Chagatai Khanate

The Chagatai Khanate (Mongolian: Цагаадайн Хаант Улс Tsagadaina Khaanat Ulus) was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate[6][7] that comprised the lands ruled by Chagatai Khan,[8] second son of Genghis Khan, and his descendants and successors. Initially it was a part of the Mongol Empire, but it became a functionally separate khanate with the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259. The Chagatai Khanate recognized the nominal supremacy of the Yuan dynasty in 1304,[9] but became split into two parts in the mid-14th century: the Western Chagatai Khanate and the Moghulistan Khanate.

At its height in the late 13th century, the Khanate extended from the Amu Darya south of the Aral Sea to the Altai Mountains in the border of modern-day Mongolia and China.[10]

The khanate lasted in one form or another from 1220s until the late 17th century, although the western half of the khanate was lost to Timur's empire by 1370. The eastern half remained under Chagatai khans, who were, at times, allied or at war with Timur's successors, the Timurid dynasty. Finally, in the 17th century, the remaining Chagatai domains fell under the theocratic regime of Afaq Khoja and his descendants, the Khojas, who ruled Xinjiang under Dzungar and Manchu overlordships consecutively.

Chagatai Khanate

Цагаадайн Хаант Улс
Tsagadaina Khaanat Ulus
  • 1225 – 1340s (Whole)
  • 1340s–1370 (Western)
  • 1340s–1680s (Eastern)
The Chagatai Khanate (green), c. 1300.
The Chagatai Khanate (green), c. 1300.
CapitalAlmaliq, Qarshi
Common languagesMongolian,[1] Chagatai language[2][3]
GovernmentSemi-elective monarchy, later hereditary monarchy
• 1225–1242
Chagatai Khan
Historical eraLate Middle Ages
• Chagatai Khan inherited part of Mongol Empire
• Death of Chagatai
• Chagatai Khanate split into Western and Moghulistan
• End of the western empire
• End of the eastern empire
1310 or 1350 est.[4][5]3,500,000 km2 (1,400,000 sq mi)
CurrencyCoins (dirhams, Kebek, and pūl)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Mongol Empire
Western Chagatai Khanate
Timurid Empire
Afaq Khoja
Dzungar Khanate


Genghis Khan's empire was inherited by his third son, Ögedei Khan, the designated Khagan who personally controlled the lands east of Lake Balkhash as far as Mongolia. Tolui, the youngest, the keeper of the hearth, was accorded the northern Mongolian homeland. Chagatai Khan, the second son, received Transoxiana, between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers (in modern Uzbekistan) and the area around Kashgar. He made his capital at Almaliq near what is now Yining City in northwestern China.[11] Apart from problems of lineage and inheritance, the Mongol Empire was endangered by the great cultural and ethnic divide between the Mongols themselves and their mostly Islamic Iranian and Turkic subjects.

When Ögedei died before achieving his dream of conquering all of China, there was an unsettled transition to his son Güyük Khan (1241) overseen by Ögedei's wife Töregene Khatun, who had assumed the regency for the five years following Ögedei's death. The transition had to be ratified in a kurultai, which was duly celebrated, but without the presence of Batu Khan, the independent-minded khan of the Golden Horde.[12] After Güyük's death, Batu sent Berke, who maneuvered with Tolui's widow, and, in the next kurultai (1253), the Ögedite line was passed over for Möngke Khan, Tolui's son, who was said to be favorable to the Church of the East.[13] The Ögedite ulus was dismembered; only the Ögedites who did not immediately go into opposition were given minor fiefs.[nb 1]

In the book The Travels of Ibn Battuta we see Ibn Battuta had made his way to the camp of Tarmashirin who was the current Mongol Sultan and descendent of Jengiz Khan. When he arrived the king had called over Ibn Battuta to his tent and they had both treated each other respectfully and Kindly. The king had asked about his journeys through major cities such as Mecca and Jerusalem and Ibn Battuta had answered back. During the hour of prayer the Sultan had called for the priest to wait for him before starting prayer, yet the priest didn't wait for the prayers were for god not the Sultan and the Sultan had arrived late. The Sultan began to interact with his people and Ibn Battuta saw that he was loved and respected by his people. The Sultan had given Ibn some money and sent him off on his journey once more. Yet the Sultan had broken some of the rules to stay as Sultan and was later overthrown and killed by one of his cousins.[15]

Chagatai modern day is located in parts of Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan.

