The chairperson (also chair, chairman, or chairwoman) is the presiding officer of an organized group such as a board, committee, or deliberative assembly. The person holding the office is typically elected or appointed by members of the group, presides over meetings of the group, and conducts the group's business in an orderly fashion.[2]

In some organizations, the chairperson is also known as president (or other title).[3][4] In others, where a board appoints a president (or other title), the two terms are used for distinctly different positions.

Leena Al-Hadid, chairperson, IAEA, 2018
Ambassador Leena Al-Hadid of Jordan chairs a meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency, 2018[1]


Terms for the office and its holder include chair, chairperson, chairman, chairwoman, convenor, facilitator, moderator, president, and presiding officer.[5][6][7][8][9] The chairperson of a parliamentary chamber is often called the speaker.[10][11] Chair has been used to refer to a seat or office of authority since the middle of the 17th century; its earliest citation in the Oxford English Dictionary dates to 1658–1659, four years after the first citation for chairman.[12][13][14] Chairman has been criticized as sexist.[15]

In World Schools Style debating, as of 2009, chair or chairperson refers to the person who controls the debate; it recommends using Madame Chair or Mr. Chairman to address the chair.[16] The FranklinCovey Style Guide for Business and Technical Communication and the American Psychological Association style guide advocate using chair or chairperson.[17][18] The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style (2000) suggested that the gender-neutral forms were gaining ground; it advocated chair for both men and women.[19] The Telegraph style guide bans the use of chair and chairperson; the newspaper's position, as of 2018, is that "chairman is correct English".[20] The National Association of Parliamentarians adopted a resolution in 1975 discouraging the use of chairperson and rescinded it in 2017.[21][22]


Agustin Vásquez Gómez, chairperson of OPCW's Fourth Review Conference, 2018
Agustín Vásquez Gómez of the Republic of El Salvador, chairperson of OPCW's Fourth Review Conference, November 2018

The word chair can refer to the place from which the holder of the office presides, whether on a chair, at a lectern, or elsewhere.[2] During meetings, the person presiding is said to be "in the chair" and is also referred to as "the chair".[2] Parliamentary procedure requires that members address the "chair" as "Mr. (or Madam) Chairman (or Chair or Chairperson)" rather than using a name – one of many customs intended to maintain the presiding officer's impartiality and to ensure an objective and impersonal approach.[7][23]

In the British music hall tradition, the Chairman was the master of ceremonies who announced the performances and was responsible for controlling any rowdy elements in the audience. The role was popularised on British TV in the 1960s and 1970s by Leonard Sachs, the Chairman on the variety show The Good Old Days.[24]

"Chairman" as a quasi-title gained particular resonance when socialist states from 1917 onward shunned more traditional leadership labels and stressed the collective control of soviets (councils or committees) by beginning to refer to executive figureheads as "Chairman of the X Committee". Vladimir Lenin, for example, officially functioned as the head of Soviet Russia not as tsar or as president but in roles such as "Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian SFSR".[25][26] Note in particular the popular standard method for referring to Mao Zedong: "Chairman Mao" (officially: Chairman of the Communist Party of China and Chairman of the Central Military Commission).

Roles and responsibilities

Duties at meetings

Sam Ervin (right) chairing the Senate Watergate hearings, 1973

In addition to the administrative or executive duties in organizations, the chairperson presides over meetings.[27] Such duties at meetings include:

  • Calling the meeting to order
  • Determining if a quorum is present
  • Announcing the items on the order of business or agenda as they come up
  • Recognition of members to have the floor
  • Enforcing the rules of the group
  • Putting questions (motions) to a vote
  • Adjourning the meeting

While presiding, the chairperson should remain impartial and not interrupt a speaker if the speaker has the floor and is following the rules of the group.[28] In committees or small boards, the chairperson votes along with the other members; in assemblies or larger boards, the chairperson should vote only when it can affect the result.[29] At a meeting, the chairperson only has one vote (i.e. the chairperson cannot vote twice and cannot override the decision of the group unless the organization has specifically given the chairperson such authority).[30]

Powers and authority

The powers of the chairperson vary widely across organizations. In some organizations they have the authority to hire staff and make financial decisions. In others they only makes recommendations to a board of directors, and or may have no executive powers, in which case they are mainly a spokesperson for the organization. The power given depends upon the type of organization, its structure, and the rules it has created for itself.

