Certificate of Entitlement

The Certificate of Entitlement or COE is the quota licence received from a successful winning bid in an open bid uniform price auction which grants the legal right of the holder to register, own and use a vehicle in Singapore for a period of 10 years. When demand is high, the cost of a COE can exceed the value of the car itself.[1]


On 1 May 1990, the then transportation unit of Singapore's Public Works Department (PWD) instituted a quota limit to vehicles called the COE when rising affluence in the city-state catapulted land transport network usage and previous measure to curb vehicle ownership by simply increasing road taxes was ineffective in controlling vehicle population growth.[2] The premise was that the small city-state had limited land resources and with demand for vehicle ownership spiralling out of control, would result in traffic conditions exceeding the criterion of a healthy road network that is sustainable by developments in land transport infrastructure resulting in gridlock. Along with a controversial congestion tax called Electronic Road Pricing, the COE system is one of the key pillars in Singapore's traffic management strategies that aims to provide a sustainable urban quality of life.


Before buying a new vehicle, potential vehicle owners in Singapore are required by the Land Transport Authority (LTA) to first place a monetary bid for a Certificate of Entitlement (COE). The number of available COEs is governed by a quota system called the Vehicle Quota System (VQS) and is announced by LTA in April of each year with a review in October for possible adjustments for the period of one year starting from May. Approximately one-twelfth of the yearly quota is auctioned off each month in a sealed-bid, uniform price auction system and successful bidders pay the lowest winning bid.

Vehicle Quota System (VQS)

The number of COEs available to the public is regulated by the Vehicle Quota System (VQS) that is calculated every 6 months based on the following conditions:[3]

  1. Actual number of vehicles taken off the roads (i.e. number of vehicles de-registered)
  2. Allowable growth in vehicle population
  3. Adjustments arising from temporary COEs that have expired or were cancelled.


Since the change in the total motor vehicle population is given by the number of registrations minus the number of de-registrations and any unallocated quota in a given year may be carried over to the following year, the quota formula[4] is as follows:

In the formula above, the subscript denotes calendar year and the subscript denotes quota year (May to April). Initially, projected deregistrations for (calendar) year were simply taken to be equal to actual deregistrations in but from quota year 1999–2000 onwards, a projected number of deregistrations has been used.

Each year, the quota is set to allow for a targeted percent growth in the total motor vehicle population, plus additional quota licenses to cover the number of motor vehicles that will be deregistered during the (calendar) year, plus any unallocated quota licenses from the previous quota year.


The holder of a COE is allowed to own a vehicle for an initial period of 10 years, after which they must scrap or export their vehicle or bid for another COE at the prevailing rate if they wish to continue using their vehicle for an intended remaining lifespan (7 more years).

At the end of the 10-year COE period, vehicle owners may choose to deregister their vehicle or to revalidate their COEs for another 5 or 10-year period by paying the Prevailing Quota Premium, which is the three-month moving average of the Quota Premium for the respective vehicle category. You do not need to bid for a new COE to renew the existing COE of your vehicle. A 5-year COE cannot be further renewed, which means that at the end of a 5-year COE, the vehicle will have to be de-registered and either scrapped or exported to another country other than Singapore.

Depending on the value of the COE at the time of renewal vehicle owners are subjected to a somewhat emotional dilemma of whether to pay for a new COE which can amount to more than the market value of the vehicle or to deregister their vehicle. The emotional dilemma is certainly enhanced when the vehicle owner is forced to deregister and scrap an otherwise road worthy vehicle due to lack of time or insufficient funds to afford the COE at the prevailing rate.

For comparison in terms of vehicle value to COE value a Second Hand 2007 Mercedes-Benz C200K with a COE expiring in 2017 was advertised at S$86,800. As of November 2013 for a category B Car with a cc above 1600 the COE is priced at S$84,578.

