Chalkidiki, also spelt Chalkidike, Chalcidice, Khalkidhiki or Halkidiki (Greek: Χαλκιδική, romanized: Chalcidicḗ, [xalciðiˈci]), is a peninsula and regional unit of Greece, part of the Region of Central Macedonia in Northern Greece. The autonomous Mount Athos region constitutes the easternmost part of the peninsula, but not of the regional unit.
The capital of Chalkidiki is the main town of Polygyros, located in the centre of the peninsula. Chalkidiki is a popular summer tourist destination.
Municipalities of Chalkidiki
Chalkidiki within Greece
|• Vice Governor||Ioannis Giorgos|
|• Total||2,918 km2 (1,127 sq mi)|
|• Density||36/km2 (94/sq mi)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+3 (EEST)|
|Area codes||237x0, 239x0|
|ISO 3166 code||GR-64|
The Cholomontas mountains lie in the north-central part of Chalkidiki. Chalkidiki consists of a large peninsula in the northwestern Aegean Sea, resembling a hand with three "fingers" (though in Greek these peninsulas are often referred to as "legs") – Pallene (now Kassandra), Sithonia, and Agion Oros (the ancient Acte), which contains Mount Athos and its monasteries. Chalkidiki borders on the regional unit of Thessaloniki to the north.
There are several summer resorts on the beaches of all three fingers where other minor towns and villages are located, such as at Yerakini (Gerakina Beach), Neos Marmaras (Porto Carras), Ouranoupolis, Nikiti, Psakoudia, Kallithea (Pallene/Pallini, Athos), and more.
Chalcidice (/kælˈkɪdɪki/ or /kælˈsɪdɪsi/), Halkidiki, Chalkidiki, or Chalkidike, is the name given to this peninsula by a group of people native to this region, the Chalcideans (Greek: Χαλκιδείς), since ancient times. The area was a colony (apoikia) of the ancient Greek city-state of Chalkis.
The first Greek settlers in this area came from Chalcis and Eretria, cities in Euboea, around the 8th century BC who founded cities such as Mende, Toroni and Scione a second wave came from Andros in the 6th century BC who founded cities such as Akanthos. The ancient city of Stageira was the birthplace of the great philosopher Aristotle. Chalkidiki was an important theatre of war during the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta. Later, the Greek colonies of the peninsula were conquered by Philip II of Macedon and Chalkidiki became part of Macedonia (ancient kingdom). After the end of the wars between the Macedonians and the Romans, the region became part of the Roman Empire, along with the rest of Greece. At the end of the Roman Republic (in 43 BC) a Roman colony was settled in Cassandreia, which was later (in 30 BC) resettled by Augustus.
During the following centuries, Chalkidiki was part of the Byzantine Empire (East Roman Empire). On a chrysobull of Emperor Basil I, dated 885, the Holy Mountain (Mount Athos) was proclaimed a place of monks, and no laymen or farmers or cattle-breeders were allowed to be settled there. With the support of Nikephoros II Phokas, the Great Lavra monastery was founded soon afterwards. Today, over 2,000 monks from Greece and many other Eastern Orthodox countries, such as Romania, Moldova, Georgia, Bulgaria, Serbia, and Russia, live an ascetic life in Athos, isolated from the rest of the world. Athos with its monasteries has been self-governing ever since.
After a short period of domination by the Latin Kingdom of Thessalonica, the area became again Byzantine until its conquest by the Ottomans in 1430. During the Ottoman period, the peninsula was important for its gold mining. In 1821, the Greek War of Independence started and the Greeks of Chalkidiki revolted under the command of Emmanouel Pappas, a member of Filiki Eteria, and other local fighters. The revolt was progressing slowly and unsystematically. The insurrection was confined to the peninsulas of Mount Athos and Kassandra. One of the main goals was to restrain and detain the coming of the Ottoman army from Istanbul, until the revolution in the south (mainly Peloponnese) became stable. Finally, the revolt resulted in a decisive Ottoman victory at Kassandra. The survivors, among them Papas, were rescued by the Psarian fleet, which took them mainly to Skiathos, Skopelos and Skyros. The Ottomans proceeded in retaliation and many villages were burnt.
Finally, the peninsula was incorporated into the Greek Kingdom in 1912 after the Balkan Wars. In June 2003, at the holiday resort of Porto Carras located in Neos Marmaras, Sithonia, leaders of the European Union presented the first draft of the European Constitution (see History of the European Constitution for developments after this point).
Chalkidiki has been a popular summer tourist destination since the late 1950s when people from Thessaloniki started spending their summer holidays in the coastal villages. In the beginning tourists rented rooms in the houses of locals. By the 1960s, tourists from Austria and Germany started to visit Chalkidiki more frequently. Since the start of the big tourist boom in the 1970s, the whole region has been captured by tourism. In the region there is a golf course, with plans for four others in the future.
Gold was mined in the region during antiquity by Philip II of Macedon and the next rulers. Since 2013, a revival of mining for gold and other minerals was underway with a number of concessions having been granted to Eldorado Gold of Canada. However, critics claim that mining would adversely affect tourism and the environment.
