Chalukyas of Navasarika

The Chalukyas (IAST: Cālukya) of Navasarika (modern Navsari) were an Indian dynasty that ruled parts of present-day Gujarat and Maharashtra during 7th and 8th centuries, as vassals of the Chalukyas of Vatapi. They are also known as the "Early Chalukyas of Gujarat" (as opposed to the later Chalukyas of Gujarat).

In the late 660s, the Vatapi Chalukya king Vikramaditya I appointed his brother Dharashraya Jayasimhavarman as the governor of the north-western parts of his kingdom, which included southern Gujarat (Lata), Nashik region, and northern Konkan. Dharashraya's eldest son Shryashraya Shiladitya died before him, and he was succeeded by his younger sons, first Jayashraya Mangalarasa, and then Avanijanashraya Pulakeshin. Avanijanashraya is best known for repulsing an Arab invasion from the Umayyad Caliphate near Navsari, a feat recorded in his 738-739 inscription. After his reign, the history of this Chalukya branch is uncertain: their territory subsequently came under the Rashtrakuta control.

Find spots of the inscriptions issued by the Chalukyas of Navasarika

Dharashraya Jayasimhavarman

Badami-chalukya-empire-map
The Vatapi Chalukya kingdom at its largest extent

The Navsari branch of the Chalukyas was established by Dharashraya Jayasimhavarman (IAST: Dharāśraya Jaya-siṃha-varman), who was a son of the Vatapi Chalukya king Pulakeshin II, and a younger brother of Pulakeshin's successor Vikramaditya I. Sometime before 667-670 CE, Vikramaditya appointed Dharashraya as the governor of the north-western Chalukya territories, which included parts of present-day southern Gujarat, and the Konkan and Nashik region of Maharashtra.[1]

Dharashraya is attested by his Nashik inscription, which is dated to 20 or 21 March 685 (year 436 of the Kalachuri era). This Sanskrit-language inscription records the grant of the Dhondhaka village in the Nasikya vishaya (Nashik province) to a Brahmana named Trivikrama.[2]

The Nashik inscription states that Dharashraya defeated and routed the army of a king named Vajjada, between the Mahi and the Narmada rivers. Historian V. V. Mirashi theorizes that Vajrata invaded the Gurjara kingdom, whose ruler Dadda III was a Chalukya vassal; the Chalukya emperor dispatched Dharashraya to repulse the invader.[1] However, there is no concrete proof to support this theory. Historian Shyam Manohar Mishra theorizes that Vajjada may have been another name for Dadda III.[3] It is possible that this Vajjada is same as the Vajrata, who according to a Samangad inscription, was defeated by the Rashtrakuta king Dantidurga. It is likely that Dharashraya's campaign against Vajjada was ordered by his overlord and nephew Vinayaditya (the successor of Vikramaditya I), who wanted to expand the Chalukya power in the north.[4]

Shryashraya Shiladitya

Dharashraya's eldest son was Shryashraya Shiladitya (IAST: Śrayāśraya Śilādtiya).[3] An inscription of Shryashraya, issued by him as the crown prince (yuvaraja), is dated to 23 May 668 (year 420 of the Kalachuri era). Its find spot is unknown. It is written in Sanskrit language using an early form of the Telugu-Kannada alphabet.[5] It records the grant of Mudgapadra village to migrant Brahmana cousins Revaditya and Varasyaka by Dharashraya and Shryashraya. The inscription was issued from Navasarika (Navsari) and its text was composed by Dhananjaya.[5][6]

A Surat inscription of Shryashraya, also in Sanskrit language, is dated to 28 January 671 (Kalachuri year 421). It records the grant of the Asatti village to Bhogikasvamin.[5] Another of his Sanskrit inscriptions, found at Surat, is dated 692-693 (Kalachuri year 443: the date can be read as 2 August 692 CE, assuming that the inscription was issued in the Kalachuri year 443; or as 23 July 693 CE, assuming that it was issued after the expiry of the Kalachuri year 443).[7] The inscription was issued from Kusumeshvara, and records the grant of a field in the Osumbhala village to Matrishvara Dikshita.[8]

