Chalukyas of Lata

The Chalukyas of Lata were an Indian dynasty, which ruled the Lata region of present-day Gujarat during 10th and 11th centuries. They ruled as feudatories of the Western Chalukyas in their early years, and were ultimately defeated by the Chaulukyas of Gujarat (Solankis).

Chalukyas of Lata
feudatories of Western Chalukya

c. 970 CE–c. 1070 CE
GovernmentMonarchy
History 
• Established
c. 970 CE
• Disestablished
c. 1070 CE
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Western Chalukya
Chaulukya dynasty
Today part of India
Find spots of the Lata Chalukya inscription

History

Barappa, the dynasty's first ruler, is identified as a general of the Western Chalukya king Tailapa II. He might have been made the governor of the Lata region by Tailapa. According to Merutunga's Prabandha-Chintamani, Barapa and the ruler of Sapadalaksha (the Chahamana king Vigraharaja II) once simultaneously attacked Gujarat. Mularaja, the Chaulukya king of Gujarat, asked the Sapadalaksha ruler not to attack him until he dealt with Barapa. He then defeated Barapa, which prompted the Sapadalaksha king to flee Gujarat. Since Merutunga was from Gujarat, this account may be biased. The Chahamana chroniclers claim that Vigraharaja defeated Mularaja, and marched up to Bhrigukachchha, where he constructed a temple dedicated to his family deity Ashapura. According to one theory, Vigraharaja II allied with Barapa, and helped him achieve independence.[1]

According to Hemachandra's Dvyashraya Kavya, Mularaja's son Chamundaraja invaded Lata, and killed Barappa.[2] Barappa's son Gogi-raja may have revived the family's rule in the Lata region. But, by 1074 CE, the dynasty appears to have been vanquished by the Chaulukyas of Gujarat.[2]

Genealogy

The following members of the family (with estimated reigns) are known:[3]

  • Nimbarka[2]
  • Barappa, c. 970-990 CE
  • Gogi-raja, c. 990-1010 CE
  • Kirti-raja, c. 1010-1030 CE
  • Vatsa-raja, c. 1030-1050 CE
  • Trilochana-pala, c. 1050-1070 CE

Inscriptions

A 940 Shaka (1018 CE) copper-plate inscription of Kirtiraja was discovered in Surat. It names his ancestors as Gogi, Barappa and Nimbarka.[2]

Two copper-plate inscriptions of Trilochana-pala dated 972 Shaka (1050 CE Eklahare and 1051 CE Surat) have also been discovered. These inscriptions given an account of the mythical origin of the Chalukyas: the family's progenitor originated from the chuluka (a vessel or a folded palm to hold water) of the creator deity Virinchi. On the deity's advice, he married the Rashtrakuta princess of Kanyakubja. Trilochanapala's inscriptions mention four of his ancestors: Vatsa, Kirti, Gogi and Barappa. Vatsa is said to have built a golden umbrella for the god Somanatha, and also established a free food canteen (sattra). Trilochanapala is titled Maha-Mandaleshvara in these inscriptions. The 1050 CE inscription records his donation of the Ekallahara village (modern Eklahare) to a Brahmin named Taraditya.[2]

References

  1. ^ Dasharatha Sharma (1959). Early Chauhān Dynasties. S. Chand / Motilal Banarsidass. p. 30–32. ISBN 9780842606189.
  2. ^ a b c d e D. C. Sircar, ed. (1970). "Ekallahara Grant of Trilochanapala". Epigraphia Indica. 36. Archaeological Survey of India. pp. 12–15.
  3. ^ Syed Amanur Rahman and Balraj Verma (2006). The Beautiful India - Daman & Diu. Reference Press. p. 9.
Alauddin Khalji's conquest of Gujarat

In 1299, the Delhi Sultanate ruler Alauddin Khalji sent an army to ransack the Gujarat region of India, which was ruled by the Vaghela king Karna. The Delhi forces plundered several major cities of Gujarat, including Anahilavada (Patan), Khambhat, Surat and Somnath. Karna was able to regain control of at least a part of his kingdom in the later years. However, in 1304, a second invasion by Alauddin's forces permanently ended the Vaghela dynasty, and resulted in the annexation of Gujarat to the Delhi Sultanate.

