The Certificate of Entitlement or COE is the quota licence received from a successful winning bid in an open bid uniform price auction which grants the legal right of the holder to register, own and use a vehicle in Singapore for a period of 10 years. When demand is high, the cost of a COE can exceed the value of the car itself.
On 1 May 1990, the then transportation unit of Singapore's Public Works Department (PWD) instituted a quota limit to vehicles called the COE when rising affluence in the city-state catapulted land transport network usage and previous measure to curb vehicle ownership by simply increasing road taxes was ineffective in controlling vehicle population growth. The premise was that the small city-state had limited land resources and with demand for vehicle ownership spiralling out of control, would result in traffic conditions exceeding the criterion of a healthy road network that is sustainable by developments in land transport infrastructure resulting in gridlock. Along with a controversial congestion tax called Electronic Road Pricing, the COE system is one of the key pillars in Singapore's traffic management strategies that aims to provide a sustainable urban quality of life.
Before buying a new vehicle, potential vehicle owners in Singapore are required by the Land Transport Authority (LTA) to first place a monetary bid for a Certificate of Entitlement (COE). The number of available COEs is governed by a quota system called the Vehicle Quota System (VQS) and is announced by LTA in April of each year with a review in October for possible adjustments for the period of one year starting from May. Approximately one-twelfth of the yearly quota is auctioned off each month in a sealed-bid, uniform price auction system and successful bidders pay the lowest winning bid.
The number of COEs available to the public is regulated by the Vehicle Quota System (VQS) that is calculated every 6 months based on the following conditions:
Since the change in the total motor vehicle population is given by the number of registrations minus the number of de-registrations and any unallocated quota in a given year may be carried over to the following year, the quota formula is as follows:
In the formula above, the subscript denotes calendar year and the subscript denotes quota year (May to April). Initially, projected deregistrations for (calendar) year were simply taken to be equal to actual deregistrations in but from quota year 1999–2000 onwards, a projected number of deregistrations has been used.
Each year, the quota is set to allow for a targeted percent growth in the total motor vehicle population, plus additional quota licenses to cover the number of motor vehicles that will be deregistered during the (calendar) year, plus any unallocated quota licenses from the previous quota year.
The holder of a COE is allowed to own a vehicle for an initial period of 10 years, after which they must scrap or export their vehicle or bid for another COE at the prevailing rate if they wish to continue using their vehicle for an intended remaining lifespan (7 more years).
At the end of the 10-year COE period, vehicle owners may choose to deregister their vehicle or to revalidate their COEs for another 5 or 10-year period by paying the Prevailing Quota Premium, which is the three-month moving average of the Quota Premium for the respective vehicle category. You do not need to bid for a new COE to renew the existing COE of your vehicle. A 5-year COE cannot be further renewed, which means that at the end of a 5-year COE, the vehicle will have to be de-registered and either scrapped or exported to another country other than Singapore.
Depending on the value of the COE at the time of renewal vehicle owners are subjected to a somewhat emotional dilemma of whether to pay for a new COE which can amount to more than the market value of the vehicle or to deregister their vehicle. The emotional dilemma is certainly enhanced when the vehicle owner is forced to deregister and scrap an otherwise road worthy vehicle due to lack of time or insufficient funds to afford the COE at the prevailing rate.
For comparison in terms of vehicle value to COE value a Second Hand 2007 Mercedes-Benz C200K with a COE expiring in 2017 was advertised at S$86,800. As of November 2013 for a category B Car with a cc above 1600 the COE is priced at S$84,578.
COE biddings starts on the first and third Monday of the month and typically lasts for three days to the following Wednesday. Bidding duration will be pushed further in some circumstances, including public holidays. Bidding results can be obtained through the local media on the same day or on a website.
All COE bids made in the two car categories (Cat A and B COEs) and the motorcycle category (Cat D COEs) must be made in the name of the buyer. Once COE is obtained, the vehicle has to be registered in the name of the bidder, i.e. Cat A, B and D COEs are non-transferable. To provide flexibility, successful COE bids in the Cat C (Goods vehicles and Buses) and Cat E (Open Category) in the name of the individuals are transferable. However these can only be transferred once within the first 3 months, while successful bids by companies are not transferable at all.