Shryashraya appears to have died before his father Dharashraya; therefore, Dharashraya was succeeded by his second eldest son Jayashraya Mangalarasa, who was succeeded by Avanijanashraya Pulakeshin, another of Dharashraya's sons.[3] Tribhuvanashraya Nagavardhana, a fourth son of Dharashraya, is attested by an inscription found at Nirpan village of Maharashtra. This inscription records the grant of the Belegrama village to the shrine of the deity Kapaleshvara, but is considered spurious by historians.[2][9]

Jayashraya Mangalarasa

Jayashraya Mangalarasa (IAST: Jayāśraya Maṅgalarasa-rāja) was nominally a vassal of the Chalukya king Vinayaditya, but appears to have been practically independent.[3]

The Manor inscription of Mangalarasa is dated to 7 April 691 (year 613 of the Shaka era). This Sanskrit language inscription describes Mangalarasa as a crown prince, and records the grant of some villages and other land to the Sun temple at Manapura. It indicates that Mangalarasa bore the titles Prithvi-vallabha, Yuddhamalla, and Vinayaditya.[2]

The Diveagar inscription issued during Mangalarasa's reign is dated to 727-728 (Shaka 649). It records the grant of the Talavallika village by prince Dharashraya Jayasimha to the goddess Katyayani, whose statue was located on the bank of a temple tank in Kadadroho-Votinera.[8]

The Valsad (Balsar) inscription of Mangalarasa is dated to 731-732 (Shaka 653). It describes him as "Raja Vinayaditya Yuddhamalla Mangalarasa".[10]

The Rashtrakuta chief Indra I forcibly abducted Bhavanaga, a daughter or niece of Mangalarasa, from a marriage pandal at Kaira.[3] Kaira was located in the traditional Maitraka territory; therefore, historian A. S. Altekar theorizes that Bhavanaga was to be married to a Maitraka prince. On the other hand, historian Shyam Manohar Mishra theorizes that Mangalarasa had conquered Kaira from the Maitrakas by this time.[11]

Avanijanashraya Pulakeshin

Map of expansion of Caliphate
  Expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate during 661–750

Mangalarasa's younger brother and successor Avanijanashraya Pulakeshin (IAST: Avani-janāśraya Pulakeśi-rāja) ascended the throne sometime between 731 and 739.[12] He is attested by a Sanskrit inscription, which is known as the Navsari inscription, although its exact find spot is not known.[10] The Epigraphical Society of India received it from a resident of Satem village of Navsari district.[13] It is dated to the year 490 of the Kalachuri era; the date can be interpreted as 1 November 738 (assuming current year i.e. it was issued in the 490th year of the Kalachuri era) or 21 October 739 (assuming expired year i.e. it was issued after 490 years of the era had been completed).[10]

The inscription records Avanijanashraya's repulsion of an Arab invasion from the Umayyad Caliphate. It states that the Tajikas (the Arabs) had advanced up to Navsari after plundering the kingdoms of the Saindhavas, Kachchhelas, Saurashtra, Chavotkas, Mauryas, the Gurjaras, and others. The forces of Avanijanashraya defeated the invaders after a fierce battle.[14]

As a result of this success, Avanijanashraya's overlord conferred several titles upon him, including "solid pillar of Dakshinapatha" (Dakshinapathasadhara), "ornament of the Chalukya family" (Challuki-kulalankara), "beloved of the earth" (Prithvi-vallabha), and "the repeller of the unrepellable" (Anivartaka-nivartayitri).[12][14] The overlord was the Vatapi Chalukya ruler Vikramaditya II, although the inscription doesn't mention his name,[15] simply calling him "Vallabha Narendra".[10]

Avanijanashraya appears to have annexed the former Gurjara territory to the Chalukya kingdom after repulsing the Arabs.[16] He became the most powerful ruler of the Navsari Chalukya family, and assumed the title Paramabhattaraka.[12] His use of this title, usually borne by the sovereign rulers, cannot be explained with certainty. It is possible that it signifies his declaration of independence; alternatively, it is possible that he remained a Chalukya vassal, and the assumption of the title was just meant for glorification.[16]

The Chalukyas of Navasarika were ultimately supplanted by the Rashtrakutas in the 8th century.[16]