Anarta tradition

The Anarta tradition or Anarta ware is a chalcolithic culture tentatively dated between c. 3950 BCE to 1900 BCE based on radio carbon dates from Loteshwar and Gola Dhoro. The sites associated with it are located in Gujarat, India.

Bhoja

Bhoja (reigned c. 1010–1055 CE) was an Indian king from the Paramara dynasty. His kingdom was centered around the Malwa region in central India, where his capital Dhara-nagara (modern Dhar) was located. Bhoja fought wars with nearly all his neighbours in attempts to extend his kingdom, with varying degrees of success. At its zenith, his kingdom extended from Chittor in the north to upper Konkan in the south, and from the Sabarmati River in the west to Vidisha in the east.

Bhoja is best known as a patron of arts, literature, and sciences. The establishment of the Bhoj Shala, a centre for Sanskrit studies, is attributed to him. He was a polymath, and several books covering a wide range of topics are attributed to him. He is also said to have constructed a large number of Shiva temples, although Bhojeshwar Temple in Bhojpur (a city founded by him) is the only surviving temple that can be ascribed to him with certainty.

Because of his patronage to scholars, Bhoja became one of the most celebrated kings in the Indian history. After his death, he came to be featured in several legends as a righteous scholar-king. The body of legends clustered around him is comparable to that of the fabled Vikramaditya.

Chalukya (disambiguation)

Several dynasties named "Chalukya" ruled in present-day India at various times. The oldest of these were the Chalukyas of Vatapi or Badami (c. 6th-8th century CE). Other Chalukya dynasties include:

Chalukyas of Navasarika (c. 7th-8th century CE), vassals of the Vatapi Chalukyas; also known as the early Chalukyas of Gujarat

Chalukyas of Vemulavada (c. 7th-10th century CE), vassals of the Rashtrakutas

Chalukyas of Vengi (c. 7th-12th century CE), also known as the Eastern Chalukyas

Chalukyas of Kalyani (c. 10th-12th century CE), also known as the Western Chalukyas

Chalukyas of Gujarat (c. 10th-13th century CE); used the self-designation Chaulukya; also known as Solankis

Chalukyas of Lata (c. 10th-11th century CE); ruled southern Gujarat as vassals of other dynasties, including the Kalyani Chalukyas

Chalukyas of Navasarika

The Chalukyas (IAST: Cālukya) of Navasarika (modern Navsari) were an Indian dynasty that ruled parts of present-day Gujarat and Maharashtra during 7th and 8th centuries, as vassals of the Chalukyas of Vatapi. They are also known as the "Early Chalukyas of Gujarat" (as opposed to the later Chalukyas of Gujarat).

In the late 660s, the Vatapi Chalukya king Vikramaditya I appointed his brother Dharashraya Jayasimhavarman as the governor of the north-western parts of his kingdom, which included southern Gujarat (Lata), Nashik region, and northern Konkan. Dharashraya's eldest son Shryashraya Shiladitya died before him, and he was succeeded by his younger sons, first Jayashraya Mangalarasa, and then Avanijanashraya Pulakeshin. Avanijanashraya is best known for repulsing an Arab invasion from the Umayyad Caliphate near Navsari, a feat recorded in his 738-739 inscription. After his reign, the history of this Chalukya branch is uncertain: their territory subsequently came under the Rashtrakuta control.

Chaulukya dynasty

The Chaulukya dynasty (IAST: Caulukya), also known as the Chalukyas of Gujarat, ruled parts of what are now Gujarat and Rajasthan in north-western India, between c. 940 CE and c. 1244 CE. Their capital was located at Anahilavada (modern Patan). At times, their rule extended to the Malwa region in present-day Madhya Pradesh. The medieval legends describe them as Agnivanshi Rajputs, and they are also known as the Solanki dynasty in the vernacular literature.

