Chakram

The chakram (Sanskrit: cakram; Punjabi: chakkar; Malay: cakeram) is a throwing weapon from the Indian subcontinent. It is circular in shape with a sharpened outer edge and a size range of approximately 12–30 centimetres (4.7–11.8 in) in diameter. It is also known as chalikar[1]‌ meaning "circle", and was sometimes referred to in English writings as a "war-quoit". The chakram is primarily a throwing weapon but can also be used hand-to-hand. A smaller variant called chakri was worn on the wrist. A related weapon is the chakri dang, a bamboo staff with a chakri attached at one end. Javanese Chakram found in different form. It has four cross iron on centre to joint a hole in centre with shape on edge. Each tip of the crossed iron had a shape like arrow tip. between the two iron cross it carved with fire ball, and the tip of fire ball had a smaller arrow tip. so it had 4 larger arrow tip and 4 smaller arrow tip on blade. Another parts from bronze; diameter about 17 cm. It had a small (1/2 inches diameter) hole in the centre to rotate the chakram before launches. Outside this small hole it carved with 8 petal lotus in close form and 4 petal lotus outside.

Chakram
Sikhs with chakrams
Sikhs with chakrams, inscribed "Nihang Abchal Nagar" (Nihang from Hazur Sahib), 1844
TypeCircle
Place of originIndian subcontinent

History

The earliest references to the chakram come from the Indian epics Mahabharata and Ramayana where the Sudarshana Chakra is the weapon of the god Vishnu. Contemporaneous Tamil poems from the 2nd century BC record it as thikiri (திகிரி). Chakra-dhāri ("chakram-wielder" or "disc-bearer") is a name for Krishna. The chakram was later used extensively by the Sikhs as recently as the days of Ranjit Singh. It came to be associated with Sikhs because of the Nihang practice of wearing chakram on their arms, around the neck and even tied in tiers on high turbans. The Portuguese chronicler Duarte Barbosa writes (c. 1516) of the chakram being used in the Delhi Sultanate.[2]

The people of the kingdom ... are very good fighting men and good knights, armed with many kinds of weapons; they are great bowmen, and very strong men; they have very good lances, swords, daggers, steel maces, and battle-axes, with which they fight; and they have some steel wheels, which they call chakarani, two fingers broad, sharp outside like knives, and without edge inside; and the surface of these is of the size of a small plate. And they carry seven or eight of these each, put on the left arm; and they take one and put it on the finger of the right hand, and make it spin round many times, and so they hurl it at their enemies, and if they hit anyone on the arm or leg or neck, it cuts through all. And with these they carry on much fighting, and are very dexterous with them.

From its native India, variations of the chakram spread to other Asian countries. In Tibet, Malaysia, and Indonesia, the chakram was not flat but torus-like. The Mongol cavalry used a similar throwing weapon with spiked edges.

Construction

Akali Turban with quoits
Mid-19th century Nihang turban from Lahore. Cotton over a wicker frame and steel overlaid with gold. "A tall conical turban provided convenient transportation for a number of sharp steel quoits - edged weapons hurled to lethal effect by the practised hand of the Akalis."

Chakram are traditionally made from steel or brass which is beaten into a circular shape against an anvil with an indentation for the curvature. Two ends are connected with a piece of brass and then heated, forming a complete circle before the brass is removed. Some chakram, even those used in combat, were ornately engraved, or inlaid with brass, silver or gold.[3]

The chakram is half an inch to one inch wide and is typically between 5-12 inches in diameter. The smaller variations are known as chakri while the larger ones are called vada chakra which were as large as a shield.

Techniques

The chakram's combat application is largely dependent on its size. Regular-sized (15+ cm dia.) steel chakram could be thrown 40–60 meters, while brass chakram, due to their better airfoil design, could be thrown in excess of 100 metres (330 ft). If properly constructed, it should be a perfect circle. Warriors trained by throwing chakram at lengths of green bamboo. In single combat, the chakram could be thrown underarm like a modern Aerobie. In battles, it was usually thrown vertically so as to avoid accidentally hitting an ally on the left or right side. A stack of chakram could be quickly thrown one at a time like shuriken. On elephant or horseback, chakram could be more easily thrown than spears or arrows. Because of its aerodynamic circular shape it is not easily deflected by wind.