Disciplinary procedures

If the chairperson exceeds their authority, engages in misconduct, or fails to perform their duties, they may face disciplinary procedures. Such procedures may include censure, suspension, or removal from office. The rules of the organization would provide details on who can perform these disciplinary procedures.[31] Usually, whoever appointed or elected the chairperson has the power to discipline them.

Public corporations

There are three common types of chairperson in public corporations.

Chairperson and CEO

  • The CEO may also hold the title of chairperson, in which case the board frequently names an independent member of the board as a lead director. This position is equivalent to the position of président-directeur général in France.

Executive chairperson

  • Executive chairperson is an office separate from that of CEO, where the titleholder wields influence over company operations, such as Larry Ellison of Oracle, Douglas Flint of HSBC and Steve Case of the former AOL Time Warner. In particular, the group chair of HSBC is considered the top position of that institution, outranking the chief executive, and is responsible for leading the board and representing the company in meetings with government figures. Before the creation of the group management board in 2006, HSBC's chair essentially held the duties of a chief executive at an equivalent institution, while HSBC's chief executive served as the deputy. After the 2006 reorganization, the management cadre ran the business, while the chairperson oversaw the controls of the business through compliance and audit and the direction of the business.[32][33][34]

Non-executive chairperson

  • Non-executive chairperson is also a separate post from the CEO, unlike an executive chairperson, a non-executive chair does not interfere in day-to-day company matters. Across the world, many companies have separated the roles of chairperson and CEO, saying that this move improves corporate governance. The non-executive chairperson's duties are typically limited to matters directly related to the board, such as:[35]
  • Chairing the meetings of the board.
  • Organizing and coordinating the board's activities, such as by setting its annual agenda.
  • Reviewing and evaluating the performance of the CEO and the other board members.


Christina Magnuson group 2016
Christina Magnuson as Chairman[36] presides over the 2016 annual meeting of the Friends of the Ulriksdal Palace Theater

Many US companies have an executive chairperson; this method of organization is sometimes called the American model. Having a non-executive chairperson is common in the UK and Canada, and is sometimes called the British model. Expert opinion is rather evenly divided over which is the preferable model.[37] There is a growing push by public market investors for companies with an executive chairperson to have a lead independent director to provide some element of an independent perspective.[38][39]

The role of the chairperson in a private equity-backed board differs from the role in non-profit or publicly listed organizations in several ways, including the pay, role and what makes an effective private-equity chairperson.[40] Companies with both an executive chairperson and a CEO include Ford,[41] HSBC,[42] Alphabet Inc.,[43] HP,[44] and Apple.[45]

Vice-chairperson and deputy chairperson

A vice- or deputy chairperson, subordinate to the chairperson, is sometimes chosen to assist[46] and to serve as chairperson in the latter's absence, or when a motion involving the chairperson is being discussed.[47] In the absence of the chairperson and vice-chairperson, groups sometimes elect a chairperson pro tempore to fill the role for a single meeting.[48] In some organizations that have both titles, deputy chairperson ranks higher than vice-chairperson, as there are often multiple vice-chairpersons but only a single deputy chairperson.[49] This type of deputy chairperson title on its own usually has only an advisory role and not an operational one (such as Ted Turner at Time Warner).[50]

An unrelated definition of vice- and deputy chairpersons describes an executive who is higher ranking or has more seniority than an executive vice-president (EVP). Sometimes, EVPs report to a vice-chairperson, who in turn reports directly to the chief executive officer (CEO) (so vice-chairpersons in effect constitute an additional layer of management), while other vice-chairpersons have more responsibilities but are otherwise on an equal tier with EVPs. Executives with the title vice-chairperson and deputy chairperson are usually not members of the board of directors.

