Cervical spinal stenosis

Cervical spinal stenosis is a bone disease involving the narrowing of the spinal canal at the level of the neck. It is frequently due to chronic degeneration,[1] but may also be congenital. Treatment is frequently surgical.[1]

Cervical spinal stenosis is one of the most common forms of spinal stenosis, along with lumbar spinal stenosis (which occurs at the level of the lower back instead of in the neck). Thoracic spinal stenosis, at the level of the mid-back, is much less common.[2] Cervical spinal stenosis can be far more dangerous by compressing the spinal cord. Cervical canal stenosis may lead to serious symptoms such as major body weakness and paralysis. Such severe spinal stenosis symptoms are virtually absent in lumbar stenosis, however, as the spinal cord terminates at the top end of the adult lumbar spine, with only nerve roots (cauda equina) continuing further down.[3] Cervical spinal stenosis is a condition involving narrowing of the spinal canal at the level of the neck. It is frequently due to chronic degeneration,[1] but may also be congenital or traumatic. Treatment frequently is surgical.[1]

Cervical spinal stenosis
Illu vertebral column
A human vertebral column


Nonsurgical treatment

Potential nonsurgical treatments include:

  • Education about the course of the condition and how to relieve symptoms
  • Medicines to relieve pain and inflammation, such as acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
  • Exercise, to maintain or achieve overall good health, aerobic exercise, such as riding a stationary bicycle, which allows for a forward lean, walking, or swimming can relieve symptoms
  • Weight loss, to relieve symptoms and slow progression of the stenosis
  • Physical therapy, to provide education, instruction, and support for self-care; physical therapy instructs on stretching and strength exercises that may lead to a decrease in pain and other symptoms


Potential surgical treatments include:

See also


  1. ^ a b c d Meyer F, Börm W, Thomé C (May 2008). "Degenerative cervical spinal stenosis: current strategies in diagnosis and treatment". Dtsch Arztebl Int. 105 (20): 366–72. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2008.0366. PMC 2696878. PMID 19626174.
  2. ^ Vokshoor A (February 14, 2010). "Spinal Stenosis". eMedicine. Retrieved December 30, 2010.
  3. ^ Waxman, SG (2000). Correlative Neuroanatomy (24th ed.).
  4. ^ "Laminectomy". Retrieved 19 December 2012.
Cervical stenosis

Cervical stenosis can refer to:

Cervical spinal stenosis

Stenosis of uterine cervix

DeVonte Holloman

Christopher DeVonte Holloman (born February 12, 1991) is a former American football linebacker in the National Football League for the Dallas Cowboys. He attended the University of South Carolina (2009–2012). He was drafted in the 6th round of the 2013 NFL Draft by the Dallas Cowboys. He played college football at the University of South Carolina. Since 2017, he has been the head football coach at Beaufort High School in Beaufort, South Carolina.

Edge (wrestler)

Adam Joseph Copeland (born October 30, 1973) is a Canadian actor and retired professional wrestler, best known for his time with WWE under the ring name Edge. He is a member of the WWE Hall of Fame class of 2012.

Copeland was trained by professional wrestlers Sweet Daddy Siki and Ron Hutchison. Throughout the 1990s, he wrestled in various United States independent promotions. During his time in these promotions, he competed in singles and tag team competition, the latter with longtime best friend Jason Reso. In 1997, Copeland signed a developmental deal with the WWF and was rebranded as the storyline brother of Christian, Reso's WWF persona. He made his televised debut the following June under the ring name Edge. In July 1999, he won the WWF Intercontinental Championship at a house show in Toronto, making it his first title reign with the company. Edge and Christian, billed as brothers and later childhood friends in WWF/WWE storylines, went on to win the WWF Tag Team Championship on seven different occasions. During this time, they gained notoriety in the tag team division, partly due to their participation in Tables, Ladders, and Chairs matches.