References

  1. ^ a b Shyam Manohar Mishra 1977, p. 50.
  2. ^ a b c Durga Prasad Dikshit 1980, p. 309.
  3. ^ a b c d e Shyam Manohar Mishra 1977, p. 51.
  4. ^ Durga Prasad Dikshit 1980, p. 152.
  5. ^ a b c Durga Prasad Dikshit 1980, p. 308.
  6. ^ Swati Datta 1989, p. 168.
  7. ^ Durga Prasad Dikshit 1980, pp. 309-310.
  8. ^ a b Durga Prasad Dikshit 1980, p. 310.
  9. ^ D R Bhandarkar 1983, p. 383.
  10. ^ a b c d Durga Prasad Dikshit 1980, p. 311.
  11. ^ Shyam Manohar Mishra 1977, pp. 51-52.
  12. ^ a b c Shyam Manohar Mishra 1977, p. 52.
  13. ^ Sharada Srinivasan 1987, p. 41.
  14. ^ a b Durga Prasad Dikshit 1980, p. 166.
  15. ^ Shyam Manohar Mishra 1977, pp. 52-53.
  16. ^ a b c Durga Prasad Dikshit 1980, p. 167.

Bibliography

  • D R Bhandarkar, ed. (1983). Appendix to Epigraphia Indica Volumes XIX-XXIII. Archaeological Survey of India. OCLC 1568118.
  • Durga Prasad Dikshit (1980). Political History of the Chālukyas of Badami. Abhinav. OCLC 8313041.
  • Sharada Srinivasan (1987). "Satem copper plates of Avanijanasraya Pulakesiraja". Studies in Indian Epigraphy. 14.
  • Shyam Manohar Mishra (1977). Yaśovarman of Kanauj. Abhinav. OCLC 557679616.
  • Swati Datta (1989). Migrant Brāhmaṇas in Northern India. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0067-0.

External links

Alauddin Khalji's conquest of Gujarat

In 1299, the Delhi Sultanate ruler Alauddin Khalji sent an army to ransack the Gujarat region of India, which was ruled by the Vaghela king Karna. The Delhi forces plundered several major cities of Gujarat, including Anahilavada (Patan), Khambhat, Surat and Somnath. Karna was able to regain control of at least a part of his kingdom in the later years. However, in 1304, a second invasion by Alauddin's forces permanently ended the Vaghela dynasty, and resulted in the annexation of Gujarat to the Delhi Sultanate.

Anarta tradition

The Anarta tradition or Anarta ware is a chalcolithic culture tentatively dated between c. 3950 BCE to 1900 BCE based on radio carbon dates from Loteshwar and Gola Dhoro. The sites associated with it are located in Gujarat, India.

Chalukya (disambiguation)

Several dynasties named "Chalukya" ruled in present-day India at various times. The oldest of these were the Chalukyas of Vatapi or Badami (c. 6th-8th century CE). Other Chalukya dynasties include:

Chalukyas of Navasarika (c. 7th-8th century CE), vassals of the Vatapi Chalukyas; also known as the early Chalukyas of Gujarat

Chalukyas of Vemulavada (c. 7th-10th century CE), vassals of the Rashtrakutas

Chalukyas of Vengi (c. 7th-12th century CE), also known as the Eastern Chalukyas

Chalukyas of Kalyani (c. 10th-12th century CE), also known as the Western Chalukyas

Chalukyas of Gujarat (c. 10th-13th century CE); used the self-designation Chaulukya; also known as Solankis

Chalukyas of Lata (c. 10th-11th century CE); ruled southern Gujarat as vassals of other dynasties, including the Kalyani Chalukyas

Chalukyas of Lata

The Chalukyas of Lata were an Indian dynasty, which ruled the Lata region of present-day Gujarat during 10th and 11th centuries. They ruled as feudatories of the Western Chalukyas in their early years, and were ultimately defeated by the Chaulukyas of Gujarat (Solankis).

Chaulukya dynasty

The Chaulukya dynasty (IAST: Caulukya), also known as the Chalukyas of Gujarat, ruled parts of what are now Gujarat and Rajasthan in north-western India, between c. 940 CE and c. 1244 CE. Their capital was located at Anahilavada (modern Patan). At times, their rule extended to the Malwa region in present-day Madhya Pradesh. The medieval legends describe them as Agnivanshi Rajputs, and they are also known as the Solanki dynasty in the vernacular literature.

