing a bay window and two niches, bearing a frame and sculpted frontispiece of the same provenance.Joe Dassin (Les Champs-Élysées)
Joe Dassin (commonly called Les Champs-Élysées after the third track on side 1) is the third French studio album by Joe Dassin. It came out in 1969 on CBS Disques.June 2017 Champs-Élysées car ramming attack
On 19 June 2017, a car loaded with guns and explosives was rammed into a convoy of Gendarmerie vehicles on the Champs-Élysées in Paris, France. The driver, identified as Djaziri Adam Lotfi was killed as a detonation clouded the car in orange smoke. The attacker had been on terrorism watchlists for Islamic extremism since 2014, and pledged his allegiance to Islamic State leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi before the attack. In a letter to his family he stated that he for years had supported "the Mujahedeen who fight to save Islam and the Muslims," having practiced shooting "to prepare for jihad," and stated that the attack should be treated as a "martyrdom operation."Le Chemin de papa
"Le Chemin de papa" is a song by Joe Dassin. It was the first track of side 1 of his 1969 album Joe Dassin (Les Champs-Élysées).
The song was also released as a single, with "Les Champs-Élysées" on the other side. The single reached no. 4 in Wallonia (French Belgium).Le Roi des Champs-Élysées
Le Roi des Champs-Élysées is a 1934 French comedy starring Buster Keaton. This French-made film has Keaton playing two roles, as an aspiring actor, and as an American gangster. A closing gag has the typically deadpan Keaton breaking out into a big grin after being kissed.
Most all of Keaton's dialogue, in French, is dubbed. The film was never theatrically released in the United States.Les Champs-Élysées
"Les Champs-Élysées" is a 1969 song by Joe Dassin.Pavillon Ledoyen
Alléno Paris au Pavillon Ledoyen is one of the oldest restaurants in Paris, situated in the square gardens in the eastern part of the Champs-Élysées in the 8th arrondissement. Its long history places it on the Champs-Élysées before the street's beautification.Situated in a two-storey pavilion with gardens, Ledoyen is considered to be one of Paris' best gourmet restaurants, and boasts three Michelin stars. The building is owned by the City of Paris, and the current operator of the restaurant itself is the company "Carré des Champs Elysées".Théâtre des Champs-Élysées
The Théâtre des Champs-Élysées is a theatre at 15 avenue Montaigne in Paris. The theater is named not after the Avenue des Champs-Élysées, but rather after the neighborhood in which it is situated.
Opened in 1913, it was designed by French architects, the brothers Auguste Perret and Gustave Perret, based on a scheme of Henry van de Velde, and founded by journalist and impresario Gabriel Astruc to provide a venue suitable for contemporary music, dance and opera, in contrast to traditional, more conservative, institutions like the Paris Opera. It hosted the Ballets Russes for its third season, staging the world première of the Rite of Spring on Thursday May 29, 1913, thus becoming the celebrated location of one of the most famous of all classical music riots.