|#||Portrait||Chairperson||Took Office||Left Office||Country||Region|
|1||Haile Selassie I||25 May 1963||17 July 1964||Ethiopia||East Africa|
|2||Gamal Abdel Nasser||17 July 1964||21 October 1965||Egypt||North Africa|
|3||Kwame Nkrumah||21 October 1965||24 February 1966||Ghana||West Africa|
|4||Joseph Arthur Ankrah||24 February 1966||5 November 1966|
|(1)||Haile Selassie I||5 November 1966||11 September 1967||Ethiopia||East Africa|
|5||Mobutu Sese Seko||11 September 1967||13 September 1968||Republic of the Congo-Léopoldville||Central Africa|
|6||Houari Boumedienne||13 September 1968||6 September 1969||Algeria||North Africa|
|7||Ahmadou Ahidjo||6 September 1969||1 September 1970||Cameroon||Central Africa|
|8||Kenneth Kaunda||1 September 1970||21 June 1971||Zambia||Southern Africa|
|9||Moktar Ould Daddah||21 June 1971||12 June 1972||Mauritania||North Africa|
|10||Hassan II||12 June 1972||27 May 1973||Morocco||North Africa|
|11||Yakubu Gowon||27 May 1973||12 June 1974||Nigeria||West Africa|
|12||Muhammad Siad Barre||12 June 1974||28 July 1975||Somalia||East Africa|
|13||Idi Amin||28 July 1975||2 July 1976||Uganda||East Africa|
|14||Seewoosagur Ramgoolam||2 July 1976||2 July 1977||Mauritius||Southern Africa|
|15||Omar Bongo||2 July 1977||18 July 1978||Gabon||Central Africa|
|16||Gaafar Nimeiry||18 July 1978||12 July 1979||Sudan||East Africa|
|17||William R. Tolbert, Jr.||12 July 1979||12 April 1980||Liberia||West Africa|
|Léopold Sédar Senghor
|28 April 1980||1 July 1980||Senegal|
|18||Siaka Stevens||1 July 1980||24 June 1981||Sierra Leone||West Africa|
|19||Daniel arap Moi||24 June 1981||6 June 1983||Kenya||East Africa|
|20||Mengistu Haile Mariam||6 June 1983||12 November 1984||Ethiopia||East Africa|
|21||Julius Nyerere||12 November 1984||18 July 1985||Tanzania||East Africa|
|22||Abdou Diouf||18 July 1985||28 July 1986||Senegal||West Africa|
|23||Denis Sassou-Nguesso||28 July 1986||27 July 1987||Congo, People's Republic of the||Central Africa|
|(8)||Kenneth Kaunda||27 July 1987||25 May 1988||Zambia||Southern Africa|
|24||Moussa Traoré||25 May 1988||24 July 1989||Mali||West Africa|
|25||Hosni Mubarak||24 July 1989||9 July 1990||Egypt||North Africa|
|26||Yoweri Museveni||9 July 1990||3 June 1991||Uganda||East Africa|
|27||Ibrahim Babangida||3 June 1991||29 June 1992||Nigeria||West Africa|
|(23)||Abdou Diouf||29 June 1992||28 June 1993||Senegal||West Africa|
|(26)||Hosni Mubarak||28 June 1993||13 June 1994||Egypt||North Africa|
|28||Zine El Abidine Ben Ali||13 June 1994||26 June 1995||Tunisia||North Africa|
|29||Meles Zenawi||26 June 1995||8 July 1996||Ethiopia||East Africa|
|30||Paul Biya||8 July 1996||2 June 1997||Cameroon||Central Africa|
|31||Robert Mugabe||2 June 1997||8 June 1998||Zimbabwe||Southern Africa|
|32||Blaise Compaoré||8 June 1998||12 July 1999||Burkina Faso||West Africa|
|33||Abdelaziz Bouteflika||12 July 1999||10 July 2000||Algeria||North Africa|
|34||Gnassingbé Eyadéma||10 July 2000||9 July 2001||Togo||West Africa|
|35||Frederick Chiluba||9 July 2001||2 January 2002||Zambia||Southern Africa|
|36||Levy Mwanawasa||2 January 2002||9 July 2002|
Abdelaziz Bouteflika (pronunciation ; Arabic: عبد العزيز بوتفليقة, translit. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Būtaflīqa [ʕabd lʕziːz buːtfliːqa]; born 2 March 1937 in Oujda, Morocco) is an Algerian politician who served as President of Algeria from 1999 until 2019.