Mularaja, the founder of the dynasty, supplanted the last ruler of the Chapotkata dynasty (Chavda) around 940 CE. His successors fought several battles with the neighbouring rulers such as the Chudasamas, the Paramaras and the Chahamanas of Shakambhari. During the reign of Bhima I, the Ghaznavid ruler Mahmud invaded the kingdom and raided the Somnath temple during 1024-1025 CE. The Chaulukyas soon recovered, and the kingdom reached its zenith under the rule of Jayasimha Siddharaja and Kumarapala in the 12th century. Several minor dynasties, such as the Chahamanas of Jalor and the Chahamanas of Naddula, served as Chaulukya vassals during this period. After Kumarapala's death, the kingdom was gradually weakened by internal rebellions; uprisings by feudatories; and invasions by the Paramaras, the Ghurids, the Yadavas and others. Taking advantage of this, the Vaghelas, who had earlier served as Chaulukya generals, usurped the power and established a new dynasty in the 1240s.

Several princely state rulers of the Solanki clan claimed descent from the Chaulukyas.

Chavda dynasty

The Chavda (IAST:Chávaḍá), also spelled Chawda or Chavada, dynasty ruled region of modern-day northern Gujarat in India, from c. 690 to 942. Variants of the name for the dynasty include Chapa, Chahuda, Chávoṭakas and Chāpoṭkata.

During the seventh century, Panchasar was the capital of Chavda ruler Jayaśekhara. In c. 697, Panchasar was attacked and Jayaśekhara was killed. His wife had fled and she gave birth to Vanraja, the founder (746 or 765) of Aṇahilaváḍa and most prominent ruler of dynasty. According to Prabandhachintámaṇi, he ruled for 60 years. He was succeeded by Yogaraja (ruled 35 years), followed by Kshemraja (25 years), Bhuyada (29 years), Virsimha (25 years) and Ratnaditya (15 years). Ratnaditya was succeeded by Samantsimha (also known as Chuyadadeva) who ruled seven years. Samantsimha did not have any children so he adopted his nephew Mularaja who overthrew him in 942 and established the Chaulukya dynasty.

Chudasama dynasty

The Chudasama dynasty ruled parts of the present-day Saurashtra region of Gujarat state in India between the 9th and 15th centuries. Their capital was based in Junagadh and Vamanasthali, and they were later classified among the Rajput clans.

The early history of Chudasama dynasty is almost lost. The bardic legends differs very much in names, order and numbers so they are not considered reliable. Traditionally, the dynasty is said to have been founded in the late 9th century by Chudachandra. Subsequent rulers such as Graharipu, Navaghana and Khengara were in conflict with Chaulukya rulers Mularaja and Jayasimha Siddharaja. Thus they are mentioned in contemporary and later Jain chronicles. After end of the rule of Chaulukya and their successor Vaghela dynasty in Gujarat, the Chudasamas continued to rule independently or as a vassal of successor states, Delhi Sultanate and Gujarat Sultanate. Mandalika I was the first known ruler from inscriptions during whose reign Gujarat was invaded by Khalji dynasty of Delhi. The last king of the dynasty, Mandalika III, was defeated and forcibly converted to Islam in 1472 by Gujarat Sultan Mahmud Begada, who also annexed the state.

Gujarat Sultanate

The Gujarat Sultanate was a medieval India Islamic kingdom established in the early 15th century in present-day Gujarat, India. The founder of the ruling Muzaffarid dynasty, Zafar Khan (later Muzaffar Shah I) was appointed as governor of Gujarat by Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad bin Tughluq IV in 1391, the ruler of the principal state in north India at the time, the Delhi Sultanate. Zafar Khan's father Sadharan, was a Tanka Rajput convert to Islam. Zafar Khan defeated Farhat-ul-Mulk near Anhilwada Patan and made the city his capital. Following Timur's invasion of Delhi, the Delhi Sultanate weakened considerably so he declared himself independent in 1407 and formally established Gujarat Sultanate. The next sultan, his grandson Ahmad Shah I founded the new capital Ahmedabad in 1411. His successor Muhammad Shah II subdued most of the Rajput chieftains. The prosperity of the sultanate reached its zenith during the rule of Mahmud Begada. He subdued most of the Rajput chieftains and built navy off the coast of Diu. In 1509, the Portuguese wrested Diu from Gujarat sultanate following the battle of Diu. The decline of the Sultanate started with the assassination of Sikandar Shah in 1526. Mughal emperor Humayun attacked Gujarat in 1535 and briefly occupied it. Thereafter Bahadur Shah was killed by the Portuguese while making a deal in 1537. The end of the sultanate came in 1573, when Akbar annexed Gujarat in his empire. The last ruler Muzaffar Shah III was taken prisoner to Agra. In 1583, he escaped from the prison and with the help of the nobles succeeded to regain the throne for a short period before being defeated by Akbar's general Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana.

