Chamber of Fasci and Corporations (Italian: Camera dei Fasci e delle Corporazioni) was the lower house of the legislature of the Kingdom of Italy from March 23, 1939 to August 2, 1943, during the height of the regime of Benito Mussolini's National Fascist Party.
It was established on January 19, 1939, to replace the Chamber of Deputies during the 30th legislature of Italy. Members of the chamber were called '"national councillors" (consiglieri nazionali) rather than deputies. The councillors of the chamber did not represent geographic constituencies, but the different branches of the trade and industry of Italy, thus reflecting the corporativist idea of fascist ideology.
Councillors were elected for terms of undetermined length and automatically lost their seats upon their defection from the branch they did represent. Renewal of the legislature was ordered by decree by the King of Italy, on specific instruction of the head of government (Mussolini).
The creation of the Chamber of Fasci and Corporations was the culmination of the progressive curtailment of the independence of Parliament following Mussolini's formal proclamation of dictatorship in 1925. At the elections of 1929 and 1934, voters were presented with a single list of Fascist candidates chosen by the Grand Council of Fascism.
No elections took place in Italy between 1934 and 1946. Unlike earlier elections for the legislature held under the Fascist era, popular suffrage was eliminated altogether. Instead, candidates were simply delivered under the pretext of a parliamentary reform, replacing the elections system with a body comprising only candidates of the various corporations of Italy, fulfilling Benito Mussolini's vow of enacting a complete corporativist system.
The candidates for the approximately 600 seats were nominated summarily by three organs: the Grand Council, the National Council of the members of the PNF, and the different corporations resembling the entire trade and industry of Italy, canalized through the National Council of Corporations (Consiglio Nazionale della Corporazioni), effectively in the hands of Mussolini and the PNF.
|Term of office||Tenure
(Years and days)
|23 March 1939||26 June 1939||95 days||National Fascist Party||XXX|
|30 November 1939||2 August 1943||3 years, 245 days||National Fascist Party|
General elections were held in Italy on 26 March 1934. At the time, the country was a single-party state with the National Fascist Party (PNF) as the only legally permitted party.
Following a parliamentary reform enacted in 1928 by the Chamber of Deputies and Senate, the elections were held in the form of a referendum, with the Grand Council of the PNF, now an official state organ, allowed to compose a single party list to be either approved or rejected by the voters. The list put forward was ultimately approved by 99.84% of voters. The overwhelming majority provoked Benito Mussolini to dub the election the "second referendum of Fascism."
These would be the last elections of any sort held under Fascist rule. In 1939, the Chamber of Deputies was replaced with the Chamber of Fasci and Corporations, whose members were not elected but instead nominated by party organs.Achille Lauro
Achille Lauro (Italian pronunciation: [aˈkilːe ˈlauro]; 16 June 1887 – 15 November 1982) was an Italian businessman and politician.Alessandro Pavolini
Alessandro Pavolini (September 27, 1903 – April 28, 1945) was an Italian politician, journalist, and essayist, notable for his involvement in the Fascist government, during World War II, and also, for his cruelty against the opponents of fascism.Antonino Tringali-Casanova
Antonino Tringali-Casanova (April 11, 1888 – October 30, 1943) was an Italian politician who served under Benito Mussolini in the Italian Social Republic.
Tringali-Casanova was born in Cecina, Province of Livorno, Tuscany.
His first government assignment was Vice-President for Special Tribunal for the State Defence (Italian: Tribunale Speciale per la Sicurezza dello Stato) from September 1928 until November 1932. He then served as President from November 1932 until July 1943. He was a fascist hardliner, and on July 24, 1943, as member of the Gran Consiglio del Fascismo he voted against the Ordine del Giorno Grandi, joining Mussolini's side.
In September 1943 he was appointed Italian Social Republic's first Minister of Justice. On October 30, 1943 he died as a result of angina pectoris, and was replaced as Minister of Justice by Piero Pisenti.Antonio Stefano Benni
Antonio Stefano Benni (18 April 1880 – 27 December 1945) was an Italian fascist who served as President of the General Confederation of Italian Industry from 1923 until 1934.Carlo Alberto Biggini
Carlo Alberto Biggini (December 9, 1902 – November 19, 1945) was an Italian fascist politician who served as Minister of Education before and after proclamation of the Italian Social Republic under Benito Mussolini.Costanzo Ciano
Costanzo Ciano, 1st Count of Cortellazzo and Buccari (30 August 1876 – 26 June 1939) was an Italian naval officer and politician. He was the father of Galeazzo Ciano.Dino Alfieri
Edoardo Alfieri (first name usually shortened to Dino; 8 December 1886 – 12 December 1966) was an Italian fascist politician and diplomat.Dino Grandi
Dino Grandi (4 June 1895 – 21 May 1988), 1st Conte di Mordano, was an Italian Fascist politician, minister of justice, minister of foreign affairs and president of parliament.Enrico Del Debbio
Enrico Del Debbio (26 May 1891 – 12 July 1973) was an Italian architect and university professor.
Born at Carrara, he studied in the Fine Art Academy there specializing in architecture. He moved to Rome in 1914 where he won several architectural awards. He also began to teach in the Scuola Superiore di Architettura. In the 1920's, he held several positions in public institutions, such as the organization of the Quadriennale Romana. In 1931, he became artistical-technical consultant in the Palazzo delle Esposizioni for an exhibition celebrating the Decennal of the Fascist Revolution; he was also director of the technical office of the Balilla House (the fascist youth organization).