Auction process

COE biddings starts on the first and third Monday of the month and typically lasts for three days to the following Wednesday. Bidding duration will be pushed further in some circumstances, including public holidays. Bidding results can be obtained through the local media on the same day or on a website.[1]

All COE bids made in the two car categories (Cat A and B COEs) and the motorcycle category (Cat D COEs) must be made in the name of the buyer. Once COE is obtained, the vehicle has to be registered in the name of the bidder, i.e. Cat A, B and D COEs are non-transferable. To provide flexibility, successful COE bids in the Cat C (Goods vehicles and Buses) and Cat E (Open Category) in the name of the individuals are transferable. However these can only be transferred once within the first 3 months, while successful bids by companies are not transferable at all.

An additional restriction on car ownership is the requirement that motor vehicles more than ten years old, known as 'time expired' vehicles, must be either renew the COE for either 5 or 10 years or de-register the vehicle for scrapping or exporting from Singapore, usually to neighbouring countries. For vehicles which have a renewed COE for 5 years the owner of the vehicle has to scrap the vehicle at the end of the period with no option to renew the COE.

Some of these vehicles have been exported farther to other right hand drive countries like New Zealand, which has traditionally imported such vehicles from Japan. The result of the peculiarities of the Singapore car market has resulted in Singapore being the second largest exporter of used cars in the world after Japan. Cars are exported to many countries, including Libya and Trinidad.[5]

Owners of such vehicles are given financial incentives to do this, which include a Preferential Additional Registration Fee (PARF). This program was implemented to reduce traffic congestion and it complements other measures to curb road usage such as the Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) program.

COE Category Refinement in 2013

In September 2013, The COE system has been refined to include a new criterion for Category A cars. Under the change, the engine power of Cat A cars should not exceed 97 kilowatts (kW). This is equivalent to about 130 brake horsepower. This is in addition to the previous criterion of engine capacity of Cat A cars not exceeding 1600 cubic centimetres. However, cars with engine power output exceeding 97 kW will be classified under Category B in COE bidding exercises starting February 2014 despite having engine capacity below 1600 cubic centimetres. The review of the COE categories' criteria was because LTA wanted to differentiate and regulate the buying of mass market and premium cars under Cat A in a bid to control COE prices that hovered closer and closer to S$100,000.[6]


Initially, COEs were divided into 8 categories but after many revisions, the system has been simplified to just five categories. Categories A, B & D are non-transferable. Taxis used to be classed under category A but issuance of COEs became unrestricted from August 2012 onwards.[7]

Prior to May 1999

Category Vehicle Class
Cat 1 Cars 1000cc & below
Cat 2 Cars 1001-1600cc & Taxis
Cat 3 Cars 1601-2000cc
Cat 4 Cars above 2000cc
Cat 5 Goods Vehicles & Buses
Cat 6 Motorcycles
Cat 7 "Open" (for any kind of vehicle)

Current Categories

Category Vehicle Class
Cat A Cars 1600cc & below, and the engine power should not exceed 97 kilowatts (kW)
Cat B Cars 1600cc & above, or the engine power output exceeds 97 kW
Cat C Goods Vehicles & Buses (including public transport buses)
Cat D Motorcycles
Cat E "Open" (for any kind of vehicle, in 2017 motorcycles are no longer included in Cat E COE)

Historical records

Quota Premium

March 2009 2nd Open Bidding

Category Current Quota Premium Previous Quota Premium Increase/Decrease Difference
A (1600cc and below), taxi S$5,116 S$4,890 Increase S$226
B (1601cc and above) S$5,001 S$5,101 Decrease S$100
C (Goods Vehicle and Bus) S$5,600 S$5,300 Increase S$300
D (Motorcycles) S$912 S$958 Decrease S$46
E (Open) S$5,982 S$5,700 Increase S$282

