The chain whip is a weapon used in some Chinese martial arts, particularly traditional Chinese disciplines, in addition to modern and traditional wushu. It consists of several metal rods, which are joined end-to-end by rings to form a flexible chain. Generally, the whip has a handle at one end and a metal dart, used for slashing or piercing an opponent, at the other. A cloth flag is often attached at or near the dart end of the whip and a second flag may cover the whip's handle. The flag or flags adds visual appeal and produces a rushing sound as the whip swings through the air. They also help stabilize the whip, enhancing the user's control. This reduces the risk of the user inadvertently striking themselves. The rushing noise also helps the user with identifying the location of the other end, since the weapon moves too fast to be normally noticed by human eyes.
There is no standard on the length of the chain whip. The typical length is also different between north and south China. The chain is shorter in the south which make it more suitable for close quarter fighting. In the north the length could be from the ground to the chin or the ground to the tip of the nose. Weight is heavier for practice and lighter for performance.
The cloth flag could be either rectangular or triangular. Triangular flags look better and move faster but rectangular flags sound better and allow better control.
The number of segments vary. Traditional whips have either seven or nine segments. Modern whips typically have between seven and thirteen sections. The numbers include the tip but does not include the handle.
Most whips today are made from stainless steel. Good whips have better color and shine to the metal, segments are stylized, holes are precisely centered, chain rotates smoothly in the swivel built into the handle, no sharp corners or edges and welds are strong. Handle should be shaped to allow good grip. Leather is best for endurance, to absorb sweat and prevent slippage. Typical method is to use a steel bolt to thread through small pieces of leather then use a lathe to round and shape the handle. The tip should be larger than the segments and weight proportional to the handle. Shape and weight distribution should allow the chain to be easily tossed and retrieved into one hand.
According to the book Soft Weapons: Nine-Section Whip and Rope Dart, "The nine-section whip, regarded as a 'powerful hidden weapon,' was first used on the battlefield during the Jìn Dynasty (265-420)."
According to the book The Chain Whip, this may refer to the hard whip (more akin to a truncheon than a multi-section whip) due to the ambiguity in the Chinese. "Both the hard whip and the soft whip can both be referred to simply as whip (鞭) in Chinese.". Different books make wildly differing claims about the history of the Chain Whip.
The chain whip is heavy but flexible, allowing it to be literally used as a whip to hit, hook and bind an opponent, restrict his/her movement, and to deflect blows from other weapons. The dart is used for slashing or piercing an opponent. In some cases, the dart might be coated with a poison. Because the whip is flexible, it can be used to strike around obstacles, including an opponent's block. The whip chain can be folded and hidden from view, making it an easy weapon to carry and conceal.
Chain whip forms are often extremely elaborate. In some, the chain whip is thrown in the air and caught, flicked around the neck, or flung around underneath a recumbent performer. One classic technique, used to accelerate a spinning chain whip, involves rapidly wrapping and unwrapping the length of the chain around various parts of the body, including the legs, neck and elbows. Various twisting or flicking motions cause the chain whip to gain momentum as it unwraps. In practice, wrapping then unwrapping is used to change the direction of the spin in response to the opponent's movement.
For performance the chain whip can be used to perform meteor moves such as one hand or two hand meteor rotors and weaves. At the end of the performance the chain whip segments can be pulled and collected into the hand holding the handle.
As with all weapons that are either chained or tied together, the whip chain is hard to control without practice. In fact, it is harder to control than a traditional rawhide or bull whip because the linked sections provide looser joints while a bull whip is a continuous piece. The chain whip is sometimes considered one of the hardest weapons in martial arts to learn because lapse in the control of body movements in coordination with the position and momentum of the weapon will likely result in the weapon striking the wielder.