In 1923, he designed the FIAT palace in Via Calabria in Rome. In 1927, he was commissioned the new Foro Mussolini, a sport complex now known as Foro Italico (finished in 1960), including the Stadio dei Marmi (1928) and the Palazzo della Farnesina, the current seat of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He also designed the Stadio del Nuoto ("Swimming Stadium", 1956).
He died in Rome in 1973.
Del Debbio became unfashionable during the 1970's, seen as "reactionary" because of his associations with fascism. However, in 2007, a retrospective exhibition took place at the Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna in Rome, displaying his skills at combining classic and modern, detailing and geometry, materials and colours.Eqrem Libohova
Eqrem Libohova (24 February 1882, Gjirokastër – 7 June 1948, Rome) was an Albanian politician and Axis collaborator. He served as the Prime Minister of Albania on two occasions during the Italian occupation of Albania.Galeazzo Ciano
Gian Galeazzo Ciano, 2nd Count of Cortellazzo and Buccari (pronounced [ɡaleˈattso ˈtʃaːno]; 18 March 1903 – 11 January 1944) was Foreign Minister of Fascist Italy from 1936 until 1943 and Benito Mussolini's son-in-law. On 11 January 1944, Ciano was shot by firing squad at the behest of his father-in-law, Mussolini, under pressure from Nazi Germany. Ciano wrote and left behind a diary that has been used as a source by several historians, including William Shirer in his The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich and in the four-hour HBO documentary-drama Mussolini and I.Gerarca
Gerarca (plural: gerarchi; Italian for "Member of a hierarchy") was a term used during the Fascist rule in Italy to refer to a member of the National Fascist Party (PNF).
The highest gerarchi, up to the Federal Secretary, were members of the National Council of the PNF and of the Chamber of Fasci and Corporations. The secretary and members of the National Directorate of the PNF were members of the Grand Council of Fascism.
A Ras (from the homonymous Ethiopian title) was a gerarca dominating in one province. So, for example, Italo Balbo was the Ras of Ferrara, and Roberto Farinacci the Ras of Cremona.Giuseppe Bottai
Giuseppe Bottai (3 September 1895 – 9 January 1959) was an Italian journalist, and member of the National Fascist Party of Benito Mussolini.Petru Giovacchini
Petru Giovacchini (1 February 1910 - 29 September 1955) was a Corsican activist, born in Canale-di-Verde to an old noble Corsican family with deep-rooted pro-Italian feelings. Giovacchini was the most renowned of the Corsican Italians, who actively promoted the unification of Corsica to the Kingdom of Italy during the Fascist years.Renato Ricci
Renato Ricci (1 June 1896 – 22 January 1956) was an Italian fascist politician active during the government of Benito Mussolini.Renzo Morigi
Renzo Morigi (28 February 1895 – 13 April 1962) was an Italian pistol sports shooter who competed in the 1932 Summer Olympics. In 1932, he won the gold medal in the 25 metre rapid fire pistol event.Rino Corso Fougier
Rino Corso Fougier (14 November 1894 in Bastia – 24 April 1963 in Rome) was a Regia Aeronautica (Italian Royal Air Force) general. From 1940 to 1941 he served as the commander of the Corpo Aereo Italiano which, in concert with the Luftwaffe, took part in the Battle of Britain. From 1941 to 1943 he commanded the Regia Aeronautica. He was awarded the German Cross in Gold in January 1943.Umberto Puppini
Umberto Puppini (16 August 1884, Bologna – 21 May 1946, Bologna) was a minister of the Italian government in the 1930s and a professor of hydraulic engineering.Puppini grew up as an orphan in poverty, but thanks to financial support from the city of Bologna he was able to study engineering and received his laurea in 1908 from the University of Bologna. There he became in the school of hydraulic engineering an assistant in 1908 and a libero docente in 1912. During WW I he was an officer in the artillery corps. After the war, he returned to the University of Bologna and became in hydraulic engineering a professor extraordinarius in 1920 and a professor ordinarius in 1923. From 1927 to 1932 he was director of the school of engineering (Scuola di Applicazione). After the fascist rise to power he was elected as a pro-fascist mayor of Bologna, before the fascist law of 4 February 1926 replaced the elected office of mayor with a fascist-appointed office of mayor. Replacing Costanzo Ciano, he was Undersecretary at the Ministry of Agriculture from 20 June to 30 August 1943. He was then the Minister of Communications from 30 April 1934 to 23 January 1935.. He was also president of Agip. During WW II he withdrew from politics and devoted himself to research. He died of a heart attack in 1949 on his way to give a lecture at the University of Bologna.
He is best known his hydraulics research, which was important in construction for drainage projects. He studied groundwater flow both theoretically and in electrical models and developed the method of "fluid inclusion volume" when calculating flood discharge by means of drainage ditches. In structural hydraulic engineering he studied the effects of heat on dams and high pressure pipes.Puppini won the Prix Boileau for the year 1915. He was an Invited Speaker of the ICM in 1924 at Toronto and a Plenary Speaker of the ICM in 1928 at Bologna.