April 2010 1st Open Bidding

Category Current Quota Premium Previous Quota Premium Increase/Decrease Difference
A (1600cc and below), taxi S$34,001 S$28,389 Increase S$5,612
B (1601cc and above) S$45,501 S$36,089 Increase S$9,412
E (Open) S$49,000 S$42,001 Increase S$6,999

December 2011 1st Open Bidding

Category Current Quota Premium Previous Quota Premium Increase/Decrease Difference
A (1600cc and below), taxi S$50,001 S$52,357 Decrease S$2,356
B (1601cc and above) S$70,003 S$72,317 Decrease S$2,314
E (Open) S$71,000 S$74,345 Decrease S$3,345

2013 results: [2]

Car growth rate

Period % Remark
May 1990 to May 2009 3.0 3.0% + deregistrations as per last annum
Jun 2009 to Jun 2010 1.5 Reduced to 1.5% + deregistrations as per last annum, partly due to low price COE
Jul 2010 to Jul 2012 1.5% as per last annum + recent half-yearly deregistrations, rate are extended to July
Aug 2012 to Jan 2013 1.0 Taxi are moved to Cat E
Feb 2013 to Jan 2014 0.5 Reduced to 0.5% and expected to last till Jan 2015
Feb 2014 to Jan 2015 Change to recent quarterly deregistrations
Feb 2015 to Jan 2018 0.25 Reduced to 0.25% and the growth of COE is permanently discontinued (only for personal cars and motorbikes)

COE range

Previous Category Highest Lowest1 Current Category Highest Lowest Remarks
May 1990 – Apr 1999 SGD Period SGD Period From May 1999 SGD Period SGD Period
Cat 1 (1000 cc & below) 41,008 Jul 1997 210 Feb 1991 Cat A3 92,100 Jan 2013 2 Nov 2008a a. Major historical plunge partly due to 2008 financial crisis and over-projections of vehicle de-registrations in 2008/09
b. Major historical plunge partly due to 1997 Asian financial crisis
Cat 2 (1001 – 1600 cc) & taxi 62,208 Jul 1997 909 Mar 1991
Cat 3 (1601 – 2000 cc) 83,500 Dec 1994 50 Jan 1998b Cat B 96,210 Jan 2013 200 Jan 2009a
Cat 4 (2001 cc & above) 110,500 Dec 1994 800 Apr 1991
Cat 5 (Goods Vehicle & Bus) 39,000 Dec 1994 1 Apr 1991 Cat C 76,310 Oct 2013 1 Dec 2006–
Mar 2007c
c. Partly due to strict emission standards from Oct 2006
Cat 6 (Motorcycle) 3,506 Aug 1997 1 Jan 1994,
Feb 1994d
Cat D 6,801 Apr 2015 1 Nov 2002–
Mar 2003d
d. Mainly due to higher quota and lower than minimum bidders
Cat 7 (Open) 95,986 Dec 1994 998 Mar 1991 Cat E 97,889 Jan 2013 3,200 Jan 2009
Cat 8 (Weekend Car)2 45,300 Sep 1994 1,110 Oct 1991 OPC COE rebate up to $17,000

1. Excluded initial quote for first 3 months (May~Jul'90). Previous lowest record due to higher quota for year 1991
2. It was stopped on Sep 1994, the scheme was replaced by the Off-Peak Car rebate
3. Taxi are moved to Cat E from Aug 2012

Average vehicle pricing

Detailed cost structures when buying a car can be found at this site.[3]
All prices are in Singapore dollars dated July 2018 [8]

  • CAT A-Cars up to 1600cc and 130bhp: $25,000
  • CAT B-Cars above 1600cc or 130bhp: $31,000
  • CAT C-Goods Vehicle & Bus: $31,092
  • CAT D-Motorcycles: $6,514
  • CAT E-Open: $31,001

In popular culture

"Despair", a song on The Observatory's Leslie Low's solo album, No Such Thing As Ghosts (2014), plays on the double meaning of "Certificate of Entitlement" in the lyric, "No there is no heart here / Just a certificate of entitlement", as part of its indictment of the elitist and uncaring side of Singaporean society.[9]


