Chalukyas of Vemulavada

The Chalukyas of Vemulavada were an Indian dynasty that ruled in and around the present-day Telangana between 7th and 10th centuries. Their capital was located at Vemulavada, and they were vassals of the Rashtrakutas.

Find spots of inscriptions issued during the Vemulavada Chalukya rule

History

The 966 CE Parabhani copper-plate inscription of Arikesari III claims that the dynasty descended from the Chalukyas of solar dynasty.[1] Not much is known about the early rulers of the dynasty. The Kollapur copper-plate inscription attributes several military victories to Vinayaditya alias Yuddhamalla I (not to be confused with the Badami Chalukya king Vinayaditya, also titled Yuddhamalla). These victories amount to the subjugation of almost the entire Indian subcontinent, and therefore, appear to be gross exaggerations.[2] It is possible that Vinayaditya was a feudatory of a powerful king, and participated in this king's military campaigns. This king could have been the Rashtrakuta ruler Dantidurga, who was a contemporary of Vinayaditya.[3]

The dynasty's original capital was at Podana (modern Bodhan), but was later moved to Vemulavada, probably during the reign of Vinayaditya's successor Arikesari I.[4] According to the dynasty's inscription, Arikesari conquered Vengi and Trikalinga; this probably refers to his subjugation of the Vengi Chalukya king Vishnuvardhana IV on the orders of his Rashtrakuta overlord Dhruva Dharavarsha.[5]

Little is known about the next two rulers, Arikesari's son Narasimha I and grandson Yuddhamalla II. Baddega I, the son of Yuddhamalla II, was a distinguished general, and assumed the title Solada-ganda ("the unvanquished hero"). He defeated the Vengi Chalukya king Bhima I.[6] According to the Vemulavada court poets, Baddega's grandson Narasimha II subjugated the Latas, the seven Malavas, and the Gurjara-Pratihara king Mahipala.[7] He achieved these victories in the service of his Rashtrakuta overlord Indra III, in a campaign against the Gurjara-Pratiharas.[8]

Arikesari II, the son of Narasimha II, married two Rashtrakuta princesses, including Lokambika and Revakanirmadi (the daughter of Indra III). His mother Jakavve was probably a sister of Indra III. Several military successes are attributed to him.[9] The noted Kannada poet Pampa was a court poet of Arikesari II. His Vikramarjuna Vijaya is an important source of the dynasty's history.[10]

Arikesari had two sons: Vagaraja and Bhadradeva (alias Baddega-Narasinga; son of Lokambika), who were half-brothers.[11] Vagaraja (r. c. 941-950) and Bhadradeva (r. c. 941-946) appear to have ruled simultaneously for a few years.[12] Vagaraja, who is known to have been ruling in 959 CE, was a feudatory of the Rashtrakuta king Krishna III. He accompanied Krishna III in a military campaign to Melpadi in present-day Chittoor district, and nothing else is known about his reign.[13] Vagaraja probably died without an heir, and was succeeded by Bhadradeva's son Arikesari III, who is attested by the 966 CE Parbhani inscription.[11]

The subsequent history of the dynasty is unknown. It appears to have been overthrown by the Chalukyas of Kalyani by the early 970s CE.[11]

Cultural activities

Baddega I commissioned the Baddegeshvara temple at Vemulavada,[4] which is identified with the modern Bheemeshvara temple.[14] During the reign of Arikesari II, his father Narasimha's officer tantrapala Peddanarya established a temple of the Sun god.[15] His 10th-century inscription alludes to two other temples - Rajeshvara (possibly modern Kedareshvara temple[16]) and Nagareshvara - which may have been commissioned by the Chalukyas of Vemulavada.[4]

Although the Chalukyas of Vemulavada patronized Shaivism, they also favoured Jainism. Arikesari's Jain court poet Adikavi Pampa composed the Kannada classic Vikramarjuna Vijaya. Pampa's brother Jina-vallabha established a Jain shrine called Tri-bhuvana-tilaka-Jinalaya on the Bommalagutta hillock near Kurikyala village in modern Karimnagar district. Jina-vallabha's wife Bhagiyabbe installed a metal Chatur-vimshati-patta image of Jina, and also established a basadi (Jain shrine) named after her.[15]

