Chain smoking

Chain smoking is the practice of smoking several cigarettes in succession, sometimes using the ember of a finished cigarette to light the next. The term chain smoker often also refers to a person who smokes relatively constantly, though not necessarily chaining each cigarette. The term applies primarily to cigarettes, although it can be used to describe incessant cigar and pipe smoking as well. It is a common form of addiction.[1]

Causes

The use of cocaine or an amphetamine with cigarettes can result in chain smoking.[2] Many people chain-smoke when drinking alcoholic beverages, because alcohol potentiates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, leading to re-sensitization and hence inducing a craving.[3]

The extent to which chain smoking is driven by nicotine dependence has been studied. It does not seem that the amount of nicotine delivered is a significant factor, as the puff volume correlates poorly with the frequency of cigarette consumption.[4]

Clinical use

Chain-smoking is given as an example of excessive addictive behaviour in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.[5] It may be used as a form of aversion therapy for smokers who are unused to such heavy smoking, inducing them to give up altogether.[6]

Ventilation

Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) professionals claim that an airflow of about 1000 cubic feet (28.32 cubic meters) per minute per smoker is required to maintain satisfactory air quality when the smokers are chain smoking.[7] However, research confirms that current HVAC systems, while important for general air quality, cannot control exposure to secondhand smoke.[8]

Chain smokers

A number of public figures were noted for being chain smokers.

See also

References

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Anton Ažbe

Anton Ažbe (30 May 1862 – 5 or 6 August 1905) was a Slovene realist painter and teacher of painting.

Ažbe, crippled since birth and orphaned at the age of 8, learned painting as an apprentice to Janez Wolf and at the Academies in Vienna and Munich. At the age of 30 Ažbe founded his own school of painting in Munich that became a popular attraction for Eastern European students. Ažbe trained the "big four" Slovenian impressionists (Rihard Jakopič, Ivan Grohar, Matej Sternen, Matija Jama) and a whole generation of Russian painters (Ivan Bilibin, Mstislav Dobuzhinsky, Igor Grabar, Wassily Kandinsky, Dmitry Kardovsky and Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin, to name a few). Ažbe's training methods were adopted and reused by Russian artists both at home (Grabar, Kardovsky) and in emigration (Bilibin, Dobuzhinsky).Ažbe's own undisputed artistic legacy is limited to twenty-six graphic works, including classroom studies, most of them at the National Gallery of Slovenia.

His long-planned masterpieces never materialized and, according to Peter Selz, he "never came into his own as an artist". His enigmatic personality blended together alcoholism, chain smoking, bitter loneliness, minimalistic simple living in private, and eccentric behaviour in public. A public scarecrow and a bohemian socialite, Ažbe protected his personal secrets till the end, a mystery even to his students and fellow teachers. The public transformed the circumstances of his untimely death from cancer into an urban legend.

Ben Urich

Benjamin "Ben" Urich is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character usually appears in comic books featuring Daredevil and Spider-Man.

Urich is a chain-smoking, tough-as-nails investigative journalist for the New York newspaper The Daily Bugle. Urich deduced the secret identity of Daredevil and has used him as a source of information and vice versa. To a lesser extent, he has a similar relationship with Spider-Man, whose alter ego Peter Parker was a photographer for the Bugle who occasionally accompanied Urich on assignments. Urich has used these connections to expose supervillains posing as businessmen including Kingpin and Green Goblin.

Urich has notably appeared in other media relating to Daredevil. He was portrayed by Joe Pantoliano in the 2003 film adaptation and by Vondie Curtis-Hall in the 2015 television adaptation.

Bender (Futurama)

Bender Bending Rodríguez (designated in-universe as Bending Unit 22, unit number 1,729, serial number 2716057) is a fictional character who is one of the main characters in the animated television series Futurama. He was created by series creators Matt Groening and David X. Cohen and is voiced by John DiMaggio. He fulfills a comic, antihero-type role in Futurama and is described by fellow character Leela as an "alcoholic, whore-mongering, chain-smoking gambler".According to the character's backstory, Bender was built in Tijuana, Mexico (the other characters refer to his "swarthy Latin charm"). Viewers are informed, through his own testimony, of Bender's prejudice against non-robots. For example, one of his signature expressions is "kill all humans". Exceptions who are not subject to Bender's prejudicial attitude are those individuals on his "Do Not Kill" list, which seems to comprise only his best friend Philip J. Fry and his colleague Hermes Conrad (added after the episode "Lethal Inspection"). However, Bender is also occasionally portrayed as possessing a sympathetic side, suggesting that he is not as belligerent as he claims, a view often echoed by his friends.

