Chaim Menachem Rabin

Chaim Menachem Rabin (Hebrew: חיים מנחם רבין‎; 1915–1996) was a German, then British, and finally Israeli professor of Hebrew and Semitic languages.

Chaim Rabin was born in Giessen, Germany, 22 November 1915, the son of Israel and Martel Rabin. Having completed his school studies in April 1933 he spent the year 1933-1934 in Palestine, studying at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.[1][2]

He then emigrated to England, where he eventually became a British citizen.[2] He enrolled as a student at the School of Oriental Studies of the University of London where he received his BA degree in 1937. In 1939 he was awarded his Ph.D with a thesis entitled Studies in Early Arabic Dialects at the now renamed School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), where from 1938 was employed as a lecturer.

In 1941[3] he moved to the University of Oxford, where he received his MA, then D.Phil in 1942, with a thesis entitled The Development of the Syntax of Post-Biblical Hebrew. In 1943 he was appointed Cowley Lecturer in Post-Biblical Hebrew there.

In 1956 with his wife, Batya, he emigrated to Israel, and took a post of Associate Professor, then full Professor of Hebrew Language at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, where he remained until his retirement in 1985.[1]

Following his early interest in Arabic dialects, Chaim Rabin's field was all aspects of Hebraic linguistics, in particular, translations of the language of the Bible, the Dead Sea Manuscripts, and the detailed study of mediaeval codices. He succeeded Moshe Goshen-Gottstein as chief editor of the Hebrew University Bible Project.[4]

Rabin was a pioneer in training Israeli translators. Together with Shoshana Bloom, he established the Hebrew University's Department of Scientific Translation.

Rabin was a member of the Academy of the Hebrew Language.

He died in Jerusalem on 13 May 1996.

Published Work

  • Hayim M. Nahmad with C. Rabin: Everyday Arabic: conversations in Syrian and Palestinian colloquial Arabic with vocabulary, phonetic and grammatical introduction, lists of useful culinary, military, political and commercial terms. with a Foreword by H. A. R. Gibb. London: Dent, 1940
  • Arabic Reader. London: Lund Humphries 1947
  • Everyday Hebrew - Twenty-nine Simple Conversations with English Translation and Full Grammatical Introduction London: Dent 1948
  • Hebrew Reader. London: Lund Humphries 1949
  • Ancient West-Arabian: a study of the dialects of the Western Highlands of Arabia in the sixth and seventh centuries A.D. London: Taylor's Foreign Press 1951
  • Maimonides, The guide of the perplexed, with introduction and commentary by Julius Guttmann. translated from the Arabic by Chaim Rabin. London: East and West Library 1952
  • The Zadokite Documents. I. The Admonition, II. The Laws. Edited with a translation and notes by Chaim Rabin. Oxford: Clarendon Press 1954
  • The Beginnings of Classical Arabic. in Studia Islamica 4 (1955) pp. 19-37. reprinted in Ibn Warraq, What the Koran Really Says (2002)
  • "Alexander Jannaeus and the Pharisees". in: Journal of Jewish Studies 7 (1956), pp. 3–11
  • Qumran Studies. Oxford University Press 1957. republished Schocken 1975
  • "The Linguistics of Translation". in: A. D. Booth (ed.), Aspects of Translation (Studies in Communications 2), London: Secker and Warburg 1958, pp. 123ff
  • (with Yigael Yadin), Aspects of the Dead Sea scrolls. Jerusalem: Magnes Press, Hebrew University 1958
  • Studies in the Bible : edited on behalf of the Institute of Jewish Studies in the Faculty of Humanities. Jerusalem: Magnes Press, Hebrew University 1961
  • "Etymological Miscellanea", in: Scripta Hierosolymitana 8 (1961), pp. 384–400.
  • Essays on the Dead Sea scrolls. In memory of E. L. Sukenik. Jerusalem : Hekhal Ha-Sefer, 1961
  • Yigael Yadin (edited with commentary), The scroll of the War of the Sons of Light against the Sons of Darkness, translated by Batya and Chaim Rabin. London: Oxford University Press 1962
  • Die Renaissance der hebräischen Sprache. Zürich : Israel-Informations-Büro, 1963
  • The influence of different systems of Hebrew orthography on reading efficiency. Jerusalem: The Israel Institute of Applied Social Research 1968
  • Loanword Evidence in Biblical Hebrew for Trade between Tamil Nad and Palestine in the First Millenium B.C.. in Asher R. E. (ed), Proceedings of the Second International Conference Seminar of Tamil Studies (1971)
  • Thesaurus of the Hebrew language in dictionary form. Jerusalem: Kiryat Sepher, 1970–1973
    • Thesaurus of the Hebrew ... ; Volume I. 1970
    • Thesaurus of the Hebrew ... ; Volume II. 1973
  • A Short History of the Hebrew Language. Publishing Department of the Jewish Agency (1973)
  • Chaim Rabin (Editor): Bible Translation: An Introduction. Israel: Bialik, 1984 (previously published in: Encyclopaedia biblica, 8 (1982), 737–870)
  • Die Entwicklung der hebräischen Sprache. Wiesbaden : Reichert in Komm., 1988 (publications of the Hochschule für Jüdische Studien Heidelberg, Nr. 2)
  • Chaim Rabin, Zvi Raday: Otsar ha-milim. Milim, tserufim e-imrot. (Thesaurus of the Hebrew Language in Dictionary Form. Edited by Chaim Rabin and Zvi Raday. 3 vols. Jerusalem, Sivan Press (1988) [contents: vol 1. A-L; vol 2. M-P; vol 3. TZ-T.]
  • Chaim Rabin, Tzvi Raday: Hamilon HeHadash LaTanach (The New Bible Dictionary). (in Hebrew), 3 vols. Jerusalem: Keter Publishing House, 1989
  • Semitic Languages - An Introduction. The Bialik Institute (Mosad Bialik) 1991
  • Linguistic Studies : Collected Papers in Hebrew and Semitic Languages. Jerusalem, Israel: Bialik Institute, 1999
  • The development of the syntax of post-biblical Hebrew. Leiden; Boston: Brill 2000. ISBN 90-04-11433-5.[5]