Mularaja, the founder of the dynasty, supplanted the last ruler of the Chapotkata dynasty (Chavda) around 940 CE. His successors fought several battles with the neighbouring rulers such as the Chudasamas, the Paramaras and the Chahamanas of Shakambhari. During the reign of Bhima I, the Ghaznavid ruler Mahmud invaded the kingdom and raided the Somnath temple during 1024-1025 CE. The Chaulukyas soon recovered, and the kingdom reached its zenith under the rule of Jayasimha Siddharaja and Kumarapala in the 12th century. Several minor dynasties, such as the Chahamanas of Jalor and the Chahamanas of Naddula, served as Chaulukya vassals during this period. After Kumarapala's death, the kingdom was gradually weakened by internal rebellions; uprisings by feudatories; and invasions by the Paramaras, the Ghurids, the Yadavas and others. Taking advantage of this, the Vaghelas, who had earlier served as Chaulukya generals, usurped the power and established a new dynasty in the 1240s.

Several princely state rulers of the Solanki clan claimed descent from the Chaulukyas.

Chavda dynasty

The Chavda (IAST:Chávaḍá), also spelled Chawda or Chavada, dynasty ruled region of modern-day northern Gujarat in India, from c. 690 to 942. Variants of the name for the dynasty include Chapa, Chahuda, Chávoṭakas and Chāpoṭkata.

During the seventh century, Panchasar was the capital of Chavda ruler Jayaśekhara. In c. 697, Panchasar was attacked and Jayaśekhara was killed. His wife had fled and she gave birth to Vanraja, the founder (746 or 765) of Aṇahilaváḍa and most prominent ruler of dynasty. According to Prabandhachintámaṇi, he ruled for 60 years. He was succeeded by Yogaraja (ruled 35 years), followed by Kshemraja (25 years), Bhuyada (29 years), Virsimha (25 years) and Ratnaditya (15 years). Ratnaditya was succeeded by Samantsimha (also known as Chuyadadeva) who ruled seven years. Samantsimha did not have any children so he adopted his nephew Mularaja who overthrew him in 942 and established the Chaulukya dynasty.

Chudasama dynasty

The Chudasama dynasty ruled parts of the present-day Saurashtra region of Gujarat state in India between the 9th and 15th centuries. Their capital was based in Junagadh and Vamanasthali, and they were later classified among the Rajput clans.

The early history of Chudasama dynasty is almost lost. The bardic legends differs very much in names, order and numbers so they are not considered reliable. Traditionally, the dynasty is said to have been founded in the late 9th century by Chudachandra. Subsequent rulers such as Graharipu, Navaghana and Khengara were in conflict with Chaulukya rulers Mularaja and Jayasimha Siddharaja. Thus they are mentioned in contemporary and later Jain chronicles. After end of the rule of Chaulukya and their successor Vaghela dynasty in Gujarat, the Chudasamas continued to rule independently or as a vassal of successor states, Delhi Sultanate and Gujarat Sultanate. Mandalika I was the first known ruler from inscriptions during whose reign Gujarat was invaded by Khalji dynasty of Delhi. The last king of the dynasty, Mandalika III, was defeated and forcibly converted to Islam in 1472 by Gujarat Sultan Mahmud Begada, who also annexed the state.

Gujarat Sultanate

The Gujarat Sultanate was a medieval India Islamic kingdom established in the early 15th century in present-day Gujarat, India. The founder of the ruling Muzaffarid dynasty, Zafar Khan (later Muzaffar Shah I) was appointed as governor of Gujarat by Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad bin Tughluq IV in 1391, the ruler of the principal state in north India at the time, the Delhi Sultanate. Zafar Khan's father Sadharan, was a Tanka Rajput convert to Islam. Zafar Khan defeated Farhat-ul-Mulk near Anhilwada Patan and made the city his capital. Following Timur's invasion of Delhi, the Delhi Sultanate weakened considerably so he declared himself independent in 1407 and formally established Gujarat Sultanate. The next sultan, his grandson Ahmad Shah I founded the new capital Ahmedabad in 1411. His successor Muhammad Shah II subdued most of the Rajput chieftains. The prosperity of the sultanate reached its zenith during the rule of Mahmud Begada. He subdued most of the Rajput chieftains and built navy off the coast of Diu. In 1509, the Portuguese wrested Diu from Gujarat sultanate following the battle of Diu. The decline of the Sultanate started with the assassination of Sikandar Shah in 1526. Mughal emperor Humayun attacked Gujarat in 1535 and briefly occupied it. Thereafter Bahadur Shah was killed by the Portuguese while making a deal in 1537. The end of the sultanate came in 1573, when Akbar annexed Gujarat in his empire. The last ruler Muzaffar Shah III was taken prisoner to Agra. In 1583, he escaped from the prison and with the help of the nobles succeeded to regain the throne for a short period before being defeated by Akbar's general Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana.