Benjamin Ayres

Benjamin James Ayres (born January 19, 1977) is a Canadian actor best known for his role as Dr. Zach Miller of the CTV series Saving Hope. He also recurred on the Gemini Award–winning HBO Canada series Less Than Kind for which he has nominated for a Canadian Screen Award. His first series regular role was Casper Jesperson (aka "Cancer Cowboy"), the chain-smoking sex addict who is morbidly obsessed with death, in the critically acclaimed cult hit CBC Television series jPod, based on the Douglas Coupland novel of the same title.

C'est la Vie (comic strip)

C'est la Vie is a comic strip by Jennifer Babcock. Since November 11, 2003, the strip has been syndicated on the web by Uclick/Universal Uclick/Andrews McMeel Syndication.

Before it was picked up for syndication, C'est la Vie premiered in UCLA's Daily Bruin. It was also self-published by the artist on the web.

The primary character of the comic is Mona Montrois, a chain-smoking Parisienne living in Los Angeles. Her sidekick is Monsieur Smokey, a lewd, chauvinistic stuffed bunny.

Don Stanhouse

Donald Joseph Stanhouse (born February 12, 1951) is a retired baseball pitcher who had a ten-year major league career from 1972 to 1980, 1982. He played for the Texas Rangers and Baltimore Orioles of the American League and the Montreal Expos and Los Angeles Dodgers of the National League.

Shuttled back and forth from the bullpen to the starting rotation with the Rangers and Expos, Stanhouse excelled in 1978 after joining the Baltimore Orioles, where Manager Earl Weaver employed him as a full-time closer. Because of his Harpo Marx hairstyle and pre-game batting practice antics – where his primal scream would entertain early ballpark arrivals – he was quickly labeled Stan the Man Unusual, a pun on the nickname "Stan the Man" for Hall-of-Famer Stan Musial.Stanhouse finished 3rd in the American League in both 1978 & 1979 in saves, recording 45 over that span, helping the Orioles capture the American League Championship in 1979. He was selected to the American League All-Star team in 1979.

Although an effective closer, Stanhouse had a reputation of walking batters he was not willing to face. Frequently his tactics would lead to dangerous situations in close games with multiple base-runners, and send the chain-smoking Weaver pacing back and forth in the dugout in agony. This resulted in Weaver nicknaming Stanhouse Fullpack, referring to the number of cigarettes consumed while watching him pitch. Weaver also was quoted in saying Stanhouse was an asshole, who ruined his health.Stanhouse left the Orioles as a free agent after the Orioles lost the 1979 World Series and signed a large guaranteed contract with the Los Angeles Dodgers. He was ineffective for the Dodgers in 1980, appearing in 21 games and posting an ERA over 5.00. The Dodgers sent him home during the season. He did not pitch at all in 1981, after which his contract expired and he was not re-signed by the Dodgers. Stanhouse retired after a brief comeback with the Orioles the following year.

After retirement, he became a business consultant for a venture capital firm. Married for 27 years, and a father of 3, he lives in Trophy Club, Texas.

Father Guido Sarducci

Father Guido Sarducci is a fictional character created by the American comedian Don Novello. Sarducci, a chain-smoking priest with tinted glasses, works in the United States as gossip columnist and rock critic for the Vatican newspaper L'Osservatore Romano (sometimes mentioned as The Vatican Enquirer, a take-off of the tabloid The National Enquirer).

H. M. Walker

Harley M. "Beanie" Walker (June 27, 1878 – June 23, 1937) was a member of the Hal Roach movie production company from 1916 until his resignation in 1932. The title cards he wrote for Harold Lloyd, Charley Chase, Our Gang and Laurel and Hardy comedies "have entered legend, both for silent films, and as opening remarks for the earlier talkies." He was also an officer of the Roach Studio corporation.Like many screenwriters of his time, notably Ben Hecht and Charles MacArthur, Walker came to the screen trade from the freewheeling world of newspaper journalism. He was a sports writer for the Los Angeles Examiner before joining Roach.