Gujarat under Delhi Sultanate

Gujarat, a region in western India, fell under Delhi Sultanate following repeated expeditions under Alauddin Khalji around the end of the 13th century. He ended the rule of Vaghela dynasty under Karna II and established Muslim rule in Gujarat. Soon the Tughluq dynasty came to power in Delhi whose emperor carried out expeditions to quell rebellion in Gujarat and established their firm control over the region by the end of the century. Following Timur's invasion of Delhi, the Delhi Sultanate weakened considerably so the last Tughluq governor Zafar Khan declared himself independent in 1407 and formally established Gujarat Sultanate.

Gujarat under Mughal Empire

In 1573, Akbar (1573–1605), the emperor of the Mughal Empire captured Gujarat (now a state in western India) by defeating Gujarat Sultanate under Muzaffar Shah III. Muzaffar tried to regain the Sultanate in 1584 but failed. Gujarat remained the Mughal province (subah) governed by the viceroys and officers appointed by the Mughal emperors from Delhi. Akbar's foster brother Mirza Aziz Kokaltash was appointed as the viceroy who strengthened Mughal hold over the region. The nobles of former Sultanate continued to resist and rebel during the reign of the next emperor Jehangir (1605–1627) but Kokaltash and his successor viceroys subdued them. Jehangir also permitted the British East India Company to establish factories in Surat and elsewhere in Gujarat. The next emperor Shah Jahan (1627–1658) expanded his territories in south and his viceroys made hold over Kathiawar peninsula including Nawanagar. Shah Jahan had also appointed his prince Aurangzeb, who was involved in religious disputes, prince Dara Shikoh and later prince Murad Bakhsh as viceroys. Following battle of succession, Aurangzeb (1658–1707) came to the Mughal throne and his policies resulted in revolts and discontent. During his reign, the Marathas under Shivaji raided Surat (1666) and their incursions in Gujarat started. Till then Gujarat prospered due to political stability, peace and growing international trade.During the next three emperors (1707–1719) who had brief reigns, the nobles became more and more powerful due to instability in the Delhi. The royals of Marwar were appointed viceroys frequently. During the reign of the emperor Muhammad Shah (1719–1748), the struggle between the Mughal and Maratha nobles were heightened with frequent battles and incursions. The south Gujarat was lost to the Marathas and the towns in north and central Gujarat was attacked on several occasions with frequent demand of tributes. The Marathas continued to grow their hold and the frequent change of viceroys did not reverse the trend. The competing houses of Marathas, Gaikwars and Peshwas engaged between themselves which slow down their progress for a while. They later made peace between themselves. During the reign of the next emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur (1748–1754), there was nominal control over the nobles who acted on their own. There were frequent fights between themselves and with Marathas. Ahmedabad, the capital of province, finally fell to the Marathas in 1752. It was regained by noble Momin Khan for a short time but again lost to the Marathas in 1756 after a long siege. Finding opportunity, the British captured Surat in 1759. After a setback at Panipat in 1761, the Marathas strengthened their hold on Gujarat. During this fifty years, the power struggle between the Mughal nobles and Marathas caused disorder and the decline in prosperity.

Gurjaras of Lata

The Gurjaras of Lata, also known as Gurjaras of Nandipuri or Bharuch Gurjaras, was a dynasty which ruled Lata region (now South Gujarat, India) as a feudatory of different dynasties from c. 580 CE to c. 738 CE.