Gujarat under Delhi Sultanate

Gujarat, a region in western India, fell under Delhi Sultanate following repeated expeditions under Alauddin Khalji around the end of the 13th century. He ended the rule of Vaghela dynasty under Karna II and established Muslim rule in Gujarat. Soon the Tughluq dynasty came to power in Delhi whose emperor carried out expeditions to quell rebellion in Gujarat and established their firm control over the region by the end of the century. Following Timur's invasion of Delhi, the Delhi Sultanate weakened considerably so the last Tughluq governor Zafar Khan declared himself independent in 1407 and formally established Gujarat Sultanate.

Gujarat under Mughal Empire

In 1573, Akbar (1573–1605), the emperor of the Mughal Empire captured Gujarat (now a state in western India) by defeating Gujarat Sultanate under Muzaffar Shah III. Muzaffar tried to regain the Sultanate in 1584 but failed. Gujarat remained the Mughal province (subah) governed by the viceroys and officers appointed by the Mughal emperors from Delhi. Akbar's foster brother Mirza Aziz Kokaltash was appointed as the viceroy who strengthened Mughal hold over the region. The nobles of former Sultanate continued to resist and rebel during the reign of the next emperor Jehangir (1605–1627) but Kokaltash and his successor viceroys subdued them. Jehangir also permitted the British East India Company to establish factories in Surat and elsewhere in Gujarat. The next emperor Shah Jahan (1627–1658) expanded his territories in south and his viceroys made hold over Kathiawar peninsula including Nawanagar. Shah Jahan had also appointed his prince Aurangzeb, who was involved in religious disputes, prince Dara Shikoh and later prince Murad Bakhsh as viceroys. Following battle of succession, Aurangzeb (1658–1707) came to the Mughal throne and his policies resulted in revolts and discontent. During his reign, the Marathas under Shivaji raided Surat (1666) and their incursions in Gujarat started. Till then Gujarat prospered due to political stability, peace and growing international trade.During the next three emperors (1707–1719) who had brief reigns, the nobles became more and more powerful due to instability in the Delhi. The royals of Marwar were appointed viceroys frequently. During the reign of the emperor Muhammad Shah (1719–1748), the struggle between the Mughal and Maratha nobles were heightened with frequent battles and incursions. The south Gujarat was lost to the Marathas and the towns in north and central Gujarat was attacked on several occasions with frequent demand of tributes. The Marathas continued to grow their hold and the frequent change of viceroys did not reverse the trend. The competing houses of Marathas, Gaikwars and Peshwas engaged between themselves which slow down their progress for a while. They later made peace between themselves. During the reign of the next emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur (1748–1754), there was nominal control over the nobles who acted on their own. There were frequent fights between themselves and with Marathas. Ahmedabad, the capital of province, finally fell to the Marathas in 1752. It was regained by noble Momin Khan for a short time but again lost to the Marathas in 1756 after a long siege. Finding opportunity, the British captured Surat in 1759. After a setback at Panipat in 1761, the Marathas strengthened their hold on Gujarat. During this fifty years, the power struggle between the Mughal nobles and Marathas caused disorder and the decline in prosperity.

Gurjaras of Lata

The Gurjaras of Lata, also known as Gurjaras of Nandipuri or Bharuch Gurjaras, was a dynasty which ruled Lata region (now South Gujarat, India) as a feudatory of different dynasties from c. 580 CE to c. 738 CE.