On Roach's "Lot of Fun", script development usually started with meetings among the gag men, who would develop what was known as an "action script": the outline of the story and a description of the scenes and some of the sight gags, which generally would run three to six legal-size pages. This document would then pass to Walker, the head of the editorial department, which oversaw not only script editing, but film editing as well. Walker usually came up with the title of each film, wrote "brilliantly witty" title cards which would be produced and inserted into the film, and wrote a critique before the picture went out to the distributors, Pathé Exchange, or later, M-G-M.Walker was a chain-smoking eccentric, a cat fanatic whose office always had a few tabbies in residence. His exterior was gruff and he was often difficult to get along with. Director Tay Garnett had an early-career one-day trial as an assistant writer to Walker, whose only reaction to Garnett's efforts was a guttural "yeah." Then, Garnett, "who soon discovered Walker's 'yeah's to be the equivalent to a round of applause, was told 'Come back tomorrow—on salary.'" Film Editor Richard Currier recounted that Walker never drove a car, so his wife had to drive him to work every day. But Currier was fond of Walker, calling him "a prince of a guy," and remembered the present of a dictionary with a note that read like one of Walker's title cards: "Having listened for years to your astonishing, and, at times, highly-charged vocabulary, I hasten to add to your voltage."As sound came to motion pictures, Walker and his staff were writing cards for Roach series considered today as classics, notably the Our Gang and Laurel and Hardy comedy short subjects. But as witty as his title cards had been, Walker was less adept at writing the spoken dialogue required by talkies. "Much of his work for Laurel and Hardy was so unwieldy and out of character that complete on-set revision was necessary," says The Laurel and Hardy Encyclopedia. Laurel and Hardy scholar Randy Skretvedt writes that Walker's "contribution to the L&H films was relatively minor" and that comparison of the "action" and "dialogue" scripts with the finished film "usually reveals that most of Walker's dialogue went unused."Things came to a head with the arrival at Roach of new-broom general manager Henry Ginsburg in 1931, a boorish man universally despised on the lot and called by Stan Laurel "The Expeditor". Ginsburg's every move was aimed at dumping costs, often at great harm to the studio's creative output. One of the first casualties was cameraman George Stevens, who would go on to win two Oscars for Best Director. Among the next was Beanie Walker, who resigned after sixteen years over disputes with Ginsburg's cost-cutting edicts.After leaving the Roach studio, Walker wrote dialogue for comedies produced by ex-Roach general manager Warren Doane at Universal Pictures. Later, he worked at Paramount Pictures, where he contributed to the W. C. Fields picture The Old Fashioned Way (1934).

Hadrian the Seventh

Hadrian the Seventh (also known as "Hadrian VII") is a 1904 novel by the English novelist Frederick Rolfe, who wrote under the pseudonym "Baron Corvo".Rolfe's best-known work, this novel of extreme wish-fulfilment developed out of an article he wrote on the Papal Conclave to elect the successor to Pope Leo XIII. The prologue introduces us to George Arthur Rose (a transparent double for Rolfe himself): a failed candidate for the priesthood denied his vocation by the machinations and bungling of the Roman Catholic ecclesiastical machinery, and now living alone with his yellow cat.

Rose is visited by two prominent churchmen, one a Cardinal Archbishop. The two propose to right the wrongs done to him, ordain him a priest, and take him to Rome where the Conclave to elect the new Pope has reached deadlock. When he arrives in Rome he finds that the Cardinals have been inspired, divinely or otherwise, to offer him the Papacy. He accepts, and since the only previous English Pope was Adrian (or Hadrian) IV, he takes the name Hadrian VII.

The novel develops with this unconventional, chain-smoking Englishman peremptorily reforming the Church and the early 20th-century world, against inevitable opposition from the established Roman Catholic hierarchy, rewarding his friends and trouncing his enemies. Generally he gets his way by charm or doggedness, and of course by being much cleverer than all those round him; but his short reign is brought to an end when he is assassinated by a Pope-hating Scotsman, or possibly Ulsterman, and the world breathes a sigh of relief.

Joaquín Capilla

Joaquín Capilla Pérez (December 23, 1928 – May 8, 2010), was a Mexican diver who won the largest number of Olympic medals among Mexican athletes. Together with his elder brother Alberto he competed in the 3 m springboard and 10 m platform at the 1948, 1952 and 1956 Olympics and won one gold, one silver and two bronze medals, finishing fourth in the two remaining competitions. He also won four medals at the Pan American Games, in 1951 and 1955. After retiring from competitions Capilla descended into poverty, chain smoking and alcoholism, eventually losing his family and home. He recovered owing to religion and later earned a degree in theology. In 2009 he was awarded the National Sports Award. He died the next year as a result of cardiac arrest.

Loosie

In the United States, a loosie (or loosey) is a single cigarette that is purchased or sold.

The transaction is illegal and commonly found in low-income areas. The high cost of cigarettes due to increased taxation has been blamed for increased sales of loosies.In 2014, Eric Garner died when NYPD officers attempted to arrest him for allegedly selling loosies.