Edge is one of the most decorated professional wrestlers of all-time, having won 31 championships in WWE overall, including the World Heavyweight Championship a record seven times, the WWE Championship four times, the Intercontinental Championship five times, the United States Championship once, the WWF/World Tag Team Championship a record twelve times, and the WWE Tag Team Championship twice. He is WWE's 14th Triple Crown Champion and 7th Grand Slam Champion. He also won the King of the Ring tournament in 2001, was the first Money in the Bank ladder match winner in 2005, and won the Royal Rumble match in 2010, making him the first wrestler in history to achieve all three of those accomplishments. He headlined multiple pay-per-view events for WWE (including WrestleMania XXIV) and was inducted into the WWE Hall of Fame by Christian in 2012. His wife Beth Phoenix joined the Hall of Fame in 2017, making them the first real-life couple to be inducted. Copeland is also one of WWE's longest tenured employees, being with the company since 1996.

Aside from professional wrestling, Copeland appeared in the fantasy film Highlander: Endgame and WWE Studios' Bending the Rules. He has made guest appearances on television shows such as Weakest Link, Mind of Mencia, Deal or No Deal, MADtv and The Flash. He appeared on the SyFy series Haven as recurring character Dwight Hendrickson and also appeared as recurring character Ketill Flatnose in the fifth season of Vikings.

Extreme Rules (2011)

Extreme Rules was a professional wrestling pay-per-view (PPV) event produced by WWE, which took place on May 1, 2011 at the St. Pete Times Forum in Tampa, Florida. It was the third Extreme Rules event.

This was also the first WWE pay-per-view event to be held in Tampa since Survivor Series in 2000.

The event received 209,000 pay-per-view buys, up from last year's event of 182,000 buys.

Guy Brown

Guy Brown, III (born June 1, 1955) is a former American football linebacker in the National Football League for the Dallas Cowboys. He played college football at the University of Houston.

Joe Onosai

Joe Onosai (born December 10, 1965) is a former strongman competitor and American football player. Onosai is a Samoan tribal prince and was drafted by the National Football League Dallas Cowboys. He reached the finals of the World's Strongest Man competition twice (1994 and 1995).

List of diseases (C)

This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "C".

List of neurological conditions and disorders

This is a list of major and frequently observed neurological disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), symptoms (e.g., back pain), signs (e.g., aphasia) and syndromes (e.g., Aicardi syndrome). There is disagreement over the definitions and criteria used to delineate various disorders and whether some of these conditions should be classified as mental disorders or in other ways.

Some disorders are in the ICD-10 Chapter VI: Diseases of the nervous system and also in the list of mental disorders.

Lumbar spinal stenosis

Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a medical condition in which the spinal canal narrows and compresses the nerves at the level of the lumbar vertebrae. This is usually due to the common occurrence of spinal degeneration that occurs with aging. It can also sometimes be caused by spinal disc herniation, osteoporosis, a tumor, or trauma. In the cervical (neck) and lumbar (low back) region, it can be a congenital condition to varying degrees.

It is also a common symptom for those who suffer from various skeletal dysplasias, such as with pseudoachondroplasia and achondroplasia, at an early age.

Spinal stenosis may affect the cervical or thoracic region, in which case it is known as cervical spinal stenosis or thoracic spinal stenosis. In some cases, it may be present in all three places in the same patient. Lumbar spinal stenosis can cause low back pain, abnormal sensations, and the absence of sensation (numbness) in the legs, thighs, feet, or buttocks, or loss of bladder and bowel control.

Michael Irvin

Michael Jerome Irvin (born March 5, 1966) is a retired American football player, actor, and sports commentator. Irvin played college football at the University of Miami, then for the Dallas Cowboys of the National Football League (NFL) for his entire pro athletic career (1988-1999), which ended due to a spinal cord injury. Irvin was nicknamed "The Playmaker" due to his penchant for making big plays in big games during his college and pro careers. He is one of three key Cowboys offensive players who helped the team attain three Super Bowl wins: he is known as one of "The Triplets" along with Troy Aikman and Emmitt Smith. He is also a former broadcaster for ESPN's Sunday NFL Countdown and currently an analyst for NFL Network. In 2007, he was selected to the Pro Football Hall of Fame.