Various bicycle tools have evolved over the years into specialized tools for working on a bicycle. Modern bicycle shops will stock a large number of tools for working on different bicycle parts. This work can be performed by a trained bicycle mechanic, or for simple tasks, by the bicycle owner.Chain weapon
A chain weapon is a weapon made of one or more heavy objects attached to a chain, sometimes with a handle. The flail was one of the more common types of chain weapons associated with medieval Europe, although some flails used hinges instead of chains.Dugu Qiubai
Dugu Qiubai is a fictional character who is mentioned by name in three wuxia novels by Jin Yong (Louis Cha). He does not appear in any of the novels because he lived in an era long before the events of the novels took place. Nicknamed "Sword Devil" (劍魔) to reflect his prowess in and devotion to the practice of swordplay, he attains the philosophical level of "swordsmanship without a sword", which means that he uses swordplay techniques in combat without the physical existence of a sword.Flying claws
The Flying Claw is used to ensnare a foe and throw them off balance. It originated in China during the Sui Dynasty and is one of the flexible, or soft, weapons in the Chinese martial arts. It is in the same family as the meteor hammer, rope dart, and chain whip.
The flying claw is constructed in a manner with a spring mechanism within the metal claw that allows the claw to open and close as the tether is pulled or released.
The flying claw varies in reach and chain/rope length. it is different for all users of the weapon. example lengths of the chain or rope can be 9 meters or 15 metersLegendary Weapons of China
Legendary Weapons of China (aka Legendary Weapons of Kung Fu) is a 1982 martial arts fantasy film directed by Lau Kar-Leung. It takes place during the late Qing Dynasty when Empress Dowager Cixi dispatches her agents to various factions of the Boxer Rebellion in order to find supernatural martial artists that are invulnerable to western bullets. When one of the leaders of these groups disbands his forces, assassins from the remaining factions are sent out to kill him for his apparent treason. As the title of the film suggests, a great variety of fights take place involving the "legendary weapons."
Although Lau Kar-Leung is known for showing "real Kung-Fu" in his films, he does take some artistic license by incorporating elements of Taoist Maoshan folk magic with hand-to-hand combat. This is similar to what he did in another of film of his, Heroes of the East (or "Challenge of the Ninja").Liang Zhenpu
Liang Zhenpu (梁振蒲) (1863–1932) was a Chinese martial artist.
He was born in Beihaojia Village in Ji County in Hebei province on May 20, 1863 during the Qing dynasty under the reign of the Tongzhi Emperor, and died on August 13 at the age of 69 due to illness. He trained in Tan Tui and Biaozhang during his early childhood. At the age of 13, he moved to Beijing to apprentice at his father's second hand clothing store. At this time he had the nickname "Second Hand Clothing Liang". It was during this period in 1877 that he became a direct disciple of Baguazhang creator Dong Haichuan. He studied with Dong for about five years and was well liked by all of Dong's students. He had the fortune of not only learning from Dong Haichuan but also from Dong's other students including Cheng Tinghua, Yin Fu, Shi Jidong, and Liu Fengchun. After the death of both parents at age 20, he opened a martial arts kwoon to make a living.In Ji County he defeated the four "Batian" gangs. In 1899, he saw that there were many injustices being committed by local criminals in the Beijing suburb of Majiapu (马家堡）and single-handedly fought over 200 gangsters armed only with a seven-section chain whip, killing 20 and wounding over 50. He was subsequently imprisoned and sentenced to death. When the Eight-Nation Alliance army invaded Beijing to crush the Boxer Rebellion his prison was heavily damaged and he managed to escape.