The Chagatai Khanate after Chagatai

Chagatai died in 1242, shortly after his brother Ögedei. For nearly twenty years after this the Chagatai Khanate was little more than a dependency of the Mongol central government, which deposed and appointed khans as it pleased. The cities of Transoxiana, while located within the boundaries of the khanate, were administrated by officials who answered directly to the Great Khan.[16]

This state of subservience to the central government was ended during the reign of Chagatai's grandson Alghu (1260–1266), who took advantage of the Toluid Civil War between Kublai Khan and Ariq Böke by revolting against the latter, seizing new territories and gaining the allegiance of the Great Khan's authorities in Transoxiana.[17] Most of the Chagatayids first supported Kublai but in 1269 they joined forces with the House of Ögedei.[18]

Alghu's eventual successor, Ghiyas-ud-din Baraq (1266–1271), who expelled Kublai Khan's governor in Xinjiang soon came into conflict with the Ögedite Kaidu, who gained the support of the Golden Horde and attacked the Chagatayids.[19] Baraq was soon confined to Transoxiana and forced to become a vassal of Kaidu.[20] At the same time, he was at odds with Abaqa Khan, the Ilkhan, who ruled his Ilkhanate in Iran. Baraq attacked first, but was defeated by the Ilkhanate army and forced to return to Transoxiana, where he died not long after.[21]

Chagatai Khanate map en
The Chagatai Khanate and its neighbors in the late 13th century

The next several Chagatayid khans were appointed by Kaidu,[22] who maintained a hold upon the khanate until his death. He finally found a suitable khan in Baraq's son Duwa (1282–1307), who participated in Kaidu's wars with Kublai khan and his successors of the Yuan dynasty.[23] The two rulers also were active against the Ilkhanate.[24] After Kaidu's death in 1301, Duwa threw off his allegiance to his successor. He also made peace with the Yuan dynasty and paid tributes to the Yuan court; by the time of his death the Chagatai Khanate was a virtually independent state.[25]


Duwa left behind numerous sons, many of whom became khans themselves. Included among these are Kebek (1309, 1318–1326), who instituted a standardization of the coinage and selected a sedentary capital (at Qarshi), and Tarmashirin (1326–1334), who converted to Islam and raided the Delhi Sultanate in India. Tarmashirin, however, was brought down by a rebellion of the tribes in the eastern provinces, and the khanate became increasingly unstable in the following years. In 1346 a tribal chief, Amir Qazaghan, killed the Chagatai khan Qazan Khan ibn Yasaur during a revolt.[26]

The Chagatai Khanate split into two parts in the 1340s.[27] In Transoxiana in the west, the mostly Muslim tribes, led by the Qara'unas amirs, seized control. In order to maintain a link to the house of Genghis Khan, the amirs set several descendants of Chagatai on the throne, though these khans ruled in name only and had no real power. The eastern part of the khanate, which had been largely autonomous for several years as a result of the weakening power of the khans, meanwhile became independent under the Chagatayid Tughlugh Timur. This eastern portion (most of which was known as "Moghulistan") was, in contrast to Transoxiana, primarily inhabited by Mongols and largely followed Buddhism and Mongolian shamanism.

The two halves of the Chagatai Khanate were briefly reunited in the 1360s by Tughlugh Timur, who invaded Transoxiana twice and attempted to establish his authority there. Following his death in 1363 his successors ruled only over the east, while control of Transoxiana was contested by two tribal leaders, Amir Husayn (the grandson of Qazaghan) and Timur or Tamerlane. Timur eventually defeated Amir Husayn and gained mastery over Transoxiana (1369–1405). Like his predecessors, Timur maintained a puppet khan on the throne to legitimatize his rule, but his khans were members of the house of Ögedei rather than descendants of Chagatai.[28] After he died in 1405 his successors, the Timurids, are also reported to have had their own shadow khans until the mid-15th century.