Made in Heaven (1987 film)

Made in Heaven is a 1987 fantasy-comedy film directed by Alan Rudolph, script from Bruce A. Evans and Raynold Gideon, and produced by Lorimar Productions. The film stars Timothy Hutton and Kelly McGillis and has cameos by Tom Petty, Ric Ocasek, Ellen Barkin and Neil Young. An additional character known only as "Emmett" in the film was played by Debra Winger (Hutton's then wife), who acted as a chain-smoking male angel.

The original music score was composed by Mark Isham. The film was marketed with the tagline "How in Heaven did they meet? How on Earth will they find each other?"

Made in Heaven concerns two souls who cross paths in Heaven and then attempt to reconnect once they are reborn on Earth.

In 1988, the film was released on VHS format as well as digital stereo LaserDisc format. In 2009, the film made its DVD debut as part of the Warner Archive Collection.

Madeline Westen

Madeline Westen is a fictional character in the television series Burn Notice portrayed by Sharon Gless. She is Michael Westen's neurotic, chain-smoking mother.

Maurice Flitcroft

Maurice Gerald Flitcroft (23 November 1929 – 24 March 2007) was a British golfer and audacious hoaxer.

Flitcroft became notorious after hitting a score of 121 in the qualifying competition for the 1976 Open Championship—the highest score recorded at the Open Championship—and by a self-professed "professional golfer". Subsequently, he gained significant media attention, being referred to as "the world's worst golfer". Following the 1976 Open, the rules were changed to prevent Flitcroft from attempting to enter again. Undeterred, he regularly attempted to enter the Open and several other golf competitions, either under his own name or under pseudonyms such as Gene Paceky (as in paycheque), Gerald Hoppy, and James Beau Jolley. Flitcroft was married to Jean (died 2002) by whom he had two sons—one of whom caddied for him.

He is the subject of a biography, The Phantom of the Open, by Scott Murray and Simon Farnaby, published by Yellow Jersey Press in July 2010.In his obituary, The Daily Telegraph commented thus:

Maurice Flitcroft ...was a chain-smoking shipyard crane-operator from Barrow-in-Furness whose persistent attempts to gatecrash the British Open golf championship produced a sense of humour failure among members of the golfing establishment.

Moonshine (2006 film)

Moonshine is a 2006 film written and directed by Roger Ingraham. It was chosen to screen at the Sundance Film Festival in January 2006. It was made on a $9,700 budget including the purchase of a 24p digital camera (Panasonic DVX100). Pre-production took around two years.

The film was Roger Ingraham's first, and is a vampire story based in his hometown of Stafford Springs, Connecticut. Production was 22 days long, with the film containing many landmarks of Stafford. The budget was kept so low largely in part due to the help of the locals, with many citizens of Stafford helping by donating cars for car crash scenes, and with even the town police helping out with the movie.

The film's plot revolves around the disconnection of the protagonist as he suffers the cancer of his mother and the paralysis of his father. After taking a tedious, dead-end job with a chain-smoking manager who regards her employees with disdain, the protagonist eventually takes matters into his own hands, and falls into a horrific chain of events he never thought possible.

Moses Tyson

Moses Tyson (born 1897, Westmorland; died 1969), historian and librarian, was keeper of western manuscripts at the John Rylands Library 1927-1935 and from 1935 to 1965 librarian of the Manchester University Library. His successor Frederick William Ratcliffe described him as "one of the great unsung figures of the University"; according to Brian Pullan, historian of the University, Dr Tyson was "a painfully shy bachelor who shunned the company of women" and "the self-effacing, misogynistic, chain-smoking Librarian". His friends included Sir William Watson the poet and H. B. Charlton, Professor of English Literature at the University of Manchester. He was a Member of the Chetham Society, and served as a Member of Council (1934-58) and as Secretary (1940-51).

Oh Lucy! (2017 film)

Oh Lucy! is a 2017 American-Japanese drama film directed, produced and co-written by Atsuko Hirayanagi, based on her 2014 short film of the same name.

The film follows a lonely chain-smoking office drudge living in Tokyo who develops a crush on her English teacher and decides to follow him to America when he disappears. It premiered in the International Critics' Week section at the 2017 Cannes Film Festival, and was released in American theaters on March 2, 2018.

Smoking fetishism

Smoking fetishism (also known as capnolagnia) is a sexual fetish based on the pulmonary consumption (smoking) of tobacco, most often via cigarettes, cigars, and also, pipes and hookahs to some extent. As a fetish, its mechanisms regard sexual arousal from the observation or imagination of a person smoking, sometimes including oneself.

Vincent Curatola

Vincent Curatola (born August 16, 1953) is an American actor and writer. Curatola's best-known role is that of the cold, calculating, chain smoking Johnny Sack from the HBO drama, The Sopranos. He is also a singer and has appeared onstage several times with the rock band Chicago.

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