Being the youngest of the disciples of Dong, he trained not only with Dong but also with both Yin Fu and Cheng Tinghua, and as a result his style of Baguazhang has some characteristics of both styles. Examples include the Ox Tongue Palm from Yin Style and wrestling movements from Cheng Style. His Baguazhang forms are taught in a circle with the exception of Liu Dekuan's 64 Linear Palms, unlike versions from earlier students (for example, Yin Style Baguazhang) which have many linear segments.Liang Zhenpu style Baguazhang is known to include the following elements:
Ji Ben Gong (Basic Techniques)
Zhuang Fa (Standing Methods)
Bu Fa (Footwork)
Dan Cao Ba Shi (Eight Single Techniques)
Dui Lian Ba Shi (Partnered Exercises/Matched Eight Techniques)
Ding Shi Ba Zhang (Eight Mother Palms)
Ba Da Zhang aka Lao Ba Zhang (Old Eight Palms)
Zhi Tang 64 Zhang (64 Linear Palms)
Ba Mian Zhang (Eight Directions Palms)
Chicken Claw Knives
Mandarin Duck Knives
Crescent Moon Knives (aka Deer Horn Knives)
Kun Lun Fan
Yin Yang Pen Brush
Steel "Yo-Yo" Meteors
Seven Star Rod
Wind and Fire Rings
Lian Huan Zhang (Swimming Body Chain Linking Form)
Long Xing Zhang (Dragon Form Palm)
Qishier Qinna (72 grasps and seizes, grappling technique)
Long and Short WeaponsOne of Liang's most famous students was Li Ziming (1903–1993) who eventually became head of the Beijing Baguazhang Research Association and spread Liang's style around the world. Liang Zhenpu is the only student of Dong Haichuan to be buried next to his tomb.List of premodern combat weapons
This is a list of historical pre-modern weapons grouped according to their uses, with rough classes set aside for very similar weapons. Some weapons may fit more than one category (e.g. the spear may be used either as weapon]] or as a projectile), and the earliest gunpowder weapons which fit within the period are also included.Meteor hammer
The meteor hammer (Chinese: 流星錘; pinyin: liúxīng chuí), often referred to simply as meteor (Chinese: 流星; pinyin: liúxīng), is an ancient Chinese weapon, consisting at its most basic level of two weights connected by a rope or chain. One of the flexible or "soft" weapons, it is referred to by many different names worldwide, dependent upon region, construction and intended use. Other names in use include dai chui, flying hammer, or dragon's fist. It belongs to the broader classes of flail and chain weapons.Outline of bicycles
This article is an outline about bicycles themselves. For an outline about cycling, the associated activity, see outline of cycling.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to bicycles:
Bicycle – pedal-driven, human-powered, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other. A person who rides a bicycle is called a cyclist or a bicyclist, and the activity is called cycling. Also known as a bike, push bike or cycle.Poi (performance art)
Poi refers to both a style of performing art and the equipment used for engaging in poi performance. As a performance art, poi involves swinging tethered weights through a variety of rhythmical and geometric patterns. Poi artists may also sing or dance while swinging their poi. Poi can be made from various materials with different handles, weights, and effects (such as fire).
Poi originated with the Māori people of New Zealand, where it is still practiced today. Poi has also gained a following in many other countries. The expansion of poi culture has led to a significant evolution of the styles practiced, the tools used, and the definition of the word "poi."Rope dart
The rope dart or rope javelin (simplified Chinese: 绳镖; traditional Chinese: 繩鏢; pinyin: shéng biāo), also known as Jōhyō in Japanese, is one of the flexible weapons in Chinese martial arts. Other weapons in this family include the meteor hammer, flying claws, Fei Tou flying weight, and chain whip. Although the flexible weapons share similar movements, each weapon has its own specific techniques.
The rope dart is a long rope (usually 3–5 metres or 10–16 feet) with a metal dart attached to one end. This was a weapon from ancient times, which allows the user to throw the dart out at a long-range target and use the rope to pull it back. The rope dart can be used for twining, binding, circling, hitting, piercing, tightening, slashing and other techniques.
Rope dart play consists of twining, shooting, and retrieval. Twining and shooting can be done from any joint such as foot, knee, elbow, and neck. The rope is anchored on one hand and played primarily with the other hand.
Skillful use of the rope dart can easily trick an opponent because the dart can shoot out very suddenly, from a person beyond immediate reach.
Just like the chain whip, excellent hand-eye coordination is a must for the practitioner to use this weapon well. In some Wushu training regimens, the chain whip and Changquan are prerequisites for learning the rope dart.