The most iconic method of throwing a chakram is tajani, wherein the weapon is twirled on the index finger of an upraised hand and thrown with a timed flick of the wrist. The spin is meant to add power and range to the throw, while also avoiding the risk of cutting oneself on the sharp outer edge. An adept user can twirl the chakram while using another weapon with the other hand. The use of tajani in battle was perfected by the Nihang who employed a particular formation to protect the chakram-wielder from harm. Although variants of the chakram would make their way to neighbouring parts of the region, the tajani technique appears to have remained unique to Indian martial arts.

The smaller chakri could also be worn on the arms or wrists and used like knuckledusters. When worn on the arms the chakri could be used to break or cut the opponent's arms while grappling. The larger vada chakra were worn around the neck and thrown or dropped down on the opponent vertically. In the turban, it could be raked across an enemy's face or eyes while fighting.

Modern inventions and applications

In the 1970s, the American inventor Alan Adler began attempting to improve upon a flying toy disc by considering its design characteristics. He tried streamlining the shape of the disc to reduce drag, but this resulted in a disc that was more unstable in flight. Eventually, inspired by British accounts of deadly Indian weaponry and martial arts, he turned his attention to the ring shape of the chakram. This led to the development of the predecessor of the Aerobie, which was called the "Skyro".[4]

See also

References

  1. ^ HILL, JOHN (1963). "5-THE GANGES PLAIN". THE ROCKLIFF NEW PROJECT - ILLUSTRATED GEOGRAPHY - THE INDIAN SUB-CONTINENT. London: BARRIE & ROCKLIFF. pp. 173–174.
  2. ^ Duarte Barbosa (1970). A Description of the Coasts of East Africa and Malabar. London: Johnson Reprint Corporation.
  3. ^ "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. 2010-09-21. Archived from the original on September 21, 2010. Retrieved 2012-12-18.
  4. ^ Cassidy, John (1989). The Aerobie Book: An investigation into the Ultimate flying mini-machine. Klutz Press. ISBN 0-932592-30-9.

External links

Aashachakram

Aashachakram is a 1973 Indian Malayalam film, directed by Dr. Seetharamaswamy. The film stars Sathyan, Thikkurissi Sukumaran Nair, Sankaradi and Raghavan in the lead roles. The film had musical score by B. A. Chidambaranath.

Aerobie

An Aerobie is a flying ring used in a manner similar to a chakram or flying disc (Frisbee), for recreational catches between two or more individuals. Its ring shape of only about 3 mm (0.12 in) thickness

makes the Aerobie lighter and more stable in flight than a disc.

It can be bent to tune it for straighter flight.

Since it has very low drag and good stability, it can be thrown much farther than a flying disc. The Aerobie was used to set two former world records for thrown objects.

Designed in 1984 by Stanford engineering lecturer Alan Adler, the Aerobie has a polycarbonate core with soft rubber bumpers molded onto the inner and outer rims. The outer rim has a spoiler designed to impart stability."Aerobie" also refers to other products made by Aerobie, Inc.

Bhagya Chakramu

Bhagya Chakramu (lit. The wheel of fortune) is a 1968 Telugu language folklore film, produced and directed by K. V. Reddy under the Jayanthi Pictures banner. It stars N. T. Rama Rao, B. Saroja Devi in the lead roles and music composed by Pendyala Nageswara Rao.

Chakram (2003 film)

Chakram is a 2003 Indian Malayalam-language film written and directed by A. K. Lohithadas, starring Prithviraj Sukumaran, Meera Jasmine, Vijeesh and Chandra Laxman.

Chakram (2005 film)

Chakram is a Telugu drama film which released on 25 March 2005 and was written & directed by Krishna Vamsi. Prabhas played the lead role while Charmy Kaur and Asin played the female leads. The film was later dubbed into Hindi under the same name by Goldmines Telefilms in 2013.

Chakram (disambiguation)

Chakram is a throwing weapon from the Indian subcontinent.

Chakram may also refer to:

Chakram (2003 film)

Chakram (2005 film)

Travancore chakram, a coin

Dharma Chakram

Dharma Chakram (Wheel of Righteousness) is a 1996 Tollywood film produced by D. Ramanaidu under the Suresh Productions banner, directed by Suresh Krishna. The film stars Venkatesh in the lead role, Ramya Krishna as his love interest, and Girish Karnad as the father and antagonist. The music was composed by M. M. Srilekha. Venkatesh received the Nandi Award for Best Actor and won the Filmfare Best Actor Award (Telugu). The film was dubbed in Tamil as Nakkeeran. The film was recorded as a Hit at the box office.

