Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum).[1] While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia.[2] Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.[1]


Bishop Epiphanius of Cestrus was present at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, and subscribed the joint letter of the bishops of Isauria to the emperor Leo I the Thracian in 458 concerning the killing of Proterius of Alexandria.[2][3][4] The Jacobite Michael the Syrian reports that another, Elpidius, was a partisan of Severus of Antioch.[1]

No longer a residential bishopric, Cestrus is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.[5]


  1. ^ a b c Sophrone Pétridès, "Cestra" in Catholic Encyclopedia (New York 1908)
  2. ^ a b Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. II, coll. 1025-1026
  3. ^ Raymond Janin, v. Cestros, in Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. XII, Paris 1953, col. 253
  4. ^ Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, p. 438
  5. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 868
Aksu River

Aksu River may refer to:

Aksu, the name of the Bartang River in its upper reaches in Afghanistan and Tajikistan

Aksu River (Xinjiang), transnational river in Xinjiang, China and Issyk Kul Province, Kyrgyzstan

Aksu River (Kazakhstan), flowing into Lake Balkhash

Aksu River (Turkey), a river in Antalya Province, classically called the Cestrus

Aksu Deresi, a river in Giresun Province, Turkey

Aksu River (Uzbekistan), tributary of Qashqadaryo River, other name: Akdarya

Aksu River (Turkey)

The Aksu (ancient name in Greek Κέστρoς, Kestros), is a river in Antalya Province (southwestern Turkey), which rises in the mountains of Toros. The course of the Aksu is between the Düden to the west and of the Köprüçay to the east.


Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).


Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.


Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.


Cremna (Greek Κρῆμνα), or Kremna, was an ancient town in Pisidia. It is situated in the district of Bucak. It stands in a remote valley on a high plateau dominating the ancient Cestrus River (today Aksu), with limited access and good defensive features.It was first taken by Amyntas, commander of the Galatian auxiliary army of Brutus and Cassius, who became king of Galatia and Pisidia on going over to the side of Mark Antony. Octavian allowed him to remain king until his death in 25 BC. After this it became a Roman colony, as Strabo says; and there are imperial coins with the epigraph COL. IVL. AVG. CREMNA, which stands for Colonia Iulia Augusta [Felix] Cremnena. Its first coins appear to have been minted under Hadrian. Ptolemy mentions the Cremna Colonia, and according to him it is in the same longitude as Sagalassus.Its water supply posed particular problems and the aqueduct had to include complex and novel solutions. The donatio given by the emperor Aurelian (270–275) promised a period of great prosperity for Cremna; but in 276 the town was taken by an Isaurian robber, named Lydius, who used it as a base for looting the region, giving rise to the only visit of a Roman Emperor to the region, that of Marcus Claudius Tacitus. Later, the town was inserted in the Roman province of Pamphylia Secunda. The name of only one of its bishops is known: Theodorus, present at the Second Council of Nicaea in 787. No longer a residential bishopric, Cremna is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.At some time in the high Middle Ages the ancient site of the town was abandoned, the population transferring itself to the present village of Çamlık.

The ancient site was identified in 1874 and excavations began in 1970.


Docimium, Docimia or Docimeium (Greek: Δοκίμια and Δοκίμειον) was an ancient city of Phrygia, Asia Minor where there were famous marble quarries.


Drizipara (or Druzipara, Drousipara. Drusipara) now Karıştıran (Büyükkarıştıran) in Lüleburgaz district was a city and a residential episcopal see in the Roman province of Europa in the civil diocese of Thrace. It is now a titular see of the Catholic Church.

Düden River

The Düden River (Turkish: Düden Su; Ancient Greek: Καταρράκτης - Katarraktes; Latin: Catarrhactes) is a river of southern Anatolia, Turkey, the lower reaches of which traverse Düden Waterfalls, and enters the Mediterranean Sea east of Antalya.

Anciently, it was a major river of Pamphylia. Pomponius Mela describes its ancient names as being so called because it has a great fall or cataract. He places the town of Perga between the Cestrus and the Catarrhactes. The Stadiasmus describes it by the term οἱ Καταρράκται, or "the Falls". Strabo also speaks of this river as falling over a high rock.

This river, on approaching the coast, divides into several branches, which, falling over the cliffs that border this part of the coast, have formed a calcareous deposit. Through this calcareous crust the water finds its way to the sea, and the river has now no determinate outlet, unless, adds Leake, it be after heavy rains, when, it precipitates itself copiously over the cliffs near the most projecting point of the coast, a little to the west of Laara. According to the Stadiasmus the outlet of the river was at a place called Masura, probably the Magydus of Ptolemy or the Mygdale of the Stadiasmus may be Magydus.