He competed in season 9 of Dancing with the Stars in 2009. Irvin was the ninth contestant to be eliminated.


The neck is the part of the body, on many vertebrates, that separates the head from the torso. It contains blood vessels and nerves that supply structures in the head to the body. These in humans include part of the esophagus, the larynx, trachea, and thyroid gland, major blood vessels including the carotid arteries and jugular veins, and the top part of the spinal cord.

In anatomy, the neck is also called by its Latin names, cervix or collum, although when used alone, in context, the word cervix more often refers to the uterine cervix, the neck of the uterus. Thus the adjective cervical may refer either to the neck (as in cervical vertebrae or cervical lymph nodes) or to the uterine cervix (as in cervical cap or cervical cancer).

Neil Fallon

Neil Patrick Fallon (October 25, 1971 in Portsmouth, Virginia) is the lead singer and occasional rhythm guitarist, keyboardist and percussionist for the rock band Clutch, and lead singer for The Company Band. He also joined The Bakerton Group on guitar starting with their El Rojo album.

Neil Fallon has provided guest vocals on the songs "Two Coins for Eyes" and "Empire's End" on the 2008 album Beyond Colossal by Swedish stoner rock band Dozer; "Crazy Horses" by Throat; "Slippin' Out" by Never Got Caught; "Mummies Wrapped in Money" by Lionize; and "Blood and Thunder" by Mastodon, on their 2004 album Leviathan; "Santorum Sunday School" on 2012 album, Everything Is Not Going To Be OK by Black Clouds; "Transistors of Mercy" by Polkadot Cadaver, on their 2013 album Last Call in Jonestown; "Ayatollah of Rock 'n' Rolla" by Soulfly, on their 2013 album Savages; "Clear Light Of..." by Hark, on their 2014 album Crystalline.

Fallon's younger sister Mary Alice Fallon-Yeskey appears on the Food Network show Ace of Cakes as office manager of Charm City Cakes in Baltimore, Maryland.

On September 12, 2013, Fallon announced that Clutch would have to postpone their September tour (except for a hometown show in Baltimore, Maryland at the Shindig Festival), due to personal health issues. Fallon released a statement through the band's Facebook page saying "Dear friends, this week I've learned that a childhood injury to the neck, a genetic predisposition for spinal disease, and 20 some years of head banging will exact a toll. I've been diagnosed with an ugly case of cervical spinal stenosis and two herniated discs." Fallon had surgery on September 17, 2013 and the band resumed their tour in October. This ordeal inspired Fallon's lyrics in "Decapitation Blues," a track on Clutch's eleventh studio album, Psychic Warfare.Fallon lives in Silver Spring, Maryland with his family.


Neurosurgery, or neurological surgery, is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.

Spinal stenosis

Spinal stenosis is an abnormal narrowing of the spinal canal or neural foramen that results in pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots. Symptoms may include pain, numbness, or weakness in the arms or legs. Symptoms are typically gradual in onset and improve with bending forwards. Severe symptoms may include loss of bladder control, loss of bowel control, or sexual dysfunction.Causes may include osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, spinal tumors, trauma, Paget's disease of the bone, scoliosis, spondylolisthesis, and the genetic condition achondroplasia. It can be classified by the part of the spine affected into cervical, thoracic, and lumbar stenosis. Lumbar stenosis is the most common followed by cervical stenosis. Diagnosis is generally based on symptoms and medical imaging.Treatment may involve medications, bracing, or surgery. Medications may include NSAIDs, acetaminophen, or steroid injections. Stretching and strengthening exercises may also be useful. Limiting certain activities may be recommended. Surgery is typically only done if other treatments are not effective, with the usual procedure being a decompressive laminectomy.Spinal stenosis occurs in as many as 8% of people. It occurs most commonly in people over the age of 50. Males and females are affected equally often. The first modern description of the condition is from 1803 by Antoine Portal. Evidence of the condition, however, dates back to Ancient Egypt.