See also


  1. ^ Dixit, Aabha (24 September 2018). "Ambassador Leena Al-Hadid Takes Over as New Chairperson of IAEA Board of Governors". International Atomic Energy Agency.
  2. ^ a b c Robert, Henry M.; et al. (2011). Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (11th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Da Capo Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-306-82020-5.
  3. ^ Robert 2011, p. 448
  4. ^ Sturgis, Alice (2001). The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure (Fourth ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-07-136513-0.
  5. ^ Hellinger, Marlis, ed. (2001). Gender across languages: The Linguistic Representation of Women and Men (IMPACT: Studies in Language and Society). Amsterdam: Benjamins. p. 125. ISBN 90-272-1841-2.
  6. ^ "Chairperson". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2014-01-10.
  7. ^ a b Sturgis 2001, p. 11
  8. ^ "moderator". Chambers 21st Century Dictionary via Search Chambers. Edinburgh: Chambers Harrap.
  9. ^ Although convener means someone who summons (convenes) a meeting, the convener may take the chair. The Oxford English Dictionary (2nd edition, 1989) offers this citation: 1833 Act 3–4 Will. IV, c. 46 §43 "The convener, who shall preside at such committee, shall be entitled to a casting vote." This meaning is most commonly found in assemblies with Scottish heritage.
  10. ^ "The many roles of the Speaker". New Zealand Parliament. Office of the Speaker, Parliament of New Zealand. 2006-02-01.
  11. ^ "About Parliament: The Lord Speaker". Parliament of the United Kingdom. Archived from the original on 2008-06-09. Retrieved 2008-10-23. ... responsibilities of the Lord Speaker include chairing the Lords debating chamber,...
  12. ^ Merriam-Webster's dictionary of English usage. Springfield, Mass.: Merriam-Webster. 1993. p. 235. ISBN 0-87779-132-5.
  13. ^ "Chairman". Unabridged (v 1.1). 2006. Retrieved 2008-10-22.
  14. ^ See also the American Heritage Dictionary, the Oxford English Dictionary, the online edition of the current Merriam-Webster Dictionary, Word Origins by Anatoly Liberman (page 88), Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of English Usage (page 235)
  15. ^
    • Margrit Eichler (28 October 2013). Nonsexist Research Methods: A Practical Guide. Routledge. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-134-97797-0. Typically, these analyses pointed out the use of so-called generic male terms as sexist... As a consequence of these critiques, guides were published that replaced so-called generic male terms with truly generic terms: policeman became police officer; fireman, fire fighter; postman, mail carrier; workman, worker; chairman, chairperson; mankind, humanity; and so on.
    • Barrie Thorne; Nancy Henley (1975). Language and Sex: Difference and Dominance. Newbury House Publishers. p. 28. Is it possible to change sexist language? ... Much of the debate has centered around two types of change: the coining of new terms (such as Ms. to replace Miss/Mrs., and chairperson to replace chairman and chairwoman), and various proposal to replace he as the generic third person singular pronoun.
    • Dale Spender (1990). Man Made Language. Pandora. pp. 29–30. ISBN 978-0-04-440766-9. Another factor which we must bear in mind is that women need more words - and more positive words - not less. The removal of sexist words would not leave a large repertoire of words for women to draw upon! ... Some attempts have been made to modify sexist words and there arc signs that this on its own is insufficient to reduce sexism in language. Words such as police officer and chairperson have been an attempt to break away from the negative value which female words acquire by the creation of sex-neutral terms