The Düden River runs underground in one part of its course, which appears to be of considerable length.

Edward D. Kelly

Edward Denis (also Dionysius) Kelly (December 30, 1860 – March 26, 1926) was an American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He was the third Bishop of Grand Rapids from 1919 until his death in 1926.


Kaystros or Kestros was a town of ancient Cilicia and later of Isauria inhabited during Roman and Byzantine times. Its relationship with Cestrus, a titular bishopric, otherwise unlocated is not clear.

Its site is located near Kilisebeleni, Macar, in Asiatic Turkey.

Kestros (weapon)

A kestros (Greek: κέστρος) or kestrophedrone (Greek: κεστροσφενδόνη), also known as a cestrus or cestrosphendone, is a specially designed sling that is used to throw a heavy kind of dart.

The dart would typically consist of a heavy metal point approximately 9 inches (23 cm) long, attached to a shaft of wood, typically 12 inches (30 cm) long, and fletched with feathers or the like to provide stability of flight.

List of Trojan War characters

This is a list of mythological characters who appear in narratives concerning the Trojan War.

Lycia et Pamphylia

Lycia et Pamphylia was the name of a province of the Roman empire, located in southern Anatolia. It was created by the emperor Vespasian (reigned AD 69- 79), who merged Lycia and Pamphylia into a single administrative unit. In 43 AD, the emperor Claudius had annexed Lycia. Pamphylia had been a part of the province of Galatia.

The borders drawn by Vespasian ran west of the River Indus (which flowed from its upper valley in Caria) from the Pisidian plateau up to Lake Ascanius (Burdur Gölü), to the south of Apamea. In the north and east it formed a line which followed the shores of the lakes Limna (Hoyran Gölü) and Caralis (Beyşehir Gölü), turned south towards the Gulf of Adalla (mare Pamphylium) and followed the Taurus Mountains (Toros Daǧlari) for some ten miles towards east up to Isauria. It then followed Cilicia Trachea to reach the sea to the west of Iotape. The borders were dawn taking into account geographical and economic factors. The whole of the basins of the rivers Xanthus, Cestrus (Ak Su) and Eurymedon (Köprü Irmak) were included. The main cities were at the mouth of the latter two rivers. In Pisidia e in Pamphylia they were in part followed by the few roads into the interior of Anatolia. The most important one was the road from Attalea (Antalya) to Apamea. In Lycia the road from Patara towards Laodicea on the Lycus followed the coast. Important cities were Side, Ptolemais, Gagae and Myra on the coast, Seleucia, inland and Cremna, Colbhasa and Comama,on the Pisidian Plateau, where Augustus had founded Roman colonies (settlements). on the Milyas plateau there were Oenoanda, Tlos, Nisa, Podalia, Termessus and Trebenna. Other important cities in Lycia were Pednelissus, Ariassus e Sagalassus; along the Eurymedon, Aspendus and Perge, which had a sanctuary of Artemis. The most important city in the region was Patara, at the mouth of the Xanthus.

Under the administrative reforms of emperor Diocletian (reigned AD 284-305), which doubled the number of Roman provinces by reducing their size, the Lycia et Pamphylia province was split into two separate provinces. The provinces were grouped into twelve dioceses which were under the four Praetorian prefectures of the empire. Lycia and Pamphylia were under of Diocese of Asia (Dioecesis Asiana), of the Praetorian Prefecture of Oriens (the East).


Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.


Perga or Perge (Greek: Πέργη Perge, Turkish: Perge) was an ancient Anatolian city, once the capital of Pamphylia Secunda, now in Antalya province on the southwestern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Today, it is a large site of ancient ruins 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) east of Antalya on the coastal plain. An acropolis located there dates back to the Bronze Age.


Rhoscopus or Rhoskopous (Ancient Greek: Ῥοσκόπους), or Rhuscopus or Rhouskopous (Ῥουσκόπους), also known as Rhixoupous, was a coastal town of ancient Pamphylia near the mouth of the Cestrus River, inhabited during Roman times.Its site is located east of Magydus, in Asiatic Turkey.


Selge (Greek: Σέλγη) was an important city in ancient Pisidia and later in Pamphylia, on the southern slope of Mount Taurus, modern Antalya Province, Turkey, at the part where the river Eurymedon River (Turkish: Köprüçay)forces its way through the mountains towards the south.

Stratonicea (Lydia)

Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.

Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia


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