The COE system has received the following criticisms:

  • The auction-style system that the COE system is based on favors the wealthy who can afford to bid with higher prices for COEs and the wealthy elite who can even afford a few COEs for multiple cars they own, while lower income families, which need a car more, are forced to pay the COE prices that are driven up by demand.
  • The COE price paid becomes a significant overhead which has to be amortized in ten years. Because of this, owners feel compelled to use the car intensively before the COE expires. This has led to Singapore cars clocking up as many kilometers as those in the US or Europe, though Singapore is only 45 kilometres (28 mi) across its widest part, and there are several routings similar to the buses and the mean time distance between failures.
  • The COE prices vary from month to month and the differences can be in the tens of thousands of dollars depending on the quota issued by LTA.
  • The COE system discourages car owners from keeping road-worthy cars, because COEs expire after 10 years and need to be renewed by paying a Prevailing Quota Premium. In addition, there are financial incentives for scrapping or exporting a car before its COE expires. As a result, Singapore roads are overwhelmingly populated by models under 10 years old, and cars do officially depletes after completing either 17 years of lifespan (typical vehicle), coupled with between two and three years extension. An ex-gratia's payment will also be needed, called PARF value.
  • The COE system does not consider why the person wishes to own a car by need. For example, if a businessman was using the car to drive for business purposes then the usage of the vehicle becomes an element of the business model. Having high COE prices discourages growth of a business which is reliant on vehicular transport, although land transport costs typically form only a small component (about 1.5%) of business costs for manufacturing companies in Singapore.
  • COE also impacts transportation business with a lot of vehicles.
  • Only by addressing why the owner of the car needs the vehicle can a more robust system be developed to cater for the public. If the vehicle was required for the person to the daily commute from Malaysia, for example, the person may end up having to pay a COE sum which amounts to more than the value of the car. [10]
  • COE prices also affect VEP (Vehicle Entry Permit) and GVP (Goods Vehicle Permit) prices for Malaysian-registered vehicles entering Singapore.
  • Since Malaysia and Singapore depend on each other, border crossing is essential. Businesses, logistics, commuting, transportation and cross-border activity are affected if COE prices are steeply high, causing the GVP and VEP price to also increase.
  • The price of Category D (Motorcycles) COE suddenly skyrocketed in 2014 caused by shortage of quota due to de-registered motorcycle quota were filled by non-motorcycle quota in Category E (Open category) COE causing cars number significantly increased in quota whereas motorcycles quota become smaller which affects a lot of Singaporeans and businesses.[11][12]


  1. ^ Grant, Jeremy (4 March 2014). "Singapore overtakes Tokyo as world's most expensive city". FT.com. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
  2. ^ Singapore, National Library Board,. "Certificate of Entitlement - Infopedia". eresources.nlb.gov.sg.
  3. ^ "Overview of a Vehicle Quota System". Land Transport Authority of Singapore. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
  4. ^ Ling, Hui Tan (September 2001). "Rationing Rules and Outcomes: The Experience of Singapore's Vehicle Quota System" (PDF). IMF Working Paper: 5.
  5. ^ Farah Abdul Rahim (23 October 2005). "100,000 used Singapore cars expected to be exported this year". Channel NewsAsia.
  6. ^ COE System to Include Engine Power for Cat A Cars Archived 19 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ "Taxis out of COE bidding process from August". Channel News Asia. 27 July 2012. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
  8. ^ sgCarMart. "COE Bidding Results Singapore". sgCarMart.com.
  9. ^ "Despair". Leslie Low on Bandcamp. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
  10. ^ "ust for thoughts: COE in Singapore". ValueEssay on COE. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
  11. ^ migration (24 April 2015). "Spike in motorcycle COE prices 'due to quota shortage'". straitstimes.com.
  12. ^ "3 Reasons the High Motorcycle COEs in Singapore are Unreasonable". moneysmart.sg. 30 September 2015.

