Chaise longue

A chaise longue (/ʃeɪz ˈlɒŋ, tʃeɪz-, -ˈlɒ̃ɡ/;[1] French: [ʃɛz lɔ̃ɡ], "long chair") is an upholstered sofa in the shape of a chair that is long enough to support the legs.

In modern French the term chaise longue can refer to any long reclining chair such as a deckchair. A literal translation in English is "long chair". In the United States the term lounge chair is also used to refer to any long reclining chair. In the United States, chaise longue is nearly always written "chaise lounge" and pronounced /ˌtʃeɪsˈlaʊndʒ/, the first constituent a spelling pronunciation, the second a 19th-century folk-anagrammatic adaptation of French longue. [2]

The chaise longue has traditionally been associated with psychoanalysis and many psychoanalysts continue to keep chaises longues in their offices for use in psychotherapy.

Chaise longue sofa 2
A chaise longue sofa
Schäslong
An 18th-century rococo chaise longue
Modern chaise longue
A late 19th-century chaise longue

Origins

Aeneis 3 147.jpeg
Chaise longue (Klinai) in a 4th-century Roman manuscript

It is thought that the first blend of a chair and daybed originated in Egypt. The earliest known models were made from palm sticks lashed together with pieces of cord or rawhide. Later, Egyptian bed-makers introduced mortise-and-tenon construction and wood bed frames veneered with ivory or ebony, in common use with many examples being found in the 1st dynasty (3100–2890 BC) tombs.[3]

Ancient Greek art depicts gods and goddesses lounging in this type of chair. The modern Greek word symposion comes from sympinein, which means "to drink together". In ancient Greece this word conveyed the idea of a party with music and conversation. The principal item of furniture for a symposium is the kline, a form of daybed. The Greeks changed from the normal practice of sitting at a table to the practice of reclining on couches as early as the 8th century BC.[3]

The Romans also used a daybed for reclining in the daytime and to sleep on at night. Developed from the Greek prototype, the Roman daybed was designed with legs carved in wood or cast bronze. The Romans also adapted a chaise longue style chair for the accubatio (the act of reclining during a meal). At Roman banquets, the usual number of persons occupying each bed was three, with three daybeds forming three sides of a small square, so that the triclinium (the dining-room of a Roman residence) allowed for a party of nine.[3] The Romans did not practice upholstery, so the couches were made comfortable with pillows, loose covers and animal skins.[4]

For the Victorians, the chaise longue was thought of as being particularly dear to expecting wives. As birth control information (and birth control devices) improved and became more widespread, the chaise longue became less fashionable.[5] Marghanita Laski was the author of The Victorian Chaise-longue, a historical novel, published in 1953,

Vaux-le-Vicomte 23
Duchesse brisée
  • Duchesse brisée (Broken duchess in French): this word is used when the chaise longue is divided in two parts: the chair and a long footstool, or two chairs with a stool in between them.[6] The origin of the name is unknown.
Madame Récamier by Jacques-Louis David
Récamier
  • Récamier: a récamier has two raised ends, and nothing on the long sides. It is sometimes associated with French Empire (neo-classical) style. It’s named after French society hostess Madame Récamier (1777–1849), who posed elegantly on a couch of this kind for a portrait, painted in 1800. The shape of the récamier is similar to a traditional lit bateau (boat bed) but made for the drawing room, not the bedroom.[6]
Edouard Manet 032
Méridienne
  • Méridienne: a méridienne has a high head-rest, and a lower foot-rest, joined by a sloping piece. Whether or not they have anything at the foot end, méridiennes are asymmetrical day-beds. They were popular in the grand houses of France in the early 19th century. Its name is from its typical use: rest in the middle of the day, when the sun is near the meridian.[6][7]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Chaise longue | Define Chaise longue at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. 2009-08-15. Retrieved 2017-04-04.
  2. ^ "Chaise longue | Define Chaise longue at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. 2009-08-15. Retrieved 2017-04-04.
  3. ^ a b c "The History of the Chaise Longue". Clothier Jones. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
  4. ^ "past & present: the chaise longue + chaise roundup – Design*Sponge". Designsponge.com. Retrieved 2017-04-04.
  5. ^ Pearsall, R. (1969). The Worm in the Bud: The World of Victorian Sexuality. London: Sutton Publishing, ISBN 978-0750933353
  6. ^ a b c [1]
  7. ^ "Meridienne | Define Meridienne at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 2017-04-04.