Sting (wrestler)

Steve Borden (born March 20, 1959), better known by the ring name Sting, is an American retired professional wrestler, actor, author and former bodybuilder. He is currently signed to WWE under a Legends contract.Sting is known for his time spent as the public face of two major professional wrestling promotions: the now-defunct World Championship Wrestling (WCW), which displaced the World Wrestling Federation (WWF, now WWE) as the leading professional wrestling organization in the United States from 1995 to 1998, and Total Nonstop Action Wrestling (TNA). Borden is regarded as one of the greatest professional wrestlers of all time, having cultivated a legacy over a career spanning more than three decades in which he held 15 world championships.

Sting's 14-year tenure with WCW and its predecessor, Jim Crockett Promotions (JCP), began in 1987. Dubbed "The Franchise of WCW", he held a total of 15 championships in the promotion – including the WCW World Heavyweight Championship on six occasions, the WCW International World Heavyweight Championship on two occasions and the NWA World Heavyweight Championship on one occasion – and made more pay-per-view (PPV) appearances for the company than any other wrestler. Sting has been described as the WCW counterpart to the WWF's Hulk Hogan. Against Hogan, Sting headlined the highest-grossing PPV event in WCW history at Starrcade in December 1997. Upon the acquisition of WCW by the WWF in March 2001, Sting and his long-term rival Ric Flair were chosen to perform in the main event of the final episode of Nitro.Following the expiration of his contract with WCW's parent company, AOL Time Warner, in March 2002, Borden held talks with the WWF, but ultimately did not join the promotion and instead toured internationally with World Wrestling All-Stars (WWA) – winning the WWA World Heavyweight Championship – before joining the then-upstart TNA in 2003. Over the following 11 years, he won the NWA World Heavyweight Championship on one further occasion and the TNA World Heavyweight Championship four times, as well as being the inaugural inductee into the TNA Hall of Fame in 2012. He is the only man to hold the NWA, WCW (WWA and WCW International, additionally) and TNA world championships in a career. Previously described by WWE as the greatest wrestler never to have performed for that promotion, Sting finally joined the company in 2014, making his first appearance at Survivor Series and having his debut match at WrestleMania 31 the following year. His last ever bout at Night of Champions in September 2015, marked his sole WWE pay-per-view main event and WWE World Heavyweight Championship contest for the organization. Sting headlined the WWE Hall of Fame class of 2016 on April 2, where he announced his retirement. His induction renders him the first performer to be inducted into both the WWE and TNA Hall of Fame, as well as the second man to be inducted while an active WWE wrestler, after Ric Flair.

Sting held 25 total championships throughout his career, including 21 between WCW and TNA. Readers of Pro Wrestling Illustrated named him "Most Popular Wrestler of the Year" on four occasions, a record he shares with John Cena. In 2016, Sting was inducted into the Wrestling Observer Newsletter Hall of Fame. Slam! Sports wrote that he holds "a lofty level of prestige that few will ever touch".

Wartenberg's sign

Wartenberg's sign is a neurological sign consisting of involuntary abduction of the fifth (little) finger, caused by unopposed action of the extensor digiti minimi.This commonly results from weakness of some of the ulnar nerve innervated intrinsic hand muscles -in particular the palmar interosseous muscle to the little finger- caused by damage to their nerve supply (denervation). There may be different causes for this denervation and muscle imbalance including:

An ulnar nerve neuropathy usually from ulnar nerve entrapment somewhere along its course (most commonly around the cubital tunnel at the elbow where the nerve is exposed to tension, friction and compression). This muscle imbalance between the (intact) radial nerve innervated extensor digiti quinti and the (weak) ulnar innervated interossei in the context of ulnar neuropathy is what Wartenberg described.