    • "The language of gender". Oxford Living Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2019-05-20. People also object to the use of the ending -man in words referring to professions and roles in society, for example postman, spokesman, or chairman. Since women are generally as likely as men to be involved in an occupation or activity nowadays, this type of word is increasingly being replaced by gender-neutral terms, e.g. postal worker, spokesperson, or chair/chairperson.
    • "Chairman (usage note)". Oxford Learner's Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2019-05-20. When you are writing or speaking English it is important to use language that includes both men and women equally. Some people may be very offended if you do not ... Neutral words like assistant, worker, person or officer are now often used instead of -man or -woman in the names of jobs ... Neutral words are very common in newspapers, on television and radio and in official writing, in both British English and North American English.
    • "Chairman (usage note)". Cambridge Dictionary. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Although chairman can refer to a person of either sex, chairperson or chair is often preferred to avoid giving the idea the person is necessarily male.
    • "Chairperson (usage note)". Retrieved 2019-05-20. Chairperson has, since the 1960s, come to be used widely as an alternative to either chairman or chairwoman. This change has sprung largely from a desire to avoid chairman, which is felt by many to be inappropriate and even sexually discriminatory when applied to a woman ... Chairperson is standard in all varieties of speech and writing.
    • "Chairman (usage note)". Macmillan Dictionary. Springer. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Many people prefer to say chair or chairperson, because the word chairman suggests that the person in this position is always a man.
    • "Chairman (usage note)". The American Heritage Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved 2019-05-20. These compounds sometimes generate controversy because they are considered sexist by some people who believe that -man necessarily excludes females. Others believe that -man, like the word man itself, is an accepted and efficient convention that is not meant to be gender-specific.
    • "Chairman (usage note)". Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Chairman can seem inappropriate when applied to a woman, while chairwoman can be offensive. Chair and chairperson can be applied to either a man or a woman; chair is generally preferred to chairperson
    • Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2010). Sex and society Volume 1: Abstinence – Gender Identity. New York: Marshall Cavendish Reference. p. 300. ISBN 0-7614-7906-6.
    • Zinsser, William (2007). On writing well : the classic guide to writing nonfiction (30. anniversary ed., 7. ed., rev. and updated, [Nachdr.] ed.). New York: HarperCollins. p. 81. ISBN 0-06-089154-8.
  16. ^ Quinn, Simon (2009). Debating in the World Schools style: a guide. New York: International Debate Education Association. p. 5. ISBN 1-932716-55-6.
  17. ^ England, Stephen R. Covey, Larry H. Freeman, Breck. FranklinCovey style guide for business and technical communication (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: FT Press. p. 27. ISBN 0-13-309039-6.
  18. ^ Gurung, Beth M. Schwartz, R. Eric Landrum, Regan A. R. An easyguide to APA style. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: SAGE Publications. p. 54. ISBN 1-4129-9124-2.
  19. ^ Garner, Bryan A. (2000). The Oxford dictionary of American usage and style (2 ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 61. ISBN 0-19-513508-3.