External links

Anna Maria Niemeyer

Anna Maria Niemeyer (1929–2012) was a Brazilian architect, furniture designer and gallery owner. The only daughter of Oscar Niemeyer, she worked with her father to design the civic buildings for Brasília, focusing primarily on interior spaces and decoration. When her father decided to make furniture to harmonize his structures with the design elements, she turned her interest to furniture designing. Her two most noted designs were the initial prototype called the "Alta" and the "Rio". In her latter career, she ran an art gallery in Rio, which at one time was the only gallery in the city, and assisted in the creation of the Niterói Contemporary Art Museum.

Canapé (furniture)

A canapé is a piece of furniture similar to a couch, and is meant to describe an elegant sofa made out of elaborately carved wood with wooden legs, and upholstered seats, back, and armrests that seats three, that emerged from France in the 18th century. A style created during the Louis XV and Louis XVI periods, similar yet different from designs used by Thomas Chippendale, it later became popular in the United States during the 19th century.

Its shape is distinct from other sofas of the period, including the divan and chaise longue, but does include several forms. Frequently matching chairs were made to go with it. Precious hardwoods such as walnut, cherry, and mahogany were often used in its construction.

Currently the term is used in world furniture design and retail as a variation on "sofa", except when antiques or reproductions of 18th century designs are concerned.

Cassina S.p.A.

Cassina S.p. A. is an Italian manufacturing company specialised in the creation of high-end designer furniture.

Chaise Longue (Le Corbusier)

Chaise Longue - LC4 is a chaise longue designed by the Swiss architect Le Corbusier and French architect Charlotte Perriand.

Charlotte Perriand

Charlotte Perriand (24 October 1903 – 27 October 1999) was a French architect and designer. Her work aimed to create functional living spaces in the belief that better design helps in creating a better society. In her article "L'Art de Vivre" from 1981 she states "The extension of the art of dwelling is the art of living—living in harmony with man's deepest drives and with his adopted or fabricated environment."

Charlotte liked to take her time in a space before starting the design process. In Perriand's Autobiography, "Charlotte Perriand- A Life of Creation,"she states "I like being alone when I visit a country or historic site. I like being bathed in it's atmosphere, feeling in direct contact with the place without the intrusion of a third party. Her approach to design includes taking in the site and appreciating it for what it is. Perriand connected with any site she was working with or just visiting she enjoyed the living things and would reminisce on a site that was presumed dead.

Daybed

Daybeds are used as beds as well as for lounging, reclining and seating in common rooms. Their frames can be made out of wood, metal or a combination of wood and metal.They are a cross between chaise longue, couch and a bed.

Daybeds typically feature a back and sides and come in twin size (39 in × 75 in = 99 cm × 191 cm). Often daybeds will also feature a trundle to expand sleeping capacity.

Djinn chair

The Djinn chair is an important design of the "Modernist" style, created by French designer Olivier Mourgue. Originally called the "Low fireside chair", it is also commonly referred to as the "2001" chair, because of its prominent appearance in the film 2001: A Space Odyssey.

Fainting room

A fainting room was a private room, of which its main features/furniture were fainting couches, used during the Victorian era, to make women more comfortable during the home treatment of female hysteria. Fainting rooms were used for more privacy during home treatment pelvic massages. Such couches or sofas typically had an arm on one side only to permit easy access to a reclining position, similar to its cousin the Chaise longue, although the sofa style most typically featured a back at one end (usually the side with the arm) so that the resulting position was not purely supine.