The eastern half of the khanate remained in the hands of the descendants of Tughlugh Timur for several centuries, although it was itself split into multiple successor states in the 1500s. The last independent Chagatai Khanate, the Yarkent Khanate, was conquered by the Dzungar Khanate in the Dzungar conquest of Altishahr from 1678–1680.



Genghis Khan
Great Khan of the Mongol Empire
Chagatai Khan
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
Ogedei Khan
Great Khan of the Mongol Empire
Yesü Möngke
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
Qara Hülegü
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
First Reign
Second Reign
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
Ali Sultan
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
Mubarak Shah
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
First Reign
Second Reign
Baraq Khan
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
Khan of the Western Chagatai Khanate
Buqa Temür
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
Sultan Mahmud
Khan of the Western Chagatai Khanate
Orüg Temür
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
First Reign
Second Reign
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
Esen Buqa I
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
D'ua Temür
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
Khabul Shah
Khan of the Western Chagatai Khanate
Tughlugh Timur
Khan of Moghulistan
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
Yesun Temür
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
Bayan Quli
Khan of the Western Chagatai Khanate
Qazan Khan
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
Muhammad I
Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
Ilyas Khoja
Khan of Moghulistan
Khizr Khoja
Khan of Moghulistan
Shah Temur
Khan of the Western Chagatai Khanate
Adil Sultan
Khan of the Western Chagatai Khanate
Khan of Moghulistan
Muhammad II
Khan of Moghulistan
Khan of Moghulistan
Sher Ali Oghlan
Sher Muhammad
Khan of Moghulistan
Vais Khan
Khan of Moghulistan
First Reign
Second Reign
Yunus Khan
Khan of Eastern Moghulistan
Khan of Moghulistan
Esen Buqa II
Khan of Moghulistan
Ahmad Alaq
Khan of Uyghuristan
Mahmud Khan
Khan of the Western Moghulistan
Dost Muhammad
Khan of Uyghuristan
Sultan Said Khan
Khan of the Western Moghulistan
Mansur Khan
Khan of Uyghuristan
Khan of Moghulistan
Kebek Sultan Oghlan
Khan of Uyghuristan
Khans of Yarkent
Shah Khan
Khan of Uyghuristan
Muhammad Khan
Khan of Uyghuristan

See also


  1. ^ For example Kaidu, who received Qayaliq, in modern Kazakhstan. He later revolted against Khubilai Khan and forcefully made the Chagatai khans his vassals for three decades, as will be discussed.[14]