An additional restriction on car ownership is the requirement that motor vehicles more than ten years old, known as 'time expired' vehicles, must be either renew the COE for either 5 or 10 years or de-register the vehicle for scrapping or exporting from Singapore, usually to neighbouring countries. For vehicles which have a renewed COE for 5 years the owner of the vehicle has to scrap the vehicle at the end of the period with no option to renew the COE.
Some of these vehicles have been exported farther to other right hand drive countries like New Zealand, which has traditionally imported such vehicles from Japan. The result of the peculiarities of the Singapore car market has resulted in Singapore being the second largest exporter of used cars in the world after Japan. Cars are exported to many countries, including Libya and Trinidad.
Owners of such vehicles are given financial incentives to do this, which include a Preferential Additional Registration Fee (PARF). This program was implemented to reduce traffic congestion and it complements other measures to curb road usage such as the Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) program.
In September 2013, The COE system has been refined to include a new criterion for Category A cars. Under the change, the engine power of Cat A cars should not exceed 97 kilowatts (kW). This is equivalent to about 130 brake horsepower. This is in addition to the previous criterion of engine capacity of Cat A cars not exceeding 1600 cubic centimetres. However, cars with engine power output exceeding 97 kW will be classified under Category B in COE bidding exercises starting February 2014 despite having engine capacity below 1600 cubic centimetres. The review of the COE categories' criteria was because LTA wanted to differentiate and regulate the buying of mass market and premium cars under Cat A in a bid to control COE prices that hovered closer and closer to S$100,000.
Initially, COEs were divided into 8 categories but after many revisions, the system has been simplified to just five categories. Categories A, B & D are non-transferable. Taxis used to be classed under category A but issuance of COEs became unrestricted from August 2012 onwards.
Prior to May 1999
|Cat 1||Cars 1000cc & below|
|Cat 2||Cars 1001-1600cc & Taxis|
|Cat 3||Cars 1601-2000cc|
|Cat 4||Cars above 2000cc|
|Cat 5||Goods Vehicles & Buses|
|Cat 7||"Open" (for any kind of vehicle)|
|Cat A||Cars 1600cc & below, and the engine power should not exceed 97 kilowatts (kW)|
|Cat B||Cars 1600cc & above, or the engine power output exceeds 97 kW|
|Cat C||Goods Vehicles & Buses (including public transport buses)|
|Cat E||"Open" (for any kind of vehicle, in 2017 motorcycles are no longer included in Cat E COE)|
March 2009 2nd Open Bidding
|Category||Current Quota Premium||Previous Quota Premium||/||Difference|
|A (1600cc and below), taxi||S$5,116||S$4,890||S$226|
|B (1601cc and above)||S$5,001||S$5,101||S$100|
|C (Goods Vehicle and Bus)||S$5,600||S$5,300||S$300|
April 2010 1st Open Bidding
|Category||Current Quota Premium||Previous Quota Premium||/||Difference|
|A (1600cc and below), taxi||S$34,001||S$28,389||S$5,612|
|B (1601cc and above)||S$45,501||S$36,089||S$9,412|
December 2011 1st Open Bidding
|Category||Current Quota Premium||Previous Quota Premium||/||Difference|
|A (1600cc and below), taxi||S$50,001||S$52,357||S$2,356|
|B (1601cc and above)||S$70,003||S$72,317||S$2,314|
2013 results: 
|May 1990 to May 2009||3.0||3.0% + deregistrations as per last annum|
|Jun 2009 to Jun 2010||1.5||Reduced to 1.5% + deregistrations as per last annum, partly due to low price COE|
|Jul 2010 to Jul 2012||1.5% as per last annum + recent half-yearly deregistrations, rate are extended to July|
|Aug 2012 to Jan 2013||1.0||Taxi are moved to Cat E|
|Feb 2013 to Jan 2014||0.5||Reduced to 0.5% and expected to last till Jan 2015|
|Feb 2014 to Jan 2015||Change to recent quarterly deregistrations|
|Feb 2015 to Jan 2018||0.25||Reduced to 0.25% and the growth of COE is permanently discontinued (only for personal cars and motorbikes)|
|Previous Category||Highest||Lowest1||Current Category||Highest||Lowest||Remarks|
|May 1990 – Apr 1999||SGD||Period||SGD||Period||From May 1999||SGD||Period||SGD||Period|