Baddega II commissioned at Jain temple at Repaka, and endowed it with land grants. He also commissioned the Shubha-dhama Jinalaya for the Jain poet Somadeva Suri, who migrated from the Pratihara kingdom to the Chalukya kingdom during his reign. He also granted a village to Somadeva for the maintenance of this shrine. In the year 959, Somadeva composed Yashodhara-charita (or Yashas-tilaka-champu) at Gangadhara in the Chalukya kingdom.[15]

Rulers

Following is a list of the Vemulavada Chalukya rulers, with estimated periods of their reign:[12]

  • Satyashraya (c. 650-675 CE)
  • Prithvipathi (c. 675-700 CE)
  • Maharaja (c. 700-725 CE)
  • Rajaditya (c. 725-750 CE)
  • Vinayaditya alias Yuddhamalla I (c. 750-755 CE)
  • Arikesari I (c. 775-800 CE)
  • Narasimha I (c. 800-825 CE)
  • Yuddhamalla II (c. 825-850 CE)
  • Baddega I alias Solada-ganda (c. 850-895 CE)
  • Yuddhamalla III (c. 895-915 CE)
  • Narasimha II (c. 915-930 CE)
  • Arikesari II (c. 930-941 CE)
  • Vagaraja (c. 941-950 CE); Bhadradeva or Baddega-Narasinga alias Baddega II (c. 941-946 CE)
  • Arikesari III (c. 946-968 CE)

Inscriptions

The following inscriptions of the dynasty have been discovered:

Find spot Date Issuer Language Source
Kuravagatta, Mahboobnagar district c. 9th century Viragriha, son of Vinayaditya Sanskrit and Kannada [17]
Kollipara c. 9th century Arikesari I Sanskrit [17]
Vemulavada Undated Arikesari II Sanskrit [18]
Kurikyala Undated Arikesari II Sanskrit, Kannada and Telugu [19]
Karimnagar 946 CE Arikesari III Sanskrit and Kannada [20]
Parbhani 966 CE Arikesari III Sanskrit [21]
Repaka, Karimnagar district 968 CE Arikesari III Sanskrit and Kannada [22]

References

  1. ^ N Venkataramanayya 1953, p. 3.
  2. ^ N Venkataramanayya 1953, p. 13.
  3. ^ N Venkataramanayya 1953, pp. 16-17.
  4. ^ a b c Madhusudan A. Dhaky 1996, p. 413.
  5. ^ N Venkataramanayya 1953, pp. 19-20.
  6. ^ N Venkataramanayya 1953, p. 21.
  7. ^ N Venkataramanayya 1953, p. 24.
  8. ^ N Venkataramanayya 1953, p. 25.
  9. ^ N Venkataramanayya 1953, p. 30-31.
  10. ^ N Venkataramanayya 1953, p. 2.
  11. ^ a b c N Venkataramanayya 1953, p. 42.
  12. ^ a b Kolluru Suryanarayana 1993, p. 6.
  13. ^ N Venkataramanayya 1953, p. 41.
  14. ^ Madhusudan A. Dhaky 1996, p. 416.
  15. ^ a b c Madhusudan A. Dhaky 1996, p. 415.
  16. ^ Madhusudan A. Dhaky 1996, p. 419.
  17. ^ a b Kolluru Suryanarayana 1993, p. 7.
  18. ^ Kolluru Suryanarayana 1993, p. 10.
  19. ^ Kolluru Suryanarayana 1993, p. 14.
  20. ^ Kolluru Suryanarayana 1993, p. 16.
  21. ^ Kolluru Suryanarayana 1993, p. 19.
  22. ^ Kolluru Suryanarayana 1993, p. 22.

Bibliography

  • Kolluru Suryanarayana (1993). Inscriptions of the Minor Chalukya Dynasties of Andhra Pradesh. Mittal Publications. ISBN 978-81-7099-216-5.
  • Madhusudan A. Dhaky (1996). Encyclopaedia of Indian Temple Architecture. 1 - Part 3: South India - Upper Dravidadesa, Later phase A.D. 973- 1326. American Institute of Indian Studies. ISBN 978-81-86526-00-2.
  • N Venkataramanayya (1953). The Chālukyas of L(V)ēmulavāḍa. Archaeological Department, Government of Hyderabad. OCLC 958874923.
Arikesari I

Arikesari I (r. c. 775-800 CE) was an Indian ruler from the Vemulavada Chalukya dynasty. He was a vassal of the Rashtrakuta king Dhruva Dharavarsha, and appears to have helped his overlord subjugate the Vengi Chalukya ruler Vishnuvardhana IV.