  1. ^ Roemer, p.43
  2. ^ Gulácsi, Zsuzsanna (2015). Mani's Pictures: The Didactic Images of the Manichaeans from Sasanian Mesopotamia to Uygur Central Asia and Tang-Ming China. BRILL. p. 156. ISBN 978-90-04-30894-7.
  3. ^ Kim, Hyun Jin (2013). The Huns, Rome and the Birth of Europe. Cambridge University Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-1-107-06722-6. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  4. ^ Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D. (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires" (PDF). Journal of world-systems research. 12 (2): 222. ISSN 1076-156X. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  5. ^ Taagepera, Rein (September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". International Studies Quarterly. 41 (3): 499. doi:10.1111/0020-8833.00053. JSTOR 2600793.
  6. ^ Black, Cyril E.; Dupree, Louis; Endicott-West, Elizabeth; Matuszewski, Daniel C.; Naby, Eden; Waldron, Arthur N. (1991). The Modernization of Inner Asia. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe. p. 57. ISBN 978-1-315-48899-8. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  7. ^ Upshur, Jiu-Hwa L.; Terry, Janice J.; Holoka, Jim; Cassar, George H.; Goff, Richard D. (2011). Cengage Advantage Books: World History (5th ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 433. ISBN 1-133-38707-1. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  8. ^ Alternative spellings of Chagatai include Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Jagatai, Chaghtai etc.
  9. ^ Dai Matsui – A Mongolian Decree from the Chaghataid Khanate Discovered at Dunhuang. Aspects of Research into Central Asian Buddhism, 2008, pp. 159–178
  10. ^ See Barnes, Parekh and Hudson, p. 87; Barraclough, p. 127; Historical Maps on File, p. 2.27; and LACMA for differing versions of the boundaries of the khanate.
  11. ^ Grousset 1970, pp. 253–4.
  12. ^ Grousset 1970, pp. 268–9.
  13. ^ Grousset 1970, pp. 272–5.
  14. ^ Biran 1997, pp. 19–20
  15. ^ Travels of Ibn Battuta[Gibb, p. 473 - 474]
  16. ^ Grousset 1970, pp. 328–9.
  17. ^ Biran 1997, pp. 21–2.
  18. ^ Allsen, Thomas T. (2004). Culture and Conquest in Mongol Eurasia. Cambridge University Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-521-60270-9. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  19. ^ Biran 1997, p. 25.
  20. ^ Biran 1997, pp. 25–6.
  21. ^ Biran 1997, pp. 30–2.
  22. ^ Biran 1997, p. 33.
  23. ^ Biran 1997, pp. 50–2.
  24. ^ Biran 1997, pp. 59–60.
  25. ^ Biran 1997, pp. 71–8.
  26. ^ Grousset 1970, pp. 341–2.
  27. ^ Sh. Tseyen-Oidov; "From the Genghis Khan to Ligden Khan" 2002
  28. ^ Grousset 1970, p. 416.


  • Barnes, Ian, Bhikhu Parekh and Robert Hudson. The History Atlas of Asia. Macmillan, p. 87. Macmillan, 1998. ISBN 0-02-862581-1
  • Barraclough, Geoffrey. The Times Atlas of World History. 4th Ed. Hammond World Atlas Corporation, 1993. ISBN 0-7230-0534-6
  • Barthold, W. "Caghatai-Khan." The Encyclopedia of Islam, Volume 2. New Ed. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1965.
  • ---. "Dughlat." The Encyclopedia of Islam, Volume 2. New Ed. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1965.
  • Biran, Michal (1997). Qaidu and the Rise of the Independent Mongol State in Central Asia. Surrey: Curzon. ISBN 0-7007-0631-3.
  • "The Chagatai Khanate". The Islamic World to 1600. 1998. The Applied History Research Group, University of Calgary. Retrieved 19 May 2005.
  • Elias, N. Commentary. The Tarikh-i-Rashidi (A History of the Moghuls of Central Asia). By Mirza Muhammad Haidar. Translated by Edward Denison Ross, edited by N. Elias. London, 1895.
  • Grousset, René (1970). The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-1304-1. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  • Karpat, Kemal H. "The Ottoman Rule in Europe From the Perspective of 1994." Turkey Between East and West. Ed. Vojtech Mastny and R. Craig Nation. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996. ISBN 0-8133-2420-3
  • Kim, Hodong. "The Early History of the Moghul Nomads: The Legacy of the Chaghatai Khanate." The Mongol Empire and Its Legacy. Ed. Reuven Amitai-Preiss and David Morgan. Leiden: Brill, 1998. ISBN 90-04-11048-8
  • Manz, Beatrice Forbes. The Rise and Rule of Tamerlane. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1989. ISBN 0-521-63384-2
  • "Map of the Mongol Empire". 2003. Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Retrieved 8 July 2008.
  • Mirza Muhammad Haidar. The Tarikh-i-Rashidi (A History of the Moghuls of Central Asia). Translated by Edward Denison Ross, edited by N.Elias. London, 1895.
  • "Mongol Invasions of Russia, 12th–13th Centuries". Map. Historical Maps on File: Ringbound. 2nd Ed. Facts on File, 2002. ISBN 0-8160-4600-X
  • Roemer, H. R. "Timur in Iran." The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 6: The Timurid and Safavid Periods. Ed. Peter Jackson and Lawrence Lockhart. London: Cambridge University Press, 1986. ISBN 0-521-20094-6
  • Xinjiang: China's Muslim Borderland, S. Frederick Starr
  • The Huns, Rome and the Birth of Europe, p. 29, at Google Books

External links

Abdullah (Chagatai Khanate)

Abdullah (died c. 1359) was the leader of the Qara'unas (1358–1359) and the ruler of the Chagatai ulus (1358). He was the son of Amir Qazaghan.