References

  1. ^ a b Report of the Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies, 1995-1996
  2. ^ a b Utz Maas: Verfolgung und Auswanderung deutschsprachiger Sprachforscher 1933-1945. entry for Chaim Rabin
  3. ^ "Oxford University Gazette, 13 November 1997: Colleges". Archived from the original on 14 March 2007. Retrieved 19 January 2008.
  4. ^ The Institute of Jewish Studies - General
  5. ^ Bibliographie Linguistique - Linguistic Bibliography
  • Moshe H. Goshen-Gottstein, Shlomo Morag, Simcha Kogut (eds.), Studies on Hebrew and other Semitic languages presented to Chaim Rabin. Jerusalem: Akademon Press 1990. [1]

External links

Hebrew language

Hebrew (; עִבְרִית‎, Ivrit Hebrew pronunciation: [ivˈʁit] or [ʕivˈɾit] (listen)) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel, the modern version of which is spoken by over nine million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name "Hebrew" in the Tanakh itself. The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only Canaanite language still spoken, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language.Hebrew had ceased to be an everyday spoken language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining since the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt. Aramaic and, to a lesser extent, Greek were already in use as international languages, especially among elites and immigrants. Hebrew survived into the medieval period as the language of Jewish liturgy, rabbinic literature, intra-Jewish commerce and poetry. With the rise of Zionism in the 19th century, it was revived as a spoken and literary language, becoming the main language of the Yishuv, and subsequently of the State of Israel. According to Ethnologue, in 1998, Hebrew was the language of five million people worldwide. After Israel, the United States has the second-largest Hebrew-speaking population, with about 220,000 fluent speakers, mostly from Israel.

Modern Hebrew is the official language of the State of Israel, while premodern Hebrew is used for prayer or study in Jewish communities around the world today. The Samaritan dialect is also the liturgical tongue of the Samaritans, while modern Hebrew or Arabic is their vernacular. As a foreign language, it is studied mostly by Jews and students of Judaism and Israel, and by archaeologists and linguists specializing in the Middle East and its civilizations, as well as by theologians in Christian seminaries.

The first five books of the Torah, and most of the rest of the Hebrew Bible, is written in Biblical Hebrew, with much of its present form in the dialect that scholars believe flourished around the 6th century BCE, around the time of the Babylonian captivity. For this reason, Hebrew has been referred to by Jews as Lashon Hakodesh (לשון הקודש), "the Holy Language", since ancient times.

Hinduism and Judaism

Hinduism and Judaism are among the oldest existing religions in the world. The two share some similarities and interactions throughout both the ancient and modern worlds.

India–Israel relations

India–Israel relations refers to the bilateral ties between the Republic of India and the State of Israel. The two countries have an extensive economic, military, and strategic relationship.Israel is represented through an embassy in New Delhi, and one consulate each in Mumbai and Bengaluru. India is represented through its embassy in Tel Aviv.

India is the largest buyer of Israeli military equipment and Israel is the second-largest defence supplier to India after Russia. From 1999 to 2009, the military business between the two nations was worth around $9 billion. Military and strategic ties between the two nations extend to intelligence sharing on terrorist groups and joint military training.As of 2014, India is the third-largest Asian trade partner of Israel, and tenth-largest trade partner overall. In 2014, bilateral trade, excluding military sales, stood at US$4.52 billion. Relations further expanded during Prime Minister Narendra Modi's administration, with India abstaining from voting against Israel in the United Nations in several resolutions. As of 2015, the two nations are negotiating an extensive bilateral free trade agreement, focusing on areas such as information technology, biotechnology, and agriculture.According to an international poll conducted in 2009, 58% of Indians expressed sympathy with Israel, compared with 56% of Americans.