|Cat 1 (1000 cc & below)||41,008||Jul 1997||210||Feb 1991||Cat A3||92,100||Jan 2013||2||Nov 2008a||a. Major historical plunge partly due to 2008 financial crisis and over-projections of vehicle de-registrations in 2008/09|
b. Major historical plunge partly due to 1997 Asian financial crisis
|Cat 2 (1001 – 1600 cc) & taxi||62,208||Jul 1997||909||Mar 1991|
|Cat 3 (1601 – 2000 cc)||83,500||Dec 1994||50||Jan 1998b||Cat B||96,210||Jan 2013||200||Jan 2009a|
|Cat 4 (2001 cc & above)||110,500||Dec 1994||800||Apr 1991|
|Cat 5 (Goods Vehicle & Bus)||39,000||Dec 1994||1||Apr 1991||Cat C||76,310||Oct 2013||1||Dec 2006–
|c. Partly due to strict emission standards from Oct 2006|
|Cat 6 (Motorcycle)||3,506||Aug 1997||1||Jan 1994,
|Cat D||6,801||Apr 2015||1||Nov 2002–
|d. Mainly due to higher quota and lower than minimum bidders|
|Cat 7 (Open)||95,986||Dec 1994||998||Mar 1991||Cat E||97,889||Jan 2013||3,200||Jan 2009||–|
|Cat 8 (Weekend Car)2||45,300||Sep 1994||1,110||Oct 1991||OPC||COE rebate up to $17,000|
1. Excluded initial quote for first 3 months (May~Jul'90). Previous lowest record due to higher quota for year 1991
"Despair", a song on The Observatory's Leslie Low's solo album, No Such Thing As Ghosts (2014), plays on the double meaning of "Certificate of Entitlement" in the lyric, "No there is no heart here / Just a certificate of entitlement", as part of its indictment of the elitist and uncaring side of Singaporean society.
The COE system has received the following criticisms:
The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the British Army sent to the Western Front during the First World War. Planning for a British Expeditionary Force began with the Haldane reforms of the British Army carried out by the Secretary of State for War Richard Haldane following the Second Boer War (1899–1902).The term "British Expeditionary Force" is often used to refer only to the forces present in France prior to the end of the First Battle of Ypres on 22 November 1914. By the end of 1914—after the battles of Mons, Le Cateau, the Aisne and Ypres—the old Regular Army had been wiped out, although it managed to help stop the German advance. An alternative endpoint of the BEF was 26 December 1914, when it was divided into the First and Second Armies (a Third, Fourth and Fifth being created later in the war). B.E.F. remained the official name of the British armies in France and Flanders throughout the First World War.
Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany, who was famously dismissive of the BEF, allegedly issued an order on 19 August 1914 to "exterminate ... the treacherous English and walk over General French's contemptible little army". Hence, in later years, the survivors of the regular army dubbed themselves "The Old Contemptibles". No evidence of any such order being issued by the Kaiser has ever been found.Divorce in England and Wales
In England and Wales, divorce is allowed on the ground that the marriage has irretrievably broken down. The Matrimonial Causes Act 1973 specifies that the marriage may be found to have irretrievably broken down if one of the following is established:
Desertion (two years)
Separation, agreed divorce (two years)
Separation, contested divorce (five years)Civil remarriage is allowed. Religions and denominations differ on whether they permit religious remarriage.
A divorce in England and Wales is only possible for marriages of more than one year and when the marriage has irretrievably broken down. Whilst it is possible to defend a divorce, the vast majority proceed on an undefended basis. A decree of divorce is initially granted 'nisi', i.e. (unless cause is later shown), before it is made 'absolute'.Driving in Singapore
In Singapore, cars and other vehicles drive on the left side of the road, as in neighbouring Malaysia, due to its British colonial history (which led to British driving rules being adopted in India, Australia, New Zealand, and Hong Kong as well). As a result, most vehicles are right-hand drive. However, exemptions have been made to allow foreign vehicles and construction machineries to utilise the roadspace of Singapore. As such, vehicles with left hand drive configurations are required to either be driven with a sign indicating "LEFT-HAND-DRIVE" or towed.