After Qazaghan had taken control of the Chagatai ulus in around 1346, he appointed Abdullah as governor of Samarkand. During his father's lifetime, Abdullah led an expedition against Khwarazm, although Qazaghan had been against it. When the latter died in 1358 Abdullah succeeded him. Unlike his father, he had an active interest in the tribes of the northern part of the ulus. Qazaghan, whose power base had been in the southern portion of the ulus, had tended to leave the northern tribes alone; Abdullah was not content to do the same. The northern tribes bitterly resented his attempts to curtail their power.

Abdullah's decision to keep his capital in Samarkand proved to be his undoing. The Barlas and Suldus tribes, both located near the city, hated the prospect of a strong Qara'unas presence in their immediate vicinity. Together the leaders of the Barlas and Suldus, Hajji Beg and Buyan Suldus, revolted and drove Abdullah out of power; he returned to the territories of the Qara'unas and died soon afterwards. The victorious parties often cited Abdullah's treatment of Bayan Quli as a pretext for their revolt. Bayan Quli had been Qazaghan's puppet khan; soon after Qazaghan's death Abdullah desired Bayan Quli's wife and had him executed. In any case, Buyan Suldus was installed as amir of the ulus, while both Abdullah's brothers and Shah Temur, who had been raised by Abdullah to the khanship following Bayan Quli’s execution, were killed.

Battle of Beas River

The Battle of Beas River was a battle between Chagatai Khanate army and the Mamluk sultanate in 1285. Ghiyas ud din Balban arranged a military defense line across Beas River as part of his "blood and iron" fortification chain strategy at Multan and Lahore as a countermeasure against the Chagatai Khanate invasion. Balban managed to repulse the invasion. However, his son Muhammad Khan was slain in battle.


Chagatai may refer to:

Chagatai Khan, the second son of Genghis Khan

Chagatai Khanate, an area of the Mongol Empire initially ruled by Chagatai Khan

Chagatai Khans, leaders of the Chagatai khanate from 1227 to 1687, see List of Chagatai Khans

Chagatai language, an extinct Turkic language once widely spoken in central Asia

Chagatai people, also known as Chagatai Tajiks. The origin of the people is unknown, though the name is from Chagatai Khan

Chughtai, a family name in Asia and the Middle East

Division of the Mongol Empire

The division of the Mongol Empire began when Möngke Khan died in 1259 in the siege of Diaoyu castle with no declared successor, precipitating infighting between members of the Tolui family line for the title of Great Khan that escalated to the Toluid Civil War. This civil war, along with the Berke–Hulagu war and the subsequent Kaidu–Kublai war greatly weakened the authority of the Great Khan over the entirety of the Mongol Empire and the empire fractured into autonomous khanates, including the Golden Horde in the northwest, the Chagatai Khanate in the middle, the Ilkhanate in the southwest, and the Yuan dynasty in the east based in modern-day Beijing, although the Yuan emperors held the nominal title of Khagan of the empire. The four khanates each pursued their own separate interests and objectives, and fell at different times.


Duwa (died 1307), also known as Du'a, was khan of the Chagatai Khanate (1282–1307). He was the second son of Baraq. He was the longest reigning monarch of the Chagatayid Khanate and accepted the nominal supremacy of the Yuan dynasty as Great Khan before his death. Under his rule, the Chagatai Khanate reached its peak.

Dzungar conquest of Altishahr

The Dzungar conquest of Altishahr resulted in the Tibetan Buddhist Dzungar Khanate in Dzungaria conquering and subjugating the Genghisid-ruled Chagatai Khanate in Altishahr (the Tarim Basin). It put a final end to the independence of the Chagatai Khanate.