History of Gujarat

The history of Gujarat began with Stone Age settlements followed by Chalcolithic and Bronze Age settlements like Indus Valley Civilisation. Gujarat's coastal cities, chiefly Bharuch, served as ports and trading centers in the Nanda, Maurya, Satavahana and Gupta empires as well as Western Kshatrapas period. After the fall of the Gupta empire in the 6th century, Gujarat flourished as an independent Hindu/Buddhist state. The Maitraka dynasty, descended from a Gupta general, ruled from the 6th to the 8th centuries from their capital at Vallabhi, although they were ruled briefly by Harsha during the 7th century. The Arab rulers of Sindh sacked Vallabhi in 770, bringing the Maitraka dynasty to an end. The Gurjara-Pratihara Empire ruled Gujarat after from the 8th to 10th centuries. As well as, for some periods the region came under the control of Rashtrakuta Empire and Pala Empire. In 775 the first Parsi (Zoroastrian) refugees arrived in Gujarat from Greater Iran.During the 10th century, the native Chaulukya dynasty came to power. Under the Chaulukya dynasty, Gujarat reached to its greatest extent. From 1297 to 1300, Alauddin Khalji, the Turkic Sultan of Delhi, destroyed Anhilwara and incorporated Gujarat into the Delhi Sultanate. After Timur's sacking of Delhi at the end of the 14th century weakened the Sultanate, Gujarat's governor Zafar Khan Muzaffar asserted his independence, and his son, Sultan Ahmad Shah I (ruled 1411 to 1442), restructured Ahmedabad as the capital. Cambay eclipsed Bharuch as Gujarat's most important trade port. The Sultanate of Gujarat remained independent until 1576, when the Mughal emperor Akbar conquered it and annexed it to the Mughal Empire as province. The port of Surat become the prominent and main port of India during Mughal rule. Gujarat remained a province of the Mughal empire until the Marathas occupied eastern and central Gujarat in the 18th century; Western Gujarat (Kathiawar and Kutch) were divided among numerous local rulers.

Later in the 18th century, Gujarat came under control of the Maratha Empire who dominated the politics of India. Pilaji Gaekwad, first ruler of Gaekwad dynasty, established the control over Baroda and much of Gujarat. After the Battle of Panipat in 1761, all Maratha generals established themselves as an autonomous government while keeping the nominal authority of the Peshwas of Pune and the Chhatrapati in Satara. The British East India Company wrested control of much of Gujarat from the Marathas during the Second Anglo-Maratha War. Many local rulers, notably the Maratha Gaekwads of Baroda (Vadodara), made a separate peace with the British and acknowledged British sovereignty in return for retaining local self-rule. Gujarat was placed under the political authority of the Bombay Presidency, with the exception of Baroda state, which had a direct relationship with the Governor-General of India. From 1818 to 1947, most of present-day Gujarat, including Kathiawar, Kutch, and northern and eastern Gujarat were divided into hundreds of princely states, but several districts in central and southern Gujarat, namely Ahmedabad, Broach (Bharuch), Kaira (Kheda), Panchmahal, and Surat, were ruled directly by British officials. Mohandas Gandhi, considered India's "father of the nation", was a Gujarati who led the Indian Independence Movement against the British colonial rule. Gujarat was formed by splitting Bombay state in 1960 on linguistic lines. From 1960 to 1995, Indian National Congress retained power in Gujarat Legislative Assembly while other political parties ruled for incomplete terms in the 1970s and 1990. Bharatiya Janata Party has been in the power since 1998.

Maitraka dynasty

The Maitraka dynasty ruled western India (now Gujarat) from approximately 475 to approximately 776 CE from their capital at Vallabhi. With the sole exception of Dharapatta (the fifth king in the dynasty), who followed the Mithraic mysteries, they were followers of Shaivism. Their origin is uncertain but they were probably Suryavanshi Kshatriyas.

Following the decline of the Gupta Empire, Maitraka dynasty was founded by Senapati (general) Bhatarka, who was a military governor of Saurashtra under Gupta Empire, who had established himself as the independent around 475 CE. The first two Maitraka rulers Bhatarka and Dharasena I used only the title of Senapati (general). The third ruler Dronasimha declared himself as the Maharaja. During the reign Dhruvasena I, Jain council at Vallabhi was probably held. The next ruler Dharapatta is the only ruler considered as a sun-worshipper. King Guhasena stopped using the term Paramabhattaraka Padanudhyata along his name like his predecessors, which denotes the cessation of displaying of the nominal allegiance to the Gupta overlords. He was succeeded by his son Dharasena II, who used the title of Mahadhiraja. His son, the next ruler Siladitya I Dharmaditya was described by Hiuen Tsang, visited in 640 CE, as a "monarch of great administrative ability and of rare kindness and compassion". Siladitya I was succeeded by his younger brother Kharagraha I. Virdi copperplate grant (616 CE) of Kharagraha I proves that his territories included Ujjain. During the reign of the next ruler, Dharasena III, north Gujarat was included in this kingdom. Dharasena II was succeeded by another son of Kharagraha I, Dhruvasena II, Baladitya. He married the daughter of Harshavardhana. His son Dharasena IV assumed the imperial titles of Paramabhattaraka Mahrajadhiraja Parameshvara Chakravartin. Sanskrit poet Bhatti was his court poet. The next powerful ruler of this dynasty was Siladitya II. During the reign of Siladitya V, Arabs probably invaded this kingdom. The last known ruler of this dynasty was Siladitya VI.Maitrakas set up a Vallabhi University which came to be known far and wide for its scholastic pursuits and was compared with the Nalanda University. They came under the rule of Harsha of Vardhana dynasty in the mid-seventh century, but retained local autonomy, and regained their independence after Harsha's death. After repeated attacks by Arabs from the sea, the kingdom had weakened considerably. The dynasty ended by 783 CE. Apart from legendary accounts which connect fall of Vallabi with the Tajjika (Arab) invasions, no historical source mention how the dynasty ended.More than hundred temples of this period are known, mostly located along the western coast of Saurashtra.