As President, he presided over the end of the bloody Algerian Civil War in 2002 when he took over the project of Liamine Zéroual (Previous president), and he ended emergency rule in February 2011 amidst regional unrest. Prior to becoming president, he served as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1963 until 1979 and as President of the United Nations General Assembly for a 1-year term from 1974.
Bouteflika resigned on 2 April 2019 after months of mass protests. With nearly 20 years in power, he was the longest-serving head of state of Algeria.Denis Sassou Nguesso
Denis Sassou Nguesso (born 23 November 1943) is a Congolese politician who has been the President of the Republic of the Congo since 1997; he was previously President from 1979 to 1992. During his first period as President, he headed the single-party régime of the Congolese Party of Labour (PCT) for 12 years. Under pressure from international sources, he introduced multiparty politics in 1990 and was then stripped of executive powers by the 1991 National Conference, remaining in office as a ceremonial head of state. He stood as a candidate in the 1992 presidential election but was defeated, placing third.
Sassou Nguesso was an opposition leader for five years before returning to power during the Second Civil War (1997–1999), in which his rebel forces ousted President Pascal Lissouba. Following a transitional period, he won the 2002 presidential election, which involved low opposition participation; he was re-elected in the 2009 presidential election. The introduction of a new constitution, passed by referendum in 2015, enabled Sassou Nguesso to stand for another term. He was re-elected in the 2016 presidential election with a majority in the first round.
Sassou Nguesso is backed by a variety of political parties, most importantly the PCT. He is the President of the PCT Central Committee.Houari Boumédiène
Houari Boumédiène, also transcribed Boumediene, Boumedienne etc. (Arabic: هواري بومدين ; ALA-LC: Hawwārī Būmadyan; 23 August 1932 – 27 December 1978), served as Chairman of the Revolutionary Council of Algeria from 19 June 1965 until 12 December 1976 and thereafter as the second President of Algeria until his death on 27 December 1978.Joseph Arthur Ankrah
Lieutenant General Joseph Arthur Ankrah (18 August 1915 – 25 November 1992) served as the first commander of the Army of Ghana, the Ghanaian Chief of the Defence Staff and from 1966 and 1969 as the 2nd President of Ghana. Ankrah also served as Chairperson of the Organisation of African Unity from 24 February to 5 November 1966.Kwame Nkrumah
Kwame Nkrumah PC (21 September 1909 – 27 April 1972) was a Ghanaian politician and revolutionary. He was the first Prime Minister and President of Ghana, having led the Gold Coast to independence from Britain in 1957. An influential advocate of pan-Africanism, Nkrumah was a founding member of the Organisation of African Unity and winner of the Lenin Peace Prize in 1962.After twelve years abroad pursuing higher education, developing his political philosophy and organising with other diasporic pan-Africanists, Nkrumah returned to the Gold Coast to begin his political career as an advocate of national independence. He formed the Convention People's Party, which achieved rapid success through its unprecedented appeal to the common voter. He became Prime Minister in 1952 and retained this position when Ghana declared independence from Britain in 1957. In 1960, Ghanaians approved a new constitution and elected Nkrumah President.
His administration was both socialist and nationalist. Thus, it funded national industrial and energy projects, developed a strong national education system and promoted a national and pan-African culture. Under Nkrumah, Ghana played a leading role in African international relations during the decolonisation period.
Nkrumah was deposed in 1966 by the National Liberation Council which under the supervision of international financial institutions privatised many of the country's state corporations. Nkrumah lived the rest of his life in Guinea, of which he was named honorary co-president.List of alumni of the Accra Academy
An alumnus of the Accra Academy is referred to as a Bleoobi. Article 4 of the constitution of the Accra Academy Old Boys' Association sets the parameters for joining the association as follows:
1. Membership of the association shall in general be open to all past students of the Accra Academy since its foundation on 20th July, 1931.2. A past student of the Accra Academy qualifies for admission into the membership of the association if he has attended the school for at least one year.Mrs. Beatrice Abla Lokko, the first headmistress of the academy, was not enrolled at the school but was nevertheless a paid up member of the association. Charles McArther Emmanuel aka Chuckie Taylor, son to former Liberian President Charles Taylor, was enrolled at the academy but later dismissed by administrators on grounds of possessing drugs and weapons.Omar Bongo
El Hadj Omar Bongo Ondimba (born Albert-Bernard Bongo; 30 December 1935 – 8 June 2009) was a Gabonese dictator under French control who was President of Gabon for 42 years, from 1967 until his death in 2009. Omar Bongo was promoted to key positions as a young official under Gabon's first President Léon M'ba in the 1960s, before being elected Vice-President in his own right in 1966. In 1967, he succeeded M'ba to become the second Gabon President, upon the latter's death.