Esen Buqa–Ayurbarwada war

The Esen Buqa–Ayurbarwada war was a war between the Chagatai Khanate under Esen Buqa I and the Yuan dynasty under Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan (Emperor Renzong) and its ally the Ilkhanate under Öljaitü. The war ended with the victory for the Yuan and the Ilkhanate, but the peace only came after the death of Esen Buqa in 1318.

House of Ögedei

The House of Ögedei, sometimes called the Ögedeids, were an influential family of Mongol Borjigin (Imperial, or Golden Family) from the 12th to 14th centuries. They were descended from Ögedei Khan (c.1186-1241), a son of Genghis Khan who had become his father's successor, second Khagan of the Mongol Empire. Ögedei continued the expansion of the Mongol Empire.

When, after the Toluid Möngke Khan's death, the Mongol Empire disintegrated into civil war, the members of the House of Ogedei were influential players in the politics of the region. Of Genghis Khan's sons — Ogedei, Jochi, Chagatai, and Tolui — the House of Ögedei tended to ally with the Chagataids (descendants of Chagatai) against the House of Jochi, while seeking control for themselves within the Chagatai Khanate at first. The Ogedeids also allied with the Golden Horde against the Yuan emperor Kublai Khan (son of Tolui), who was allied with his brother Hulagu, leader of the Ilkhanate in Persia. The Ogedeids attempted to unite the Mongol Empire under their own rule, and Ogedeid princes continued to march against the Yuan dynasty well into the 14th century such as during the Kaidu–Kublai war.

A peace occurred shortly in 1304, but the war soon resumed. In 1310, Kaidu's successor Chapar Khan surrendered to the Yuan emperor Khayishan, and the territory controlled by the House of Ögedei was divided up by the Chagataids and the Yuan dynasty, after he and his relatives failed to win the Chagatai Khanate. After that, members from this family often appeared as influential contenders or puppet rulers under powerful amirs and noyans in Mongolia-based Northern Yuan dynasty and Transoxiana in the 14th and 15th centuries.

Kaidu–Kublai war

The Kaidu–Kublai war was a war between Kaidu, the leader of the House of Ögedei and the de facto khan of the Chagatai Khanate in Central Asia, and Kublai Khan, the founder of the Yuan dynasty in China and his successor Temür Khan that lasted a few decades from 1268 to 1301. It followed the Toluid Civil War (1260–1264) and resulted in the permanent division of the Mongol Empire. By the time of Kublai's death in 1294, the Mongol Empire had fractured into four separate khanates or empires: the Golden Horde khanate in the northwest, the Chagatai Khanate in the middle, the Ilkhanate in the southwest, and the Yuan dynasty in the east based in modern-day Beijing. Although Temür Khan later made peace with the three western khanates in 1304 after Kaidu's death, the four khanates continued their own separate development and fell at different times.

Karluk languages

The Karluk languages (also known as the Qarluq or Southeastern Common Turkic languages) are a sub-branch of the Turkic language family that developed from the varieties once spoken by Karluks.Many Middle Turkic works were written in these languages. The language of the Kara-Khanid Khanate was known as Turki, Ferghani, Kashgari, or Khaqani. The language of the Chagatai Khanate was the Chagatai language.

Karluk Turkic was spoken in the Kara-Khanid Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Yarkent Khanate, and the Uzbek speaking Khanate of Bukhara, Emirate of Bukhara, Khanate of Khiva, and Kokand Khanate.


Kebek (died 1325/1326) was khan of the Chagatai Khanate from 1309 until 1310, and again from c. 1318 until his death.

List of Chagatai Khans

The Chagatai Khans were the heads of the Chagatai Khanate from Chagatai Khan's inheritance of the state in 1227 to their removal from power by the Dzungars and their vassals in 1687. The power of the Chagatai Khans varied; from its beginning, the khanate was one of the weakest of the Mongol states, and often its rulers were merely figureheads for ambitious conquerors (see Kaidu and Timur).

Note: The following list is incomplete. It excludes several collateral lines that ruled over minor territories and were relatively unimportant.

List of Mongol rulers

The list of states is chronological but follows the development of different dynasties.