  20. ^ "Banned words". The Telegraph. 23 January 2018.
  21. ^ "Chair, Chairperson, Chairman ... Which Should You Use?". National Association of Parliamentarians. 6 October 2017. Retrieved 2019-02-20.
  22. ^ Miller, Casey; Swift, Kate (2000). The Handbook of Nonsexist Writing: For writers, editors and speakers (2nd ed.). Lincoln, NE: p. 32. ISBN 0-595-15921-4.
  23. ^ Robert 2011, p. 23
  24. ^ Baker, Richard Anthony (2014). British Music Hall: An Illustrated History. Barnsley: Pen & Sword. p. 207. ISBN 978-1-78383-118-0.
  25. ^ Cawthorne, Nigel (2012-07-24). Stalin: The Murderous Career of the Red Tsar. Arcturus Publishing (published 2012). ISBN 978-1-84858-951-3. Retrieved 2015-02-25. [...] Lenin, Stalin, Trotsky, Molotov and Abel Yenukidze [...] began discussing the structure of the new government. Lenin did not want to have 'ministers' as such, so Trotsky suggested that they should be called 'Peoples' Commissars'. The government itself would be the 'Council of People's Commissars' and its chairman would be prime minister, in effect.
  26. ^ Brackman, Roman (2004). The Secret File of Joseph Stalin: A Hidden Life. Routledge. p. 116. ISBN 978-1-135-75840-0. On 26 October 1917 Lenin announced the creation of the 'Council of People's Commissars', having rejected the traditional title of 'minister' as being too 'bourgeois', and named himself the 'Chairman of the Council'.
  27. ^ Robert 2011, p. 449
  28. ^ Robert 2011, p. 44: "The presiding officer must never interrupt a speaker simply because he knows more about the matter than the speaker does."
  29. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions about RONR (Question 1)". The Official Robert's Rules of Order Web Site. The Robert's Rules Association. Archived from the original on 2004-11-12. Retrieved 2015-12-17.
  30. ^ Robert 2011, p. 406
  31. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions about RONR (Question 20)". The Official Robert's Rules of Order Web Site. The Robert's Rules Association. Archived from the original on 2004-11-12. Retrieved 2015-12-24.
  32. ^ HSBC investors against Michael Geoghegan becoming chairman. Telegraph. Retrieved on 2013-08-22.
  33. ^ HSBC chief Michael Geoghegan 'to quit' after failing to get top job. (2010-09-24). Retrieved on 2013-08-22.
  34. ^ HSBC ex-chief Michael Geoghegan relaxes as another marathon looms. Telegraph. Retrieved on 2013-08-22.
  35. ^ Kefgen, Keith (2004-05-11). "The Non-Executive Chairman Comes of Age". HVS web site. HVS. Archived from the original on 27 October 2007. Retrieved 2011-04-03.
  36. ^ "We at Confidencen: Board and General Management". Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  37. ^ Behan, Beverly (10 January 2008). "Splitting the Chairman and CEO roles". BusinessWeek. Archived from the original on 2011-04-16. Retrieved 2011-04-03.
  39. ^ "Corporate Governance Principles for US Listed Companies". Archived from the original on 2 February 2017.
  40. ^ "What is the role of a chair of the board in a private equity company?\". 2018-05-04. Retrieved 2019-02-25.
  41. ^ "About Us". Ford Motor Company. Ford Motor Company. 2019. Archived from the original on 2011-05-11. Retrieved 2011-04-05.
  42. ^ "Leadership". HSBC. 2019. Retrieved 2011-04-05.
  43. ^ "Board - Investor Relations". Google. Retrieved 2011-04-05.
  44. ^ "HP Investor Relations – Board of directors". Hewlett-Packard. Retrieved 2011-09-24.
  45. ^ "Apple Leadership". Apple Inc. Retrieved 2014-11-06.
  46. ^ "vice-chairman". Sandbox Networks, Inc.
  47. ^ Robert 2011, p. 452
  48. ^ Robert 2011, p. 453
  49. ^ "Leadership". Retrieved 8 October 2017.
  50. ^ "Ted Turner quits as AOLTW Vice Chairman – TV News". Digital Spy. 2003-01-29. Retrieved 2011-12-31.