There are also accounts that mention fainting rooms in eighteenth-century America. This room, which was also referred to as bedroom (bedrooms were called chambers), is located in the ground floor and contained a day bed that allow occupants to rest for brief periods during the day.

Le Corbusier's Furniture

Le Corbusier's Furniture is a classic furniture line created by Le Corbusier. The line was introduced in 1928 at the Salon d‘Autumne in Paris by Le Corbusier and his team of designers.

Marghanita Laski

Marghanita Laski (24 October 1915 – 6 February 1988) was an English journalist, radio panellist and novelist; she also wrote literary biography, plays and short stories.

Modern furniture

Modern furniture refers to furniture produced from the late 19th century through the present that is influenced by modernism. Post-World War II ideals of cutting excess, commodification, and practicality of materials in design heavily influenced the aesthetic of the furniture. It was a tremendous departure from all furniture design that had gone before it. There was an opposition to the decorative arts, which included Art Nouveau, Neoclassical, and Victorian styles. Dark or gilded carved wood and richly patterned fabrics gave way to the glittering simplicity and geometry of polished metal. The forms of furniture evolved from visually heavy to visually light. This shift from decorative to minimalist principles of design can be attributed to the introduction of new technology, changes in philosophy, and the influences of the principles of architecture. As Philip Johnson, the founder of the Department of Architecture and Design at the Museum of Modern Art articulates:

"Today industrial design is functionally motivated and follows the same principles as modern architecture: machine-like simplicity, smoothness of surface, avoidance of ornament ... It is perhaps the most fundamental contrast between the two periods of design that in 1900 the Decorative Arts possessed ..."

With the machine aesthetic, modern furniture easily came to promote factory modules, which emphasized the time-managing, efficient ideals of the period. Modernist design was able to strip down decorative elements and focus on the design of the object in order to save time, money, material, and labour. The goal of modern design was to capture timeless beauty in spare precision.

Puce Moment

Puce Moment is a short 6-minute film by Kenneth Anger. Filmed in 1949, Puce Moment resulted from the unfinished short film Puce Women. The film opens with a camera watching 1920s-style flapper gowns being taken off a dress rack. The dresses are removed and danced off the rack to music. A long-lashed woman, Yvonne Marquis, dresses in the purple puce gown and walks to her vanity to apply perfume. She lies on a chaise longue which then begins to move around the room and eventually out to a patio. Borzois appear and she prepares to take them for a walk.

Seat

A seat is a place to sit. The term may encompass additional features, such as back, armrest, head restraint but also headquarters in a wider sense.

Sour Cream (band)

Sour Cream was a Dutch recorder trio.

The group was formed by Frans Brüggen in 1972 and consisted of Brüggen, Kees Boeke and Walter van Hauwe with the intent to perform avant-garde work for the recorder. They were involved in the Dutch counterculture movement, which resulted in some unusual performances: The concluding piece of one of their Boston concerts featured a Keystone Kops-style chase around the stage. A year or two later, with the ensemble playing Telemann trios again in Boston, Brüggen wandered on to the stage, donned a pair of dark sunglasses, stretched himself out on a chaise longue and proceeded to read the newspaper.

The Ruling Passion

The Ruling Passion, sometimes called The Ornithologist, is a painting by John Everett Millais which was shown at the Royal Academy Exhibition in 1885.

The painting shows an old man lying on a chaise-longue. He is showing a stuffed bird, a king bird of paradise, to a group of children and a woman. The older girl on the left of the picture is holding a resplendent quetzal, and other specimens are scattered about. The attitude of the children ranges from the enthralled interest of the youngest two to the comparative indifference, almost boredom, of the oldest girl.The work was inspired by a visit that Millais and his son John Guille Millais paid to the ornithologist John Gould shortly before his death in 1881. On the way home, Millais said to his son "That's a fine subject; a very fine subject. I shall paint it when I have time." It was in fact several years after Gould's death before he had time, and the picture as painted is not a representation of Gould or of the actual scene during Millais' visit – the central figure was modelled by the engraver Thomas Oldham Barlow, a friend of the artist, two of the others are professional models, and the two smallest children are Millais' grandchildren (one of whom is William Milbourne James).