A variation of this weapon is the meteor hammer, which has a blunt weight on the end of the rope. It was used in a similar fashion to the rope dart, and many of the techniques are the same.Rotafix
The Rotafix is a method of tightening or loosening a sprocket on a track bike or fixed gear bicycle.Strap wrench
A strap wrench is any of various types of wrench that grip an object via a strap or chain being pulled in tension around it until it firmly grips. High static friction keeps it from slipping.
Many strap wrenches have built-in handles. Others are made to receive the square drive of a ratchet wrench.
The strap or chain can have various forms. Some straps are made of polymers, and are smooth, highly flexible, non-marring, high-friction straps. (Before the era of commercial polymers, the straps were of leather or rubber.) Other straps are bands of spring steel, moderately flexible, slightly firmer and more likely to mar than the polymer variants. The chains tend to be of the roller chain type (like a bicycle chain).The Heroic Trio
The Heroic Trio (Dung fong saam hap, TC: 東方三俠, pinyin: dōng fāng sān xiá) is a 1993 Hong Kong action film directed by Johnnie To, starring Michelle Yeoh, Maggie Cheung, and Anita Mui as the titular trio. Other cast include Damian Lau, Anthony Wong Chau-Sang, Paul Chun, James Pak and Yan Yee Kwan. The main characters of the film are reunited in a sequel, another 1993 film, Executioners.Vampire Killer
Vampire Killer is a platform game released by Konami for the MSX2 computer on October 30, 1986. It is a parallel version of the original Castlevania, which debuted a month earlier for the Famicom Disk System under the same Japanese title. However, the MSX2 version was localized first in Europe and thus, was published without the Castlevania branding that the franchise would start using abroad in 1987 when the NES version was released in North America (where neither, Vampire Killer nor the MSX2 platform, were released).Like in Castlevania, the player controls vampire hunter Simon Belmont, who ventures into Dracula's castle armed with a mystical whip inherited from his father, in order to slay the evil count.Vietnamese martial arts
Traditional Vietnamese martial arts (Võ thuật Cổ Truyền Việt Nam) can be loosely divided into those of the Sino-Vietnamese descended from the Han, and the Chams or indigenous Vietnamese.Võ thuật Bình Định
Võ Bình Định (short for võ thuật Bình Định, martial arts of Bình Định Province) is a regional form of martial arts in Vietnam. All martial arts developed in Tỉnh (State or Province) Binh Dinh is called Võ Bình Định. There are 11 huyện (Counties or Districts) in the Binh Dinh Region that practices martial arts with villages and cities within each counties that contain style ranging anywhere from 100 to 600 years old. Counties in the Bình Định Province include Phù Mỹ, Huyện Phù Cát, huyện Tây Sơn, huyện An Lão,huyện Hoài Nhơn, Hoài Ân, Huyện Vĩnh Thạnh , huyện Vân Canh, Quy Nhơn, Tuy Phước, and An Nhơn. Three famous villages include Thuận Truyền, and An Vinh both which are located in the Tây Sơn district along with An Thái which is in the An Nhơn district. Thuận Truyền Village and An Vinh Village style of Võ Bình Định is often considered as Võ Tây Sơn or also called Võ cổ truyền meaning Traditional Vietnamese Martial Arts and in the eastern district An Nhơn is An Thái style which is considered Võ Tàu or Chinese Martial Arts. There is an old saying in the Binh Dinh Region which goes "Roi Thuận Truyền, Quyền An Vinh" which means the Thuận Truyền Quyền village is famous for Staff Techniques and An Vinh Village is famous for empty hand forms. An Thái village is also famous empty hand forms along with its various Chinese Martial Arts that is influenced into Vietnamese martial arts. Another saying in the Binh Dinh Province is "Trai An Thái, gái An Vinh" meaning that males practice An Thái style and females practice An Vinh style. The reason for this saying is because the An Thái style utilizes more power in the empty hand forms making it more suitable when performed by a male. Vietnamese people are typically smaller in stature and the An Vinh style assumes that the opponent is not Vietnamese making them possibly taller and stronger. With a height and strength advantage An Vinh Style utilizes speed to overwhelm their opponents which can be seen in their empty hand forms and is more suited towards female fighters. There are systems that are not located in the Tây Sơn district however they are consider Võ Tây Sơn as it contains components of the Tây Sơn style for example Võ Đường Chùa Long Phước in the Tuy Phước district teaches many forms that are seen in the Tây Sơn district such as Ngọc trản quyền, Song Phượng kiếm, Lão Hổ Thượng Sơn and Hùng kê quyền for example.