Bongo headed the single-party regime of the Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG) until 1990, when, faced with public pressure, he was forced to introduce multi-party politics into Gabon. His political survival despite intense opposition to his rule in the early 1990s seemed to stem once again from consolidating power by bringing most of the major opposition leaders at the time to his side. The 1993 presidential election was extremely controversial but ended with his re-election then and the subsequent elections of 1998 and 2005. His respective parliamentary majorities increased and the opposition becoming more subdued with each succeeding election. After Cuban President Fidel Castro stepped down in February 2008, Bongo became the world's longest-ruling non-royal leader. He was one of the longest serving non-royal rulers since 1900.
Bongo was criticized for in effect having worked for himself, his family and local elites and not for Gabon and its people. For instance, French green politician Eva Joly claimed that during Bongo's long reign, despite an oil-led GDP per capita growth to one of the highest levels in Africa, Gabon built only 5 km of freeway a year and still had one of the world's highest infant mortality rates by the time of his death in 2009.After Bongo's death in June 2009, his son Ali Bongo—who had long been assigned key ministerial responsibilities by his father—was elected to succeed him in August 2009.Robert Mugabe
Robert Gabriel Mugabe (; Shona: [muɡaɓe]; born 21 February 1924) is a Zimbabwean revolutionary and politician who served as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 1987 and then as President from 1987 to 2017. He chaired the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) group from 1975 to 1980 and led its successor political party, the ZANU – Patriotic Front (ZANU–PF), from 1980 to 2017. Ideologically an African nationalist, during the 1970s and 1980s he identified as a Marxist–Leninist, although after the 1990s self-identified only as a socialist. His policies have been described as Mugabeism.
Mugabe was born to a poor Shona family in Kutama, Southern Rhodesia. Following an education at Kutama College and the University of Fort Hare, he worked as a school teacher in Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia, and Ghana. Angered that Southern Rhodesia was a colony of the British Empire governed by its white minority, Mugabe embraced Marxism and joined African nationalist protests calling for an independent black-led state. After making anti-government comments, he was convicted of sedition and imprisoned between 1964 and 1974. On release, he fled to Mozambique, established his leadership of ZANU, and oversaw ZANU's role in the Rhodesian Bush War, fighting Ian Smith's predominantly white government. He reluctantly took part in the peace negotiations brokered by the United Kingdom that resulted in the Lancaster House Agreement. The agreement ended the war and resulted in the 1980 general election, at which Mugabe led ZANU-PF to victory. As Prime Minister of the newly renamed Zimbabwe, Mugabe's administration expanded healthcare and education and—despite his professed Marxist desire for a socialist society—adhered largely to mainstream, conservative economic policies.
Mugabe's calls for racial reconciliation failed to stem growing white emigration, while relations with Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) also declined. In the Gukurahundi of 1982–1985, Mugabe's Fifth Brigade crushed ZAPU-linked opposition in Matabeleland in a campaign that killed at least 10,000 people, mostly Ndebele civilians. Internationally, he sent troops into the Second Congo War and chaired the Non-Aligned Movement (1986–89), the Organisation of African Unity (1997–98), and the African Union (2015–16). Pursuing decolonisation, Mugabe emphasised the redistribution of land controlled by white farmers to landless blacks, initially on a "willing seller–willing buyer" basis. Frustrated at the slow rate of redistribution, from 2000 he encouraged black Zimbabweans to violently seize white-owned farms. Food production was severely impacted, leading to famine, drastic economic decline, and international sanctions. Opposition to Mugabe grew, although he was re-elected in 2002, 2008, and 2013 through campaigns dominated by violence, electoral fraud, and nationalistic appeals to his rural Shona voter base. In 2017, members of his own party ousted him in a coup, replacing him with former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa.