Jeevitha Chakram

Jeevitha Chakram (English: Life Cycle) is a 1971 Telugu drama film, produced by P. Gangadhar Rao under the Nava Shakthi Productions banner and directed by C. S. Rao. It stars N. T. Rama Rao, Vanisri, Sarada in the lead roles and music is composed by Bollywood-famed Shankar Jaikishan.

Khanda (Sikh symbol)

The Khanda (Punjabi: ਖੰਡਾ, khaṇḍā) is the symbol of the Sikh faith, that attained its current form around the first decade of the 20th century.It is an amalgam of three symbols:

A double-edged khanda (sword) in the centre

A chakkar (chakram)

Two single-edged swords, or kirpan, crossed at the bottom, which sit on either side of the khanda and chakkar. They represent the dual characteristics of Miri-Piri, indicating the integration of both spiritual and temporal sovereignty together and not treating them as two separate and distinct entities.It depicts the Sikh doctrine Deg Tegh Fateh in is a vero emblematic form. It consists of three weapons and a circle: the khanda, two kirpans and the chakkar which is a circle. It is the military emblem of the Sikhs. It is also part of the design of the Nishan Sahib. A double edged khanda (sword) is placed at the top of a Nishan Sahib flag as an ornament or finial.

In recent years, the Khanda has been used to show solidarity within the Sikh community after high profile shootings in the United States.Another symbol that may be confused with the Khanda is the aad chand (lit. "half moon") of the

Pupward.e point U+262C (☬).

Kundara Johny

Johny Joseph with the stage name Kundara Johny is an Indian actor in Malayalam cinema. He has acted in more than 100 films. He has also done Tamil films like Vaazhkai Chakram and Nadigan. He surprised everyone with the wide range of performance as a Rowdy in Kireedam and then as a reformed person in its sequel Chenkol. He mainly acts in villain roles.

Mz 3

Mz 3 (Menzel 3) is a young bipolar planetary nebula (PN) in the constellation Norma that is composed of a bright core and four distinct high-velocity outflows that have been named lobes, columns, rays, and chakram. These nebulosities are described as: two spherical bipolar lobes, two outer large filamentary hour-glass shaped columns, two cone shaped rays, and a planar radially expanding, elliptically shaped chakram.

Mz 3 is a complex system composed of three nested pairs of bipolar lobes and an equatorial ellipse.

Its lobes all share the same axis of symmetry but each have very different morphologies and opening angles.

It is an unusual PN in that it is believed, by some researchers, to contain a symbiotic binary at its center.

One study suggests that the dense nebular gas at its center may have originated from a source different from that of its extended lobes. The working model to explain this hypothesizes that this PN is composed of a giant companion that caused a central dense gas region to form, and a white dwarf that provides ionizing photons for the PN.Mz 3 is often referred to as the Ant Nebula because it resembles the head and thorax of a garden-variety ant.

Nihang

The Nihang (Punjabi: ਨਿਹੰਗ) are an armed Sikh warrior order originating in the Indian subcontinent. They are also referred to as Akali (lit. "the immortals"). Nihang are believed to have originated either from Fateh Singh and the attire he wore or from the "Akal Sena" (lit. Army of the Immortal) started by Guru Hargobind. Early Sikh military history was dominated by the Nihang, known for their victories where they were heavily outnumbered. Traditionally known for their bravery and ruthlessness in the battlefield, the Nihang once formed the irregular guerrilla squads of the armed forces of the Sikh Empire, the Sikh Khalsa Army.

Prabhas

Prabhas (also known as "Prabhas Raju" born 23 October 1979) is an Indian film actor associated with Telugu Cinema.

Prabhas made his film debut with the 2002 drama film Eeswar. He has won the Nandi Award for Best Actor, for his role in Mirchi. He appeared in a Bollywood item song, in Prabhudeva's 2014 film Action Jackson.His works include Varsham (2004), Chatrapathi (2005), Chakram (2005), Billa (2009), Darling (2010), Mr. Perfect (2011), and Mirchi (2013).