External links

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Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany, who was famously dismissive of the BEF, allegedly issued an order on 19 August 1914 to "exterminate ... the treacherous English and walk over General French's contemptible little army". Hence, in later years, the survivors of the regular army dubbed themselves "The Old Contemptibles". No evidence of any such order being issued by the Kaiser has ever been found.

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Separation, contested divorce (five years)Civil remarriage is allowed. Religions and denominations differ on whether they permit religious remarriage.

A divorce in England and Wales is only possible for marriages of more than one year and when the marriage has irretrievably broken down. Whilst it is possible to defend a divorce, the vast majority proceed on an undefended basis. A decree of divorce is initially granted 'nisi', i.e. (unless cause is later shown), before it is made 'absolute'.

Driving in Singapore

In Singapore, cars and other vehicles drive on the left side of the road, as in neighbouring Malaysia, due to its British colonial history (which led to British driving rules being adopted in India, Australia, New Zealand, and Hong Kong as well). As a result, most vehicles are right-hand drive. However, exemptions have been made to allow foreign vehicles and construction machineries to utilise the roadspace of Singapore. As such, vehicles with left hand drive configurations are required to either be driven with a sign indicating "LEFT-HAND-DRIVE" or towed.

The per-capita car ownership rate in Singapore is 12 cars per 100 people (or 1 car per 8.25 people).

Electronic Road Pricing

The Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) (Malay: Sistem Kadar Jalan Elektronik; Chinese: 电子道路收费系统) system is an electronic toll collection scheme adopted in Singapore to manage traffic by way of road pricing, and as a usage-based taxation mechanism to complement the purchase-based Certificate of Entitlement system. The ERP was implemented by the Land Transport Authority in September 1998 to replace the Singapore Area Licensing Scheme after successfully stress-testing the system with vehicles running at high speed. Singapore was the first city in the world to implement an electronic road toll collection system for purposes of congestion pricing. The system uses open road tolling; vehicles do not stop or slow down to pay tolls.

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Singapore is a global hub for education, entertainment, finance, healthcare, human capital, innovation, logistics, manufacturing, technology, tourism, trade, and transport. The city ranks highly in numerous international rankings, and has been recognised as the most "technology-ready" nation (WEF), top International-meetings city (UIA), city with "best investment potential" (BERI), world's smartest city, world's safest country, second-most competitive country, third-largest foreign exchange market, third-largest financial centre, third-largest oil refining and trading centre, fifth-most innovative country, and the second-busiest container port. The Economist has ranked Singapore as the most expensive city to live in, since 2013. It is identified as a tax haven. Singapore is the only country in Asia with an AAA sovereign rating from all major rating agencies, and one of 11 worldwide. Globally, the Port of Singapore and Changi Airport have held the titles of leading "Maritime Capital" and "Best Airport" respectively for consecutive years, while Singapore Airlines is the 2018 "World's Best Airline".Singapore ranks 9th on the UN Human Development Index with the 3rd highest GDP per capita. It is placed highly in key social indicators: education, healthcare, life expectancy, quality of life, personal safety and housing. Although income inequality is high, 90% of homes are owner-occupied. According to the Democracy Index, the country is described as a "flawed democracy". The Singaporean passport is second in the world after Japan for visa-free travel granted by the most countries to its citizens.The city-state is home to 5.6 million residents, 39% of whom are foreign nationals, including permanent residents. There are four official languages: English, Malay, Mandarin Chinese, and Tamil; most Singaporeans are bilingual and English serves as the nation's lingua franca. Its cultural diversity is reflected in its extensive ethnic cuisine and major festivals. Pew Research has found that Singapore has the highest religious diversity of any country. Multiracialism has been enshrined in its constitution since independence, and continues to shape national policies in education, housing, politics, among others.

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