Arikesari II

Arikesari II (r. c. 930-955) was a ruler of the Vemulavada Chalukya dynasty of present-day Telangana, India. A Rashtrakuta vassal, he played an important role in dethroning the Rashtrakuta emperor Govinda IV and enthroning Amoghavarsha III as the new emperor. He was the patron of Pampa, one of the earliest notable Kannada-language poets.

Arikesari III

Arikesari III (r. c. 946-968) was the last known ruler of the Vemulavada Chalukya dynasty of present-day Telangana, India. He was a vassal of the Rashtrakuta king Krishna III.

Baddega I

Baddega (r. c. 850-895 CE), who assumed the title Solada-gaṇḍa, was an Indian ruler from the Vemulavada Chalukya dynasty. He was a vassal of the Rashtrakuta king Krishna II, and participated in Krishna's unsuccessful invasions of the Vengi Chalukya kingdom.

Chalukya (disambiguation)

Several dynasties named "Chalukya" ruled in present-day India at various times. The oldest of these were the Chalukyas of Vatapi or Badami (c. 6th-8th century CE). Other Chalukya dynasties include:

Chalukyas of Navasarika (c. 7th-8th century CE), vassals of the Vatapi Chalukyas; also known as the early Chalukyas of Gujarat

Chalukyas of Vemulavada (c. 7th-10th century CE), vassals of the Rashtrakutas

Chalukyas of Vengi (c. 7th-12th century CE), also known as the Eastern Chalukyas

Chalukyas of Kalyani (c. 10th-12th century CE), also known as the Western Chalukyas

Chalukyas of Gujarat (c. 10th-13th century CE); used the self-designation Chaulukya; also known as Solankis

Chalukyas of Lata (c. 10th-11th century CE); ruled southern Gujarat as vassals of other dynasties, including the Kalyani Chalukyas

Chavda dynasty

The Chavda (IAST:Chávaḍá), also spelled Chawda or Chavada, dynasty ruled region of modern-day northern Gujarat in India, from c. 690 to 942. Variants of the name for the dynasty include Chapa, Chahuda, Chávoṭakas and Chāpoṭkata.

During the seventh century, Panchasar was the capital of Chavda ruler Jayaśekhara. In c. 697, Panchasar was attacked and Jayaśekhara was killed. His wife had fled and she gave birth to Vanraja, the founder (746 or 765) of Aṇahilaváḍa and most prominent ruler of dynasty. According to Prabandhachintámaṇi, he ruled for 60 years. He was succeeded by Yogaraja (ruled 35 years), followed by Kshemraja (25 years), Bhuyada (29 years), Virsimha (25 years) and Ratnaditya (15 years). Ratnaditya was succeeded by Samantsimha (also known as Chuyadadeva) who ruled seven years. Samantsimha did not have any children so he adopted his nephew Mularaja who overthrew him in 942 and established the Chaulukya dynasty.

Malliya Rechana

Malliya Rechana was a Telugu language poet and writer, who lived around 940 AD, in present-day Vemulawada,Telangana region of India. He has written the first Telugu prosody (chandassu) book called Kavijanasrayam.The most antique reference to Malliya Rechana is 11th century Tamil literature 'Yaappirungulam Kaarikai' mentioning the Kavi "Renchi kouyaaruseyida vaduga chandamu"."For the well being of the stainless rules of (Peosy) the sweet poet Mallia Recan (Worthy of the favour of bolds) hath composed in the Telugu language this admirable prosody entitled the Refuge Of Poets -" C.P. Brown

Narasimha II of Vemulavada

Narasimha II (IAST: Nara-siṃha, r. c. 915-930) was a ruler of the Vemulavada Chalukya dynasty of present-day Telangana, India. As a vassal of the Rashtrakuta king Indra III, he led an Rashtrakuta army against the Gurjara-Pratihara king Mahipala. According to his dynasty's records, he advanced as far as Ganges river in the north, forcing Mahipala to flee.

Vemulawada, Karimnagar district

Vemulawada is a census town in Rajanna Sircilla district of the Indian state of Telangana. It is notable for the Sri Raja Rajeshwara temple, a site of pilgrimage for Hindu worshipers.

Vinayaditya of Podana

Vinayaditya (r. c. 750-775 CE) alias Yuddhamalla I, was an Indian ruler from the Vemulavada Chalukya dynasty. He was most probably a vassal of the Rashtrakuta king Dantidurga, and his capital was likely located at Podana (modern Bodhan); his successors moved the capital to Vemulavada.

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