Moghulistan (Mughalistan, Moghul Khanate) (from Persian: مغولستان‎, Moqulestân/Moġūlistān), also called the Eastern Chagatai Khanate (Chinese: 东察合台汗国; pinyin: Dōng Cháhétái Hànguó), was a Mongol breakaway khanate of the Chagatai Khanate and a historical geographic area north of the Tengri Tagh mountain range, on the border of Central Asia and East Asia. That area today includes parts of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and northwest Xinjiang, China. A khanate nominally ruled over the area from the mid-14th century until the late 17th century, although it is debatable whether it was a continuation of the Chagatai Khanate, an independent khanate, or a tributary state to Ming Dynasty China.

Beginning in the mid-14th century a new khanate, in the form of a nomadic tribal confederacy headed by a member of the family of Chagatai, arose in the region of the Ili River. It is therefore considered to be a continuation of the Chagatai Khanate, but it is also referred to as the Moghul Khanate, since its tribal inhabitants were originally considered to be pure "Moghuls" (i.e., Mongols), in contrast to the mostly Turkic and Turkicised Mongols of the Western Chagatai Khanate.In actuality, local control rested with local Mongol Dughlats or Sufi Naqshbandi in their respective oases. Although the rulers enjoyed great wealth from the China trade, it was beset by constant civil war and invasions by the Timurid Empire, which emerged from the western part of the erstwhile Chagatai Khanate. Independence-minded khans created their own domains in cities like Kashgar and Turfan. Eventually it was overcome by the Kyrgyz, Kazakhs, and Oirats.

Mongol invasion of India (1306)

In 1306, the Chagatai Khanate ruler Duwa sent an expedition to India, to avenge the Mongol defeat in 1305. The invading army included three contingents led by Kopek, Iqbalmand, and Tai-Bu. To the check the invaders' advance, the Delhi Sultanate ruler Alauddin Khalji dispatched an army led by Malik Kafur, and supported by other generals such as Malik Tughluq. The Delhi army achieved a decisive victory, killing tens of thousands of the invaders. The Mongol captives were brought to Delhi, where they were either killed or sold into slavery.

After this defeat, the Mongols did not invade the Delhi Sultanate during Alauddin's reign. The victory greatly emboldened Alauddin's general Tughluq, who launched several punitive raids in the Mongol territories of present-day Afghanistan.

Mongol invasions of India

The Mongol Empire launched several invasions into the Indian subcontinent from 1221 to 1327, with many of the later raids made by the unruly Qaraunas of Mongol origin. The Mongols occupied parts of modern Pakistan and other parts of Punjab for decades. As the Mongols progressed into the Indian hinterland and reached the outskirts of Delhi, the Delhi Sultanate led a campaign against them in which the Mongol army suffered serious defeats.

Tughlugh Timur

Tughlugh Timur Khan (also Tughluq Tömür or Tughluk Timur) (1329/30-1363) was the Khan of Moghulistan from c. 1347 and Khan of the whole Chagatai Khanate from c. 1360 until his death. Esen Buqa (a direct descendant of Chagatai Khan) is believed to be his father. His reign is known for his conversion to Islam and his invasions of Transoxiana.

Yesun Temur (Chagatai Khanate)

Yesun Temur (Есөнтөмөр) was a pagan khan (r. 1338-1342) of Chagatai Khanate. He was the younger brother of Changshi Khan. His name literally means "Nine Iron" in the Mongolian language.

In order to take power, Yesun Temur is said to have poisoned (murdered) his brother. He regretted his action and blamed his mother for Changshi's death. His guilt caused him to become very stressed, which led to excessive drinking. He was overthrown by 'Ali-Sultan of the House of Ogedei in 1342.


Yesünto'a was the third son of Mutukan, and grandson of Chagatai, founder of the Chagatai Khanate. His brothers were Yesü Möngke and Baidar. His nephew Alghu son of Baidar and his brother Yesu Mongke, both were the Khans of the Chagatai Khanate.

He was the father of Qara Hülëgü, the chagatai khan (1242-1246, 1252) and Baraq, the Chagatai Khan (1266–1271).

Mongol Empire (1206–1368)

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