Having dominated Zimbabwe's politics for nearly four decades, Mugabe is a controversial figure. He has been praised as a revolutionary hero of the African liberation struggle who helped to free Zimbabwe from British colonialism, imperialism, and white minority rule. Conversely, in governance he has been accused of being a dictator responsible for economic mismanagement, widespread corruption, anti-white racism, human rights abuses, and crimes against humanity.Seewoosagur Ramgoolam
Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam (Hindi: सर शिवसागर रामगुलाम; September 18, 1900 – December 15, 1985; often referred to as Chacha Ramgoolam) was a Mauritian politician, statesman and philanthropist. He was a leader in the Mauritian independence movement, and served as the first Chief Minister and Prime Minister of Mauritius, as well as its Governor-General. He was the Chairperson of the Organisation of African Unity from 1976 to 1977. As the leader of the Labour Party, Ramgoolam fought for the rights of labourers and led Mauritius to independence in 1968.
After his tertiary studies in London, Ramgoolam, who was initially a fervent defendant of the British administration and its empire, started calling for mass movement in order to obtain equal treatment, consideration, education and chances for all Mauritians through his authorship in a newspaper. His views changed due to then-fate of the Indo-Mauritian community which was oppressed, uneducated and ill-treated by the elite. He later joined the Labour Party to align himself with other members who were asking for equal rights and adequate working conditions for workers (mainly laborers). He later took leadership of the fight fought by other party members including Dr. Maurice Cure, Emmanuel Anquetil, Dr. R. Seeneevasen and Dr. Hassenjee.
He later cooperated with the Independent Forward Block (IFB) led by the Bissoundoyal brothers (Pundit Basdeo and Sookdeo; who were demanding for a complete decolonization and the removal of British administration from all Mauritian territories) and the Committee D'action Musulmane (CAM) led by Abdool Razack Mohamed (who demanded constitutional guarantees for the Muslim and other minority communities in an effort to prevent a circumstantial Hindu hegemony, which never happened) to form the independence party and movement which eventually led to Independence after the Mauritian general election, 1967.
Few years later, he formed a national government with then opposition party Parti Mauricien Social Démocrate (PMSD; the nationalist, conservative and only party to lead a campaign against Independence) led by Gaetan Duval in order to prevent the Mauritian economy and social environment to collapse.
Ramgoolam has been praised and highly revered for his work for independence, free education & free heatlhcare. He is criticized for accepting the unlawful excision of the Chagos Archipelago from Mauritian territories by the British government. However official colonial documents which has been declassified in the UK revealed that Ramgoolam acted under duress. The British eventually evicted all the natives of the archipelago to mainland Mauritius and Seychelles to allow American to build a military base on the biggest island of the Archipelago, Diego Garcia. He is also criticized for the poor performance of his last government (1976–1982) which lacked extreme economic growth and led to the country being on the verge of bankruptcy.
Due to the extreme poor performance of his government, his party lost the 1982 general elections with a heavy defeat when none of his candidates were elected to parliament. He himself lost his seat leading to the downfall of the Labour Party. He then supported the newly formed party named MSM and its leader Anerood Jugnauth in the 1983 elections. The Labour Party became a minority party in a coalition government and Ramgoolam was appointed as Governor-General, position he held until his death.
As Mauritius' first Prime Minister, he played a crucial role in shaping modern Mauritius' government, political culture and foreign policy. He worked for the emancipation of the Mauritian population, established free universal education and free health care services, and introduced old age pensions. He is known as the "Father of the Nation". His son, Navin Ramgoolam, has had three terms as Prime Minister of Mauritius.Yoweri Museveni
Yoweri Kaguta Museveni (pronunciation ; born 15 September 1944) is a Ugandan politician who has been President of Uganda since 1986. Museveni was involved in rebellions that toppled notorious Ugandan leaders Idi Amin (1971–79) and Milton Obote (1980–85) before capturing power in the 80s. In the mid to late 1990s, Museveni was celebrated by the West as part of a new generation of African leaders. During Museveni's presidency, Uganda has experienced relative peace and significant success in battling HIV/AIDS. At the same time, Uganda remains a country suffering from high levels of corruption, unemployment and poverty. Museveni's presidency has been marred by involvement in the civil war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and other Great Lakes region conflicts; the rebellion in Northern Uganda by the Lord's Resistance Army which caused a drastic humanitarian emergency; and the suppression of political opposition and constitutional amendments scrapping presidential term limits (2005) and the presidential age limit (2017), thus enabling the extension of his rule. These have been a concern to domestic and foreign commentators.
African Union (AU)
|Organisation of African Unity|