As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Chalkidiki was created out of the former prefecture Chalkidiki (Greek: Νομός Χαλκιδικής). The prefecture had the same territory as the present regional unit. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below.
|New municipality||Old municipalities||Seat|
|Nea Propontida||Kallikrateia||Nea Moudania|
Note: Provinces no longer hold any legal status in Greece.
Aggeliki Kalaitzi (Greek: Αγγελική Καλαϊτζή; born c. 1984) is a Greek model and beauty pageant contestant who was crowned Miss Hellas 2008. She represented Greece at the Miss World 2008 pageant but did not place.Ammouliani
Ammouliani (Greek: Αμμουλιανή, Ammoulianí), also known as Amoliani, is an island located in the Chalkidiki regional unit, Greece, 120 km (75 mi) from Thessaloniki. Administratively it is part of the municipal unit of Stagira-Akanthos. As of 2011, the resident population of the island was 547.Aris Palaiochori F.C.
Aris Palaiochori Football Club is a Greek football club, based in Palaiochori, Chalkidiki, GreeceAristotelis (municipality)
Aristotelis (Greek: Αριστοτέλης) is a municipality in the Chalkidiki regional unit, Central Macedonia, Greece. The seat of the municipality is the town Ierissos. The municipality is named after the ancient philosopher Aristotle, whose birthplace, Stagira, lies within its bounds. The municipality also includes the area of the mining villages, known as Mademochoria.Arnaia Province
Arnaia Province was one of the provinces of the Chalkidiki Prefecture, Greece. Its territory corresponded with that of the current municipality Aristotelis. It was abolished in 2006.Assyrtiko
Assyrtiko or Asyrtiko is a white Greek wine grape indigenous to the island of Santorini. Assyrtiko is widely planted in the arid volcanic-ash-rich soil of Santorini and other Aegean islands, such as Paros. It is also found on other scattered regions of Greece such as Chalkidiki.On Santorini, many old vine plantations (over 70 years of age) of Assyrtiko exist, of which many are non-grafted. These plantations have shown resistance to Phylloxera. As the only European grape vine known to be resistant to wine blight, there is speculation that the actual source of this resistance may arise from the volcanic ash in which the vines grow, and not from the vine itself.Chalkidiki Province
Chalkidiki Province was one of the provinces of the Chalkidiki Prefecture, Greece. Its territory corresponded with that of the current municipalities Kassandra, Nea Propontida, Polygyros, and Sithonia. It was abolished in 2006.Ierissos
Ierissos (Greek: Ιερισσός) is a small town on the east coast of the Akti peninsula in Chalkidiki, Greece. It is located 160 km from Thessaloniki, and 10 km from the border of the Autonomous Monastic State of the Holy Mountain, or Mount Athos. It is the site of Ancient city and former bishopric Hierissus, and as such remains a Latin Catholic titular see. Ferries run from Ierissos to the east coast of Mount Athos.
Since the 2011 local government reform Ierissos has been the seat of the municipality of Aristotelis, and of the municipal unit of Stagira-Akanthos.Kassandra, Chalkidiki
Kassandra (Κασσάνδρα) or Kassandra Peninsula (Χερσόνησος Κασσάνδρας) is a peninsula and a municipality in Chalkidiki, Greece. The seat of the municipality is in Kassandreia.Nea Moudania
Nea Moudania (Greek: Νέα Μουδανιά, Néa Moudaniá; often referred to as Moudania (Μουδανιά, Moudaniá), which is the name of the municipal unit the town belongs to) is the seat of the municipality of Nea Propontida, Chalkidiki, Greece and its main town. The town is located 60 km south of Thessaloniki and is considered to be the financial and commercial center of the regional unit of Chalkidiki. It was built after 1922 by Greek refugees from Anatolia who wanted to give the settlement the name of their hometown (now Mudanya, Turkey), hence the addition of the word nea, which means new in Greek. Nea Moudania hosts the Department of Fisheries & Aquaculture Technology  of the Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki. The town also features a harbor which serves as Thessaloniki's adjuvant.Nea Propontida
Nea Propontida (Greek: Νέα Προποντίδα, "New Propontis") is a municipality in the Chalkidiki regional unit, Central Macedonia, Greece. The seat of the municipality is the town Nea Moudania. The municipality has an area of 372.317 km2.Pefkochori
Pefkochori (Greek: Πευκοχώρι, Pefkochóri [pefkoˈxori], meaning "pine village"; before 1965: Kapsochora (Καψοχώρα, Kapsochóra)) is a tourist town located in the southeast of the peninsula of Kassandra, Chalkidiki, Greece. Pefkochori is named after the pine trees which are abundant in the mountains of the area. The population in 2011 was 1,931 for the town and 1,962 for the community, which includes the villages Lefkes and Panorama. Its elevation is 10 m. Pefkochori is situated on the northeastern coast of the peninsula, 3 km southeast of Chaniotis, 4 km north of Agia Paraskevi and 92 km southeast of Thessaloniki.Petralona cave
The Petralona cave (Greek: Σπήλαιο Πετραλώνων) also Cave of the Red Stones (Greek: Σπήλαιο " Κόκκινες Πέτρες "), a Karst formation – is located at 300 m (984 ft) above sea-level on the western foot of Mount Katsika, about 1 km (0.62 mi) east of the eponymous village, about 35 km (22 mi) south-east of Thessaloniki city on the Chalkidiki peninsula, Greece. The site came to public attention when in 1960 a fossilized archaic human skull was found. The cave had been discovered accidentally only a year earlier (1959) after erosion had left clefts in the rock. "Bejeweled" with impressive stalactite and stalagmite formations and holding an abundance of fossils, the cave soon attracted geologists and paleontologists. After decades of excavations the cave is open to the public and scientific work is documented and presented in an adjacent archaeological museum.The cave's most prominent fossil specimen, since known among paleoanthropologists as the "Petralona Skull"
The on-site Anthropological Museum of Petralona displays a selection of the cave's findings.Polygyros
Polygyros (Greek: Πολύγυρος) is a town and municipality in Central Macedonia, Greece. It is the capital of Chalkidiki.Porto Carras
Porto Carras (Greek: Πόρτο Καρράς), known as Porto Carras Grand Resort, is one of northern Greece's largest and most famous hotels and holiday resorts. It is located on Sithonia, Chalkidiki peninsula in Macedonia, Greece. It is about 120 km away from Greece's second biggest city, Thessaloniki.