History of Gujarat

The history of Gujarat began with Stone Age settlements followed by Chalcolithic and Bronze Age settlements like Indus Valley Civilisation. Gujarat's coastal cities, chiefly Bharuch, served as ports and trading centers in the Nanda, Maurya, Satavahana and Gupta empires as well as Western Kshatrapas period. After the fall of the Gupta empire in the 6th century, Gujarat flourished as an independent Hindu/Buddhist state. The Maitraka dynasty, descended from a Gupta general, ruled from the 6th to the 8th centuries from their capital at Vallabhi, although they were ruled briefly by Harsha during the 7th century. The Arab rulers of Sindh sacked Vallabhi in 770, bringing the Maitraka dynasty to an end. The Gurjara-Pratihara Empire ruled Gujarat after from the 8th to 10th centuries. As well as, for some periods the region came under the control of Rashtrakuta Empire and Pala Empire. In 775 the first Parsi (Zoroastrian) refugees arrived in Gujarat from Greater Iran.During the 10th century, the native Chaulukya dynasty came to power. Under the Chaulukya dynasty, Gujarat reached to its greatest extent. From 1297 to 1300, Alauddin Khalji, the Turkic Sultan of Delhi, destroyed Anhilwara and incorporated Gujarat into the Delhi Sultanate. After Timur's sacking of Delhi at the end of the 14th century weakened the Sultanate, Gujarat's governor Zafar Khan Muzaffar asserted his independence, and his son, Sultan Ahmad Shah I (ruled 1411 to 1442), restructured Ahmedabad as the capital. Cambay eclipsed Bharuch as Gujarat's most important trade port. The Sultanate of Gujarat remained independent until 1576, when the Mughal emperor Akbar conquered it and annexed it to the Mughal Empire as province. The port of Surat become the prominent and main port of India during Mughal rule. Gujarat remained a province of the Mughal empire until the Marathas occupied eastern and central Gujarat in the 18th century; Western Gujarat (Kathiawar and Kutch) were divided among numerous local rulers.

Later in the 18th century, Gujarat came under control of the Maratha Empire who dominated the politics of India. Pilaji Gaekwad, first ruler of Gaekwad dynasty, established the control over Baroda and much of Gujarat. After the Battle of Panipat in 1761, all Maratha generals established themselves as an autonomous government while keeping the nominal authority of the Peshwas of Pune and the Chhatrapati in Satara. The British East India Company wrested control of much of Gujarat from the Marathas during the Second Anglo-Maratha War. Many local rulers, notably the Maratha Gaekwads of Baroda (Vadodara), made a separate peace with the British and acknowledged British sovereignty in return for retaining local self-rule. Gujarat was placed under the political authority of the Bombay Presidency, with the exception of Baroda state, which had a direct relationship with the Governor-General of India. From 1818 to 1947, most of present-day Gujarat, including Kathiawar, Kutch, and northern and eastern Gujarat were divided into hundreds of princely states, but several districts in central and southern Gujarat, namely Ahmedabad, Broach (Bharuch), Kaira (Kheda), Panchmahal, and Surat, were ruled directly by British officials. Mohandas Gandhi, considered India's "father of the nation", was a Gujarati who led the Indian Independence Movement against the British colonial rule. Gujarat was formed by splitting Bombay state in 1960 on linguistic lines. From 1960 to 1995, Indian National Congress retained power in Gujarat Legislative Assembly while other political parties ruled for incomplete terms in the 1970s and 1990. Bharatiya Janata Party has been in the power since 1998.

Lata (region)

Lata (IAST: Lāṭa) was a historical region of India, located in the southern part of the present-day Gujarat state.

Military career of Bhoja

The 11th century Paramara king Bhoja ruled from his capital at Dhara (Dhar in present-day Madhya Pradesh, India). The period of his reign is dated approximately 1010 CE to 1055 CE, although some historians believe that he ascended the throne before 1010 CE. Bhoja inherited a kingdom centered around the Malwa region, and made several attempts to expand it varying results. He managed to annex territories as far as northern parts of Konkan, but these territorial gains were short-lived. He fought wars against several of his neighbours, including the Chaulukyas of Gujarat, the Chalukyas of Lata, the Chalukyas of Kalyani (Western Chalukyas), the Chandelas of Jejakabhukti, the Kachchhapaghatas of Gwalior, the Chahamanas of Shakambhari, the Chahamanas of Naddula, and the Kalachuris of Tripuri.

