Chamberlain (office)

A chamberlain (Medieval Latin: cambellanus or cambrerius, with charge of treasury camerarius) is a senior royal official in charge of managing a royal household. Historically, the chamberlain superintends the arrangement of domestic affairs and was often also charged with receiving and paying out money kept in the royal chamber. The position was usually honoured upon a high-ranking member of the nobility (nobleman) or the clergy, often a royal favourite. Roman emperors appointed this officer under the title of cubicularius. The papal chamberlain of the Pope enjoys very extensive powers, having the revenues of the papal household under his charge. As a sign of their dignity, they bore a key, which in the seventeenth century was often silvered, and actually fitted the door-locks of chamber rooms, since the eighteenth century it had turned into a merely symbolic, albeit splendid, rank-insignia of gilded bronze. In many countries there are ceremonial posts associated with the household of the sovereign.

Portrait of the Count-Duke of Olivares - Google Art Project
Gaspar de Guzmán, Count of Olivares, painting by Diego Velázquez, 1624. In the covenant of the royal favourites is the Chamberlain's key.
Christopher de Paus
Christopher Count of Paus: appointed papal chamberlain by Pope Benedict XV in 1921. Painting in Spanish Renaissance style.
18257 Kammerherren%C3%B8kkel
The key of a Chamberlain at the Royal Court of Norway

Description

Historically, many institutions and governments – monasteries, cathedrals and cities – also had the post of chamberlain, who usually had charge of finances.[1] The Finance Director of the City of London is still called the Chamberlain, while New York City had such a chamberlain, who managed city accounts, until the early 20th century.[2]

Etymology

From the Old French chamberlain, chamberlenc, Modern French chambellan, from Old High German Chamarling, Chamarlinc, whence also the Medieval Latin cambellanus, camerlingus, camerlengus; Italian camerlingo; Spanish camerlengo, compounded of Old High German Chamara, Kamara [Latin camera, “chamber”], and the German suffix -ling.[3]

Posts

Some of the principal posts known by this name:

Austria

  • Kammerherr, or Kämmerer (with charge of finances, treasury)

Brunei

  • Grand Chamberlain of The Councils of Brunei

Around the year of 2012, The Grand Chamberlain of The Council, Alauddin bin Abu Bakar, on emergency broadcast had announced the divorce between the Sultan and his third wife.[1]

June 7, 2015. The Grand Chamberlain of Brunei announced the new born prince of Deputy Sultan, Crown Prince of Brunei

Byzantine Empire

Denmark

  • Hofmarskallen
    • Kammerherre
    • Kammerdame

France

Germany

  • Kammerherr, or Kämmerer (with charge of finances, treasury)

Holy Roman Empire

Japan

Norway

Poland

Portugal

  • Chamberlain-Major of Portugal
  • Chamberlain of the Prince of Portugal

Roman Empire

Serbia in the Middle Ages

Sweden

In Sweden there are eight serving chamberlains (kammarherrar) and four serving cabinet chamberlains (kabinettskammarherrar) at the royal court. The chamberlains are not employed by the court, but serve during ceremonial occasions such as state visits, audiences and official dinners.

Thailand

In Thailand the head of the Bureau of the Royal Household is titled the Lord Chamberlain (เลขาธิการพระราชวัง). He has several Grand Chamberlains as his deputy, usually in charge of a specific portfolio.

United Kingdom

United States

  • Chamberlain of the City of New York

Vatican

See also

References

  1. ^ Chamberlain Archived September 30, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. (from Encyclopædia Britannica 1911)
  2. ^ "City of London leading personnel". cityoflondon.gov.uk.
  3. ^ Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Chamberlain". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 819–820.

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