Prabhas played the title role in S. S. Rajamouli's epic film Baahubali: The Beginning (2015), which is the fourth-highest-grossing Indian film to date. Prabhas reprised his role in its sequel, Baahubali 2: The Conclusion (2017), which became the first ever Indian film to gross over ₹1,000 crore (US$155 million) in all languages in just ten days, and it is the second highest-grossing Indian film to date.

Prabhas is the first south Indian actor to have his own wax statue in Madame Tussaud's wax museum.

Sikh Light Infantry

The Sikh Light Infantry is a light infantry regiment of the Indian Army. The regiment is the successor unit to the 23rd, 32nd and 34th Royal Sikh Pioneers of the British Indian Army. The regiment recruits from the Mazhabi Sikh and Ramdasia communities of Punjab, who are famous for their extraordinary courage and tenacity on the battlefield.

The versatility of the Sikh Light Infantry has seen the regiment conduct operations from conventional warfare on the Siachen Glacier, the highest battlefield in the world, to counter-terrorism. Units of the regiment have also been deployed as part of the United Nations Emergency Force. The regimental motto is "Deg Tegh Fateh", meaning "prosperity in peace and victory in war". The motto has great significance with the tenth and most martial Sikh guru, Guru Gobind Singh, with whom the Mazhabi community is very closely associated. The regiment's cap badge is a chakram or quoit, with a mounted kirpan. The insignia was designed to honour the Mazhabi community's Akali Nihang ancestry.

Sri Chakram

Sri Chakram is a 2016 Kannada film, directed by Govinde Gowda for SLN Productions.

Arav Surya and model Teena Ponnappa are part of the cast, along with Shobraj, Jai Jagadish, Gururaj Hoskote, Bank Janardhan,Editing and DOP done by Vikram Yoganand and Music by Prabhu SR. This movie is said to be an action entertainer with commercial elements, as shown in the trailer. In 2015 the team launched their audio event at Ballari. Sri Chakram released on 1 April 2016 following post-production.

Travancore Rupee

The Travancore rupee was a type of currency issued by the State of Travancore, now mainly a part of Kerala in South India. The rupee was largely a newer currency in comparison to the older currencies of Kerala such as the Fanams, Achus, Chuckrams as well as the Kasu (or Cash). Its creation was probably intended for the increased trading with British India and the high value transactions therein.

The Travancore Rupee was the highest denomination of currency issued for general circulation. The highest face value issued was the '1/2 rupee'. While there had been plans to introduce 'One Travancore Rupee', this was never done. The half-rupee and the quarter-rupee remained the highest values issued for circulation. The Travancore Rupee was issued until 1946 CE (1121 M.E. or Malayalam Era), remaining in circulation till 1949. It was replaced by the Indian rupee following Travancore's accession into India.

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Xena

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Xena is the protagonist of the story, and the series depicts her on a quest to redeem herself for her dark past by using her formidable fighting skills to help people. Xena was raised as the daughter of Cyrene and Atrius in Amphipolis, though the episode "The Furies" raised the possibility that Ares might be Xena's biological father, but it is never pursued further. She had two brothers, the younger of whom is dead; she visits his grave to speak with him in "Sins of the Past". In Hercules: The Legendary Journeys, during her two first episodes, Xena was a villain, but in the third episode she appears in, she joins Hercules to defeat Darphus, who had taken her army. Aware that the character of Xena had been very successful with the public in the three Hercules: The Legendary Journeys episodes, the producers of the series decided to create a spin-off series based on her adventures. Later in Xena: Warrior Princess she is joined by Gabrielle, a small town bard. Together they go up against ruthless warlords and gods in the ancient mythological world.

The character Gabrielle, introduced in the first episode, becomes Xena's greatest ally, best friend, and soulmate. Gabrielle came from a small village in Greece called Potidaea. She craved to escape from the boring and dull village. She latched onto Xena in episode 1 as a way of leaving the village, to travel on adventures. Her initial naïveté for the first 3 seasons and her talkative nature helped to balance Xena's pessimistic mentality. While Xena's character to an extent alters subtly through the series, Gabrielle's character goes through substantial development and change especially in seasons 3 and 4. Through their friendship/relationship Xena recognizes the value of the "greater good" and the sacrifices that must be made to accomplish it (a central theme in the series in later seasons).

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