Navsari

Navsari is a city and 9th biggest municipality of Gujarat and the administrative headquarters Navsari District of Gujarat, India. Navsari is also the Twin City of Surat, and only 30 km south of Surat.In 2016, Navsari ranked as the 16th biggest city of Gujarat state of india by population in 2011. It used to rank 10th in 1991 to 2001. Navsari is the 25th "cleanest city of India" according to the Indian Ministry of Urban Development.

Saindhava

The Saindhavas, also known as Jayadrathas, ruled western Saurashtra (now in Gujarat, India) from c. 735 CE to c. 920 CE, probably in alliance with Maitrakas in early years. Their capital was at Bhutamabilika (now Ghumli. The known historical events during their rule are the attacks of Arabs repulsed by Agguka I.

Traikutaka dynasty

The Traikutakas were a dynasty of Indian kings who ruled between 388 and 456. The name "Traikutakas" seems to be derived from the words for a three-peaked mountain ("Tri-kuta"). The Traikutakas are mentioned in Kalidasa's Raghuvamsa, in which they are located in the area of northern Konkan. The dominions of the Traikutakas further included Aparanta and northern Maharashtra.The coins of the Traikutaras are found extensively in southern Gujarat, and southern Maharashtra beyond the Ghats. Their design is very close to that of the Western Satraps, from which they probably inherited some territories, and traces of the obverse legend with Greek letters can still be seen.Traikuta rule of Aparanta or Konkan begins in A.D. 248 (Traikuta era) exactly the time of Abhira Ishwarsena rule, hence Traikutas are identified with the dynasty of Abhiras.The Traikutakas reckoned in a specific era, known as the Traikutaka era, or usually the Kalachuri or Chedi era, starting in 249.

Vaghela dynasty

The Vaghela dynasty was a short-lived Indian dynasty that ruled Gujarat from their capital Dholka during the 13th century CE. The Vaghelas were the last Hindu monarchs to rule large parts of Gujarat, before the Muslim conquest of the region. Medieval bardic literature includes them among the Agnivashi Rajput dynasties.

Early members of the Vaghela family served the Chaulukyas in the 12th century CE, and claimed to be a branch of that dynasty. In the 13th century, during the reign of the weak Chaulukya king Bhima II, the Vaghela general Lavanaprasada and his son Viradhavala became very powerful, although they continued to nominally acknowledge the Chaulukya suzerainty. In the mid-1240s, Viradhavala's son Visaladeva usurped the throne. His successors ruled Gujarat until Karna was defeated by Alauddin Khalji of Delhi Sultanate in 1304 CE.

Western Satraps

The Western Satraps, Western Kshatrapas, or Kshaharatas (35–405 CE) were Indo-Scythian (Saka) rulers of the western and central part of India (Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh states). The Western Satraps were contemporaneous with the Kushans who ruled the northern part of the Indian subcontinent and were possibly their overlords, and the Satavahana (Andhra) who ruled in Central India. The power of the Saka rulers started to decline in the 2nd century CE after the Saka rulers were defeated by the south Indian Emperor Gautamiputra Satakarni of the Satavahana dynasty. Later the Saka kingdom was completely destroyed by Chandragupta II of the Gupta Empire in the 4th century CE.Altogether, there were 27 independent Western Satrap rulers during a period of about 350 years.

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