Cervical myelopathy most commonly due to mechanical compression of the spinal cord in the neck as occurs in spondylotic cervical spinal stenosis but also seen in other spinal cord disease including post-traumatic tetraplegia. This finding of weak finger adduction in cervical myelopathy is also called the "finger escape sign".

Upper motor neuron disorders of the cerebral cortex such as mild hemiplegic stroke or hemiplegic migraine where the same clinical finding has been called the "digiti quinti sign"Differentiation of the cause of Wartenberg's sign is based on associated clinical findings in the history and examination and sometimes involves investigations including radiographs and/or MRI of the cervical spine, elbow/wrist/hand and/or nerve conduction studies and EMG.

Wartenberg's sign is not a feature of, and should not be confused with, Wartenberg's syndrome. The later involves compression at the wrist of the superficial sensory branch of the radial nerve which does not innervate hand muscles.

Robert Wartenberg (1887-1956) was a neurologist born in Belarus who worked in Germany until 1935 when he emigrated to the United States, he was widely published and described a number of neurological signs and clinical tests.

When You're Young (3 Doors Down song)

"When You're Young" is the first single from 3 Doors Down's fifth studio album, Time of My Life. The single was released to iTunes on February 1, 2011. It is now their 10th top 10 single on the mainstream rock chart.3 Doors Down lead singer Brad Arnold said of the song, "I think it's a song that a lot of people can identify with. There's somebody out there who needs to hear this song, and I hope they hear it. So many times, older people look at young kids and say, "Enjoy this time! It's the best time of your life," when it's really not. Being young is hard. Everything's in front of you for the first time. Those things that are in front of you seem so much bigger than they do when you're looking back on them. I'm 32 now and looking back on my teenage years and before, a lot of it doesn't seem as hard as it did then because now it's behind me and I hardly remember it. You get the responsibilities of the world as an adult. However, when you were in high school, there was nothing bigger than that test on Friday. Now, you don't even remember what test it was. It's hard to be young. The song discusses that."On the April 15th episode of WWE SmackDown, the song is featured in a farewell tribute to Edge that aired on the night he surrendered the World Heavyweight Championship for the last time after he announced on WWE Raw that he is forced to retire due to being diagnosed with cervical spinal stenosis stemming from his 2003 neck injury.

The song was included as a downloadable track for the video game Rock Band 3 as part of the 3 Doors Down track pack.

WrestleMania XXVII

WrestleMania XXVII was the twenty-seventh annual WrestleMania professional wrestling pay-per-view (PPV) event produced by World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE), held on April 3, 2011 at the Georgia Dome in Atlanta, Georgia. The event was the first WrestleMania in the state of Georgia and the second to be held in Southeastern United States, following WrestleMania XXIV.

WrestleMania XXVII was a joint-promotion event, with performers from both the Raw and SmackDown brands. This would be the last joint-promotion WrestleMania until WrestleMania 33 in 2017; the first brand split ended in August 2011, meaning that performers were no longer exclusive to a brand, but the brand split returned in mid-2016. The event's card consisted of eight matches, including three main matches. In the first, Edge defeated Alberto Del Rio to retain the World Heavyweight Championship in what turned out to be Edge's final televised match before his retirement one week later due to cervical spinal stenosis in his neck. The second saw The Undertaker defeating Triple H in a No Holds Barred match to extend his undefeated WrestleMania streak to 19-0. The third saw The Miz defeating John Cena to retain the WWE Championship. This is the only WrestleMania where no championships changed hands; three championships were defended at the event and all three were retained.Tickets for the event commenced sale to the public on November 13, 2010. According to WWE's second-quarter earnings report, WrestleMania XXVII generated 1,059,000 PPV buys, up roughly 30% domestically and 15% internationally from the previous year. The event grossed US$6.6 million in revenue with 71,617 in attendance, making it the third highest grossing event in WWE behind WrestleMania XXV and the next years event WrestleMania XXVIII. It generated $62.1 million in economic impact for Atlanta, a $17 million increase from the previous WrestleMania event, and also generated approximately $7.8 million in local, state and county taxes.

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