Further reading

  • Trohan, Colette Collier (2014). A Great Meeting Needs a Great Chair. A Great Meeting. ASIN B00NP7BR8O.
51st New Zealand Parliament

The 51st New Zealand Parliament was elected at the 2014 general election. This Parliament consists of 121 members (120 seats plus one overhang seat) and was in place from September 2014 until August 2017, followed by the 2017 New Zealand general election. Following the final vote count John Key was able to continue to lead the Fifth National Government.

The Parliament was elected using a mixed-member proportional representation (MMP) voting system. Members of Parliament (MPs) represent 71 geographical electorates: 16 in the South Island, 48 in the North Island and 7 Māori electorates. The remaining members were elected from party lists using the Sainte-Laguë method to realise proportionality. The number of geographical electorates was increased from 70 at the previous election, to account for New Zealand's increasing population.

Board of directors

A board of directors is a group of people who jointly supervise the activities of an organization, which can be either a for-profit business, nonprofit organization, or a government agency. Such a board's powers, duties, and responsibilities are determined by government regulations (including the jurisdiction's corporations law) and the organization's own constitution and bylaws. These authorities may specify the number of members of the board, how they are to be chosen, and how often they are to meet.

In an organization with voting members, the board is accountable to, and might be subordinate to, the organization's full membership, which usually vote for the members of the board. In a stock corporation, non-executive directors are voted for by the shareholders, with the board having ultimate responsibility for the management of the corporation. The board of directors appoints the chief executive officer of the corporation and sets out the overall strategic direction. In corporations with dispersed ownership, the identification and nomination of directors (that shareholders vote for or against) are often done by the board itself, leading to a high degree of self-perpetuation. In a non-stock corporation with no general voting membership, the board is the supreme governing body of the institution, and its members are sometimes chosen by the board itself.

Chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference

The Chairperson of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (simplified Chinese: 中国人民政治协商会议全国委员会主席; traditional Chinese: 中國人民政治協商會議全國委員會主席; pinyin: Zhōngguó Rénmín Zhèngzhì Xiéshāng Huìyì Quanguo Weiyuanhui Zhǔxí) is the leader of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (National CPPCC), which is a political advisory body in the People's Republic of China. The current Chairman is Wang Yang, who is the 4th-ranked member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee.

Chairman of the Conservative Party

The Chairman of the Conservative Party in the United Kingdom is responsible for party administration, overseeing the Conservative Campaign Headquarters, formerly Conservative Central Office. When a woman holds the office, it is titled Chairwoman of the Conservative Party.

When the Conservatives are in government, the officeholder is usually a member of the Cabinet holding a sinecure position such as Minister without Portfolio. Deputy or Vice Chairmen of the Conservative Party may also be appointed, with responsibility for specific aspects of the party (most notably local government, women or youth). The Conservative Party is currently chaired by Brandon Lewis, who was appointed on 8 January 2018; James Cleverly served as his deputy until 17 April 2019, when he was replaced by Helen Whately.

The role was created in 1911 in response to the Conservative party's defeat in the second 1910 general election. The position is not subject to election, as it is given by the party leader.

Chairman of the United States Senate Republican Conference

The Republican conference of the United States Senate chooses a conference chairperson. The office was created in the mid-19th century with the founding of the Republican party. The office of "party floor leader" was not created until 1925, and for twenty years, the Senate's Republican conference chairman was also the floor leader.

In recent years, the conference chair has come to be regarded as the third-ranking Republican in the Senate, behind the floor leader and whip. According to Congressional Quarterly, "The conference chairman manages the private meetings to elect floor leaders, handles distribution of committee assignments and helps set legislative priorities. The modern version drives the conference’s message, with broadcast studios for television and radio."

Chairperson of the African Union

The Chairman of the African Union is the ceremonial head of the African Union elected by the Assembly of Heads of State and Government for a one-year term. It rotates among the continent's five regions.

A candidate must be supported by at least two-thirds of the member states or by consensus. The chairperson is expected to complete the term without interruption; hence eligible countries with impending elections may be ineligible.

Chairperson of the African Union Commission

The Chairperson of the African Union Commission is the head of the African Union Commission. On January 30, 2017, it was announced that Chad's Moussa Faki would become the further Chairperson.

Chairperson of the National Assembly of Bulgaria

The Chairperson of the National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria (Председател на Народното събрание на Република България, transliterated as Predsedatel na Narodnoto sabranie na Republika Balgariya) presides over the Bulgarian Parliament. The chairperson's term coincides with the term of the assembly, and he or she is chosen by a vote during the opening session.

Chairperson of the Organisation of African Unity

The Chairperson of the Organisation of African Unity served as the head of the Organisation of African Unity, a rotating position.

Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha

The Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha presides over the proceedings of the Rajya Sabha in the absence of the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. The Deputy Chairman is elected internally by the Rajya Sabha.

East African Community

The East African Community (EAC) is an intergovernmental organization composed of six countries in the African Great Lakes region in eastern Africa: Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda. Paul Kagame, the president of Rwanda, is the EAC's chairman. The organisation was founded in 1967, collapsed in 1977, and was revived on 7 July 2000. In 2008, after negotiations with the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), the EAC agreed to an expanded free trade area including the member states of all three organizations. The EAC is an integral part of the African Economic Community.