Apart from epigraphic records, much of the information about Bhoja's military campaigns comes from legendary accounts, including Hemachandra (12th century), Merutunga's Prabandha-Chintamani (14th century), Rajavallabha's Bhoja-Charitra (15th century), and Ballala's Bhoja-Prabandha (17th century).

Paramara dynasty

The Paramara dynasty (IAST: Paramāra) was an Indian dynasty that ruled Malwa and surrounding areas in west-central India between 9th and 14th centuries. The medieval bardic literature classifies them among the Agnivanshi Rajput dynasties.

The dynasty was established in either 9th or 10th century. The earliest extant Paramara inscriptions, issued by the 10th century ruler Siyaka, have been found in Gujarat and suggest that he was a vassal of the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta. Around 972 CE, Siyaka sacked the Rashtrakuta capital Manyakheta, and established the Paramaras as a sovereign power. By the time of his successor Munja, the Malwa region in present-day Madhya Pradesh had become the core Paramara territory, with Dhara (now Dhar) as their capital. The dynasty reached its zenith under Munja's nephew Bhoja, whose kingdom extended from Chittor in the north to Konkan in the south, and from the Sabarmati River in the west to Vidisha in the east.

The Paramara power rose and declined several times as a result of their struggles with the Chaulukyas of Gujarat, the Chalukyas of Kalyani, the Kalachuris of Tripuri and other neighbouring kingdoms. The later Paramara rulers moved their capital to Mandapa-Durga (now Mandu) after Dhara was sacked multiple times by their enemies. Mahalakadeva, the last known Paramara king, was defeated and killed by the forces of Alauddin Khalji of Delhi in 1305 CE, although epigraphic evidence suggests that the Paramara rule continued for a few years after his death.

Malwa enjoyed a great level of political and cultural prestige under the Paramaras. The Paramaras were well known for their patronage to Sanskrit poets and scholars, and Bhoja was himself a renowned scholar. Most of the Paramara kings were Shaivites and commissioned several Shiva temples, although they also patronized Jain scholars.

Saindhava

The Saindhavas, also known as Jayadrathas, ruled western Saurashtra (now in Gujarat, India) from c. 735 CE to c. 920 CE, probably in alliance with Maitrakas in early years. Their capital was at Bhutamabilika (now Ghumli. The known historical events during their rule are the attacks of Arabs repulsed by Agguka I.

Traikutaka dynasty

The Traikutakas were a dynasty of Indian kings who ruled between 388 and 456. The name "Traikutakas" seems to be derived from the words for a three-peaked mountain ("Tri-kuta"). The Traikutakas are mentioned in Kalidasa's Raghuvamsa, in which they are located in the area of northern Konkan. The dominions of the Traikutakas further included Aparanta and northern Maharashtra.The coins of the Traikutaras are found extensively in southern Gujarat, and southern Maharashtra beyond the Ghats. Their design is very close to that of the Western Satraps, from which they probably inherited some territories, and traces of the obverse legend with Greek letters can still be seen.Traikuta rule of Aparanta or Konkan begins in A.D. 248 (Traikuta era) exactly the time of Abhira Ishwarsena rule, hence Traikutas are identified with the dynasty of Abhiras.The Traikutakas reckoned in a specific era, known as the Traikutaka era, or usually the Kalachuri or Chedi era, starting in 249.

Vaghela dynasty

The Vaghela dynasty was a short-lived Indian dynasty that ruled Gujarat from their capital Dholka during the 13th century CE. The Vaghelas were the last Hindu monarchs to rule large parts of Gujarat, before the Muslim conquest of the region. Medieval bardic literature includes them among the Agnivashi Rajput dynasties.

Early members of the Vaghela family served the Chaulukyas in the 12th century CE, and claimed to be a branch of that dynasty. In the 13th century, during the reign of the weak Chaulukya king Bhima II, the Vaghela general Lavanaprasada and his son Viradhavala became very powerful, although they continued to nominally acknowledge the Chaulukya suzerainty. In the mid-1240s, Viradhavala's son Visaladeva usurped the throne. His successors ruled Gujarat until Karna was defeated by Alauddin Khalji of Delhi Sultanate in 1304 CE.

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