An Vinh Village
The founder of the An Vinh Village Style of võ Bình Định is Nguyễn Ngạc. According to the villagers of An Vinh, Nguyễn Ngạc is a descendant of Bùi Thị Xuân a talented martial artist and famous general during the Tây Sơn rebellion.
An Thai Village
The founder of the An Thai Village Style of võ Bình Định is Diệp Trường Phát. Born in 1896 in An Thai village Binh Dinh province with his ethnic origins being Chinese as his parents are from Ming Xiang, China. At the age of thirteen Diệp Trường Phát was sent to China to study martial arts which he later brought back to the An Thai Village after many years of intensive training.
In the Bình Định Style of Martial Arts there are 18 weapons which is also referred to as "Thập bát ban binh khí" these weapons include the following:
Côn (Roi) or long staff
Kiếm or straight sword
Dao which can be broken up to three different types which are the đơn đao or broad sword, song đao or dual miniature broad sword, and đại đao or miniature broad sword on a staff which is not to be confused with a Chinese Kwan Dao.
Thương or Pointed Spear
Giáo or Wide Tip Spear
Kích or Crescent blade staff
Giản (Thiết lĩnh) or Scepter
Phủ, Song phủ & Búa or Single Axe, Dual Axes & Hammer which are considered one category
Song chùy or Dual Melon Hammer
Bừa cào or rake
Lăng khiên or Shield with Broad Sword
Cung tên or Bow and Arrow
Xích or Chain Whip
Xà mâu or Serpant Cane
Đinh ba or Pitch Fork/ Tiger Fork
Mỏ Gảy or fishermans Spear/ two point spear
Song xỉ, Song tô ,and Song Dao known as Dual Blades classification
Song câu or Dual hook swordUniforms
Uniforms for Võ Bình Định varies from each school with most schools practicing in an all black garment. Students of the Tây Sơn Style wear garments made of silk that are in red and yellow to reflect the Vietnamese flag. Belt systems vary between all schools.
Famous schools in the Bình Định region include the following: Võ đường Phan Thọ, Võ đường Phi Long Vịnh, Võ Đường Chùa Long Phước, Bình Thái Đạo Võ đường Lý Xuân Hỷ Võ đường Lê Xuân Cảnh and Võ đường Hồ Gia.Wrench
A wrench or spanner is a tool used to provide grip and mechanical advantage in applying torque to turn objects—usually rotary fasteners, such as nuts and bolts—or keep them from turning.
In Commonwealth English (excluding Canada), spanner is the standard term. The most common shapes are called open-ended spanner and ring spanner. The term wrench is generally used for tools that turn non-fastening devices (e.g. tap wrench and pipe wrench), or may be used for a monkey wrench - an adjustable pipe wrench.In North American English, wrench is the standard term. The most common shapes are called open-end wrench and box-end wrench. In American English, spanner refers to a specialised wrench with a series of pins or tabs around the circumference. (These pins or tabs fit into the holes or notches cut into the object to be turned.) In American commerce, such a wrench may be called a spanner wrench to distinguish it from the British sense of spanner.
Higher quality wrenches are typically made from chromium-vanadium alloy tool steels and are often drop-forged. They are frequently chrome-plated to resist corrosion and for ease of cleaning.
Hinged tools, such as pliers or tongs, are not generally considered wrenches in English, but exceptions are the plumber wrench (pipe wrench in British English) and Mole wrench (sometimes Mole grips in British English).
The word can also be used in slang to describe an unexpected obstacle, for example, "He threw a spanner into our plans" (in U.S. English, "monkey wrench").