The EAC is a potential precursor to the establishment of the East African Federation, a proposed federation of its members into a single sovereign state. In 2010, the EAC launched its own common market for goods, labour, and capital within the region, with the goal of creating a common currency and eventually a full political federation. In 2013, a protocol was signed outlining their plans for launching a monetary union within 10 years. In September 2018 a committee was formed to begin the process of drafting a regional constitution.

National Black Caucus of State Legislators

The National Black Caucus of State Legislators (also known as the NBCSL) is an American political organization composed of African Americans elected to state legislatures in the United States of America and its territories.

National Council of Provinces

The National Council of Provinces (NCOP) is the upper house of the Parliament of South Africa under the (post-apartheid) constitution which came into full effect in 1997. It replaced the former Senate, but is very similar to that body, and to many other upper houses of legislatures throughout the world, in that its purpose is to represent the governments of the provinces, rather than directly representing the people.

Northern Ireland Assembly

The Northern Ireland Assembly (Irish: Tionól Thuaisceart Éireann, Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlan Assemblie) is the devolved legislature of Northern Ireland. It has power to legislate in a wide range of areas that are not explicitly reserved to the Parliament of the United Kingdom, and to appoint the Northern Ireland Executive. It sits at Parliament Buildings at Stormont in Belfast. The Assembly is currently in a period of suspension, after it collapsed in January 2017 due to policy disagreements within the leadership and the resignation of Martin McGuinness following the RHI scandal. Subsequent discussions to restore the Assembly have been unsuccessful.

The Assembly is a unicameral, democratically elected body comprising 90 members known as Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs). Members are elected under the single transferable vote form of proportional representation (STV-PR) In turn, the Assembly selects most of the ministers of the Northern Ireland Executive using the principle of power-sharing under the D'Hondt method to ensure that Northern Ireland's largest voting blocs, unionists and Irish nationalists, both participate in governing the region. The Assembly's standing orders allow for certain contentious motions to require a cross-community vote; in addition to requiring the support of an overall majority of members, such votes must also be supported by a majority within both blocs in order to pass.

The Assembly is one of two "mutually inter-dependent" institutions created under the 1998 Good Friday Agreement, the other being the North/South Ministerial Council with the Republic of Ireland. The Agreement aimed to end Northern Ireland's violent 30-year Troubles. The first Assembly election was held in June 1998.

Disagreements between the main unionist and nationalist parties have stalled the formation of an Executive and the commencement of the Assembly on several occasions, forcing the Northern Ireland Office of the UK Government to suspend the institutions. The longest suspension lasted for the entirety of the Assembly's second term, from 14 October 2002 until 7 May 2007, during which time the Assembly's powers reverted to the Northern Ireland Office. Negotiations during this period of direct rule resulted in the St Andrews Agreement in November 2006, and following a third election in March 2007, full power was restored to the devolved institutions on 8 May 2007. This third Assembly was the first to complete a full term, and saw powers in relation to policing and justice transferred to its second Executive on 12 April 2010.

A breakdown of trust brought down the Assembly and Executive on 26 January 2017, and a fresh election was held on 2 March. Negotiations mediated by the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland missed the three-week deadline provided in law for the formation of an Executive. The passing of an extended legal deadline of 29 June left decisions on funding allocations in the hands of the Northern Ireland Civil Service, and a budget for the ongoing 2017–18 financial year began its passage through the UK Parliament on 13 November.

Parliament of Albania

The Parliament of Albania (Albanian: Kuvendi i Shqipërisë) or Kuvendi is the unicameral representative body of the citizens of the Republic of Albania; it is Albania's legislature. The Parliament is composed of not less than 140 members elected to a four-year term on the basis of direct, universal, periodic and equal suffrage by secret ballot. The Parliament is presided over by a Speaker of the Parliament, who is assisted by at least one deputy speaker. The electoral system is based on party-list proportional representation. There are 12 multi-seat constituencies, corresponding to the country's administrative divisions.