Porto Carras was created by Yiannis Carras, a Greek businessman and ship-owner. Originally it was planned with the renowned architect Walter Gropius, but the construction works started posthumously in 1973. The project brought a revolution to Halkidiki's tourism. Porto Carras Grand Resort includes four major hotels, the 5-star Meliton and Sithonia as well as the bungalow style hotels Marina Village and Villa Gallini. There are also 45,000 olive trees; basketball, football, tennis and golf sports areas as well as a vineyard covering an area of 475,000 m².
Porto Carras is home to the biggest private marina in northern Greece, having berths for 315 boats and is built by Finnish manufacturer of marinas and pontoons Marinetek. Visitors can also find one of the largest in South Eastern Europe as well as a thalassotherapy and Spa center. It also contains restaurants, interior and beach bars and an estival cinema theater. The Porto Carras is currently owned by the Technical Olympic Group.
The resort of Porto Carras is near the traditional village of Neos Marmaras; a tourist destination, busy during the summer period, with lots of restaurants, cafeterias and tourist shops.Sithonia
Sithonia (Greek: Σιθωνία), also known as Longos, is a peninsula of Chalkidiki, which itself is located on a larger peninsula within Greece. The Kassandra Peninsula lies to the west of Sithonia and the Mount Athos peninsula to the east. Sithonia is also a municipality, covering the Sithonia peninsula. The seat of the municipality is the town Nikiti.Telephone numbers in Greece
This is a list of dialing codes in Greece. The first digit represents the type of service. 1 is used for short codes, 2 for geographical numbers (3 and 4 are reserved for that purpose too), 5 is used for inter-network routing purposes (non-dialable codes) and VPNs, 6 for mobile services, 7 is reserved for universal access numbers (not active), 8 for reduced-fee services (like 800 toll-free, 801 local call, 89 dial-up and data services), 9 is used for premium rate services (901 for general purpose and 909 for adult-only services). All dialable numbers are ten digits, except for short codes (3–5 digits in the 1 range), 807-XXXX (seven digits) used for calling card access codes, and numbers in the 5 range, used for routing purposes and not dialable by end-subscribers.Thessaloniki Airport
Thessaloniki Airport (IATA: SKG, ICAO: LGTS), officially Thessaloniki Airport "Makedonia" (Greek: Κρατικός Αερολιμένας Θεσσαλονίκης "Μακεδονία", romanized: Kratikós Aeroliménas Thessaloníkis "Makedonía") and formerly Mikra Airport, is an international airport serving Thessaloniki, the second-largest city in Greece. It is located 13 km (8.1 mi) southeast of the city, in Thermi.The airport is the third-largest airport in the country after Athens International Airport and Heraklion International Airport. It opened in 1930 and was the second-busiest airport in Greece in terms of flights served and the third-busiest in terms of passengers served in 2016, with over 6 million passengers. It is the main airport of Northern Greece and apart from the city of Thessaloniki it also serves the popular tourist destination of Chalkidiki and the surrounding cities of Central Macedonia. The Athens–Thessaloniki route is the tenth busiest in the EU with 1.8 million passengers. To cope with demand, a second terminal is currently under construction as part of a billion-euro investment by Fraport Greece, the company which operates the airport.Triglia F.C.
Triglia F.C. is a Greek football club, based in Triglia, Chalkidiki, Greece.
|Regional unit of Chalkidiki|
|Regional unit of Imathia|
|Regional unit of Kilkis|
|Regional unit of Pella|
|Regional unit of Pieria|
|Regional unit of Serres|
|Regional unit of Thessaloniki|