Jewish principles of faith

There is no established formulation of principles of faith that are recognized by all branches of Judaism. Central authority in Judaism is not vested in any one person or group - although the Sanhedrin, the supreme Jewish religious court, would fulfill this role if it is re-established - but rather in Judaism's sacred

writings, laws, and traditions.

Judaism affirms the existence and uniqueness of God, and stresses performance of deeds or commandments alongside adherence to a strict belief system. In contrast to traditions such as Christianity which demand a more explicit identification of God, faith in Judaism requires one to honour God through a constant struggle with God's instructions (Torah) and the practice of their mitzvot.

Orthodox Judaism stresses a number of core principles in its educational programs, most importantly a belief that there is one single, omniscient, transcendent, non-compound God, who created the universe, and continues to be concerned with its governance. Traditional Judaism maintains that God established a covenant with the Jewish people at Mount Sinai, and revealed his laws and 613 commandments to them in the form of the Written and Oral Torah. In Rabbinic Judaism, the Torah consists of both the written Torah (Pentateuch) and a tradition of oral law, much of it later codified in sacred writings (see: Mishna, Talmud).

Traditionally, the practice of Judaism has been devoted to the study of Torah and observance of its laws and commandments. In normative Judaism, the Torah, and hence Jewish law itself, is unchanging, but interpretation of the law is more open. It is considered a mitzvah (commandment) to study and understand the law.

The proper counterpart for the general English term "faith" - as occurring in the expression "principles of faith" - would be the concept of Emunah in Judaism. While it is generally translated as faith or trust in God, the concept of Emunah can more accurately be described as "an innate conviction, a perception of truth that transcends (...) reason". Emunah can be enhanced through wisdom, knowledge, understanding, and learning of sacred Jewish writings. But Emunah is not simply based on reason, nor can it be understood as the opposite of, or standing in contrast to, reason.

There are a number of basic principles that were formulated by medieval rabbinic authorities. These are put forth as fundamental underpinnings inherent in the "acceptance and practice of Judaism".

List of German Jews

The first Jewish population in the region to be later known as Germany came with the Romans to the city now known as Cologne. A "Golden Age" in the first millennium saw the emergence of the Ashkenazi Jews, while the persecution and expulsion that followed the Crusades led to the creation of Yiddish and an overall shift eastwards. A change of status in the late Renaissance Era, combined with the Jewish Enlightenment, the Haskalah, meant that by the 1920s Germany had one of the most integrated Jewish populations in Europe, contributing prominently to German culture and society.

The following is a list of some famous Jews (by religion or descent) from Germany proper. Also note that the idea of German nationality is rather broad, due to the many Germanic tribes, Jewish assimilation into Germany, and separate German ruled states through the history of Europe. Therefore, the same set of people could at times be referred to as Germans, Jews, or German Jews alike.

Modern Hebrew

Modern Hebrew or Israeli Hebrew (עברית חדשה, ʿivrít ḥadašá[h], [ivˈʁit χadaˈʃa] – "Modern Hebrew" or "New Hebrew"), generally referred to by speakers simply as Hebrew (עברית Ivrit), is the standard form of the Hebrew language spoken today. Spoken in ancient times, Hebrew, a member of the Canaanite branch of the Semitic language family, was supplanted as the Jewish vernacular by the western dialect of Aramaic beginning in the third century BCE, though it continued to be used as a liturgical and literary language. It was revived as a spoken language in the 19th and 20th centuries and is the official language of Israel.

Modern Hebrew is spoken by about nine million people, counting native, fluent, and non-fluent speakers. Most speakers are citizens of Israel: about five million are Israelis who speak Modern Hebrew as their native language, 1.5 million are immigrants to Israel, 1.5 million are Arab citizens of Israel, whose first language is usually Arabic, and half a million are expatriate Israelis or diaspora Jews living outside Israel.

The organization that officially directs the development of the Modern Hebrew language, under the law of the State of Israel, is the Academy of the Hebrew Language.

Rabin

Rabin is a Hebrew surname. It originates from the Hebrew word rav meaning Rabbi, and a contraction of R. Abin. The most well known bearer of the name was Yitzhak Rabin, prime minister of Israel and Nobel Peace prize Laureate.

Rachel Elior

Rachel Elior (born 28 December 1949) is an Israeli professor of Jewish philosophy at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Jerusalem, Israel. Her principal subject of research has been the history of early Jewish mysticism.

Study of the Hebrew language

As the Old Testament (known as the Tanakh) was written in Hebrew, Hebrew has been central to Judaism and Christianity for more than 2000 years.

Languages

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