The Parliament's powers are defined by the Constitution of Albania. It is responsible to amend the borders of Albania or the Constitution, passes all laws, approves the cabinet, supervises the work of the government, declares war, decides on cessation of hostilities, adopt the state's budgets and approve the state's accounts. Another duties includes, calling referenda, performs elections and appointments conforming to the constitution and applicable legislation, supervises operations of the government and other civil services responsible to the parliament, grants amnesty for criminal offences and performs other duties defined by the constitution. The Parliament also elects the President of the Republic. When the Parliament is elected, the first session shall be held no later than 20 days after the completion of elections with the President as the speaker. However, all laws passed by the Parliament are published by the Albanian Official Journal (Albanian: Fletorja Zyrtare), which is the official journal of the Government of Albania.The oldest Parliament with extant records was held in Lezhë on 2 March 1444. The League of Lezhë (Kuvëndi i Lezhës) forged in Lezhë under Gjergj Kastrioti Skënderbeu as the leader against the Ottoman Empire.

Parliamentary leader

A parliamentary leader is a political title or a descriptive term used in various countries to the person leading a caucus (or parliamentary group) in a legislative body, whether it be a national or sub-national legislature. A party leader may be the same person as the parliamentary leader, or the roles may be separated.

State Bank of India

The State Bank of India (SBI) is an Indian multinational, public sector banking and financial services statutory body. It is a government corporation statutory body headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra. SBI is ranked as 216th in the Fortune Global 500 list of the world's biggest corporations of 2018. It is the largest bank in India with a 23% market share in assets, besides a share of one-fourth of the total loan and deposits market.The bank descends from the Bank of Calcutta, founded in 1806, via the Imperial Bank of India, making it the oldest commercial bank in the Indian subcontinent. The Bank of Madras merged into the other two "presidency banks" in British India, the Bank of Calcutta and the Bank of Bombay, to form the Imperial Bank of India, which in turn became the State Bank of India in 1955. The Government of India took control of the Imperial Bank of India in 1955, with Reserve Bank of India (India's central bank) taking a 60% stake, renaming it the State Bank of India.

Vice Chairperson of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference

The Vice Chairperson of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) (simplified Chinese: 中国人民政治协商会议全国委员会副主席; traditional Chinese: 中國人民政治協商會議全國委員會副主席; pinyin: Zhōngguó Rénmín Zhèngzhì Xiéshāng Huìyì Quánguó Wěiyuánhuì Fù Zhǔxí) is a political office in the People's Republic of China. The official responsibility of the Vice Chairpersons is to assist the Chairperson of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference with the leadership of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference Standing Committee. News reports have also suggested that the position of CPPCC Vice Chairperson, as a state-level post with a retirement age of 70, has been used as a device to extend the services of valued officials beyond the typical retirement age for their position. The appointment of People's Bank of China Governor Zhou Xiaochuan as a Vice Chairperson in 2013 was said to be for this purpose, and the Chinese leadership may be considering a similar appointment for Minister of Finance Lou Jiwei.

Vice Chairperson of the National People's Congress

The Vice Chairperson of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (simplified Chinese: 全国人民代表大会常务委员会副委员长; traditional Chinese: 全國人民代表大會常務委員會副委員長; pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì Chángwù Wěiyuánhuì Fùwěiyuánzhăng) is a political office in the People's Republic of China. According to the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, Vice-Chairpersons are responsible for assisting the Chairman in performing his duties as chair of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress. Since 1982, Vice-Chairpersons are appointed for a term of five years, and cannot serve for more than two terms, similar with the “Deputy Speaker of the Chinese Parliament”.

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Mid-level executives
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Major concepts
Subsidiary motions
Privileged motions
Incidental motions
Motions that bring a question
again before the assembly
Legislative procedures
Disciplinary procedures
Parliamentary authorities


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