The painting was well received – the influential critic Ruskin said that it was one of "only three things worth looking at" in the R.A. exhibition.

The Victorian Chaise-Longue

The Victorian Chaise-Longue (1953) is a novella by the English novelist Marghanita Laski. Published in 1953, the book describes the experience of an invalided young woman who wakes up in the body of her alter-ego eighty years previously. Described by Anthony Boucher as 'relentlessly terrifying', and as 'disturbing and compulsive' by Penelope Lively, the novella plays on the fear of the unexpected and unknown.It was republished in 1999 by Persephone Books.

Triclinium

A triclinium (plural: triclinia) is a formal dining room in a Roman building. The word is adopted from the Greek τρικλίνιον, triklinion, from τρι-, tri-, "three", and κλίνη, klinē, a sort of "couch" or rather chaise longue. Each couch was sized to accommodate a diner who reclined on their left side on cushions while some household slaves served multiple courses rushed out of the culina, or kitchen, and others entertained guests with music, song, or dance.The triclinium was characterized by three klinai on three sides of a low square table, whose surfaces sloped away from the table at about 10 degrees. Diners would recline on these surfaces in a semi-recumbent position. The fourth side of the table was left free, presumably to allow service to the table. Usually the open side faced the entrance of the room. In Roman-era dwellings, particularly wealthy ones, triclinia were common and the hosts and guest would recline on pillows while feasting.

The Museum of Archeology in Arezzo, Italy, or the House of Caro in Pompeii offer what are thought to be accurate reconstructions of triclinia. The custom of using klinai while taking a meal rather than sitting became popular among the Greeks in the early seventh century BC. From here it spread to their colonies in southern Italy (Magna Graecia) and was eventually adopted by the Etruscans.

In contrast to the Greek tradition of allowing only male guests into the formal dining room, called andrōn, while everyday meals were taken with the rest of the family in the oikos, the Etruscans seem to not have restricted the use of the klinē to the male gender. The Romans may have seen the first dining klinai as used by the Etruscans but may have refined the practice when they later came to closer contact with the Greek culture.

Dining was the defining ritual in Roman domestic life, lasting from late afternoon through late at night. Typically, 9–20 guests were invited, arranged in a prescribed seating order to emphasize divisions in status and relative closeness to the dominus. As static, privileged space, dining rooms received extremely elaborate decoration, with complex perspective scenes and central paintings (or, here, mosaics). Dionysus, Venus, and still lifes of food were popular, for obvious reasons. Middle class and elite Roman houses usually had at least two triclinia; it is not unusual to find four or more. Here, the triclinium maius (big dining room) would be used for larger dinner parties, which would typically include many clients of the owner.

Smaller triclinia would be used for smaller dinner parties, with a more exclusive set of guests. Hence their decoration was often at least as elaborate as that found in larger triclinia. As in the larger triclinia, wine, food, and love were always popular themes. However, because of their association with patronage and because dining entertainment often included recitation of high-brow literature like epics, dining rooms could also feature more "serious" themes. As in many houses in Pompeii, here the smaller dining room (triclinium minus) forms a suite with the adjoining cubiculum and bath.

You Have Been Loved

"You Have Been Loved" (George Michael and David Austin) / "The Strangest Thing '97" (George Michael) is a double A-side single by British singer George Michael. Both songs are from his 1996 album Older. The single reached number 2 on the UK charts, only behind Elton John's "Candle in the Wind 1997" charity single. The song was Michael's second double A-side single, after "Older / I Can't Make You Love Me", released the same year.

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