The per-capita car ownership rate in Singapore is 12 cars per 100 people (or 1 car per 8.25 people).Electronic Road Pricing
The Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) (Malay: Sistem Kadar Jalan Elektronik; Chinese: 电子道路收费系统) system is an electronic toll collection scheme adopted in Singapore to manage traffic by way of road pricing, and as a usage-based taxation mechanism to complement the purchase-based Certificate of Entitlement system. The ERP was implemented by the Land Transport Authority in September 1998 to replace the Singapore Area Licensing Scheme after successfully stress-testing the system with vehicles running at high speed. Singapore was the first city in the world to implement an electronic road toll collection system for purposes of congestion pricing. The system uses open road tolling; vehicles do not stop or slow down to pay tolls.Five Cs of Singapore
"Five Cs of Singapore" – namely, Cash, Car, Credit card, Condominium and Country club membership – is a phrase used in Singapore to refer to materialism. It was coined as a popular observational joke about the aspirations of some Singaporeans to obtain material possessions in an effort to impress others.Holden Commodore (VS)
The Holden Commodore (VS) is an executive car which was produced by the Australian manufacturer Holden from 1995 to 1997. It was the fourth and final iteration of the second generation of this Australian made model. The range included the luxury variants, Holden Berlina (VS) and Holden Calais (VS). A .Macau Resident Identity Card
The Macau Resident Identity Card (Chinese: 澳門居民身份證; Portuguese: Bilhete de Identidade de Residente) or BIR is an official identity card issued by the Direcção dos Serviços de Identificação of Macau. There are two types of Resident Identity Cards: one for permanent residents (Chinese: 澳門特別行政區永久性居民身份證; Portuguese: Bilhete de Identidade de Residente Permanente da R.A.E.M.), and one for non-permanent residents (Chinese: 澳門特別行政區非永久性居民身份證; Portuguese: Bilhete de Identidade de Residente não Permanente da R.A.E.M.).Motorcycle courier
A motorcycle courier, also known as a despatch rider or motorcycle messenger, is a courier using a motorcycle.
Motorcycle couriers are common in the major urban centres of Europe, South America (especially Brazil), Asia and North America.Outline of Singapore
The following outline is provided as an overview and topical guide to Singapore:
Singapore – sovereign republic comprising the main island of Singapore and smaller outlying islands which are located at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula in Southeast Asia. Singapore lies 137 kilometres (85 mi) north of the equator, south of the Malaysian state of Johor and north of Indonesia's Riau Islands. Singapore is one of three remaining true city-states in the world. It is the second smallest nation in Asia.Right of abode (United Kingdom)
The right of abode (ROA) is an immigration status in the United Kingdom that gives a person the unrestricted right to enter and live in the UK. It was introduced by the Immigration Act 1971 which went into effect on 1 January 1973. This status is held by all British citizens, certain British subjects, as well as certain Commonwealth citizens with specific connections to the UK before 1983. Since 1983, it is not possible for a person to acquire this status without being a British citizen.
The right of abode is the most common immigration status in the UK due to its association with British citizenship. However, it should not be confused with the indefinite leave to remain (ILR), another form of long-term residency status in the UK which is more comparable to other countries' permanent residence status.Silver War Badge
The Silver War Badge was issued in the United Kingdom and the British Empire to service personnel who had been honourably discharged due to wounds or sickness from military service in World War I. The badge, sometimes known as the "Discharge Badge", the "Wound Badge" or "Services Rendered Badge", was first issued in September 1916, along with an official certificate of entitlement.
The large sterling silver lapel badge was intended to be worn on civilian clothes. The decoration was introduced as an award of "King's silver" for having received wounds or injury during loyal war service to the Crown's authority. A secondary causation for its introduction was that a practice had developed in the early years of the war in the United Kingdom where some women took it upon themselves to confront and publicly embarrass men of fighting age they saw in public places who were not in military uniform, by ostentatiously presenting them with white feathers, as a suggestion of cowardice. As the war had developed substantial numbers of servicemen who had been discharged from His Majesty's Forces with wounds that rendered them unfit for war service, but which were not obvious from their outward appearance, found themselves being harassed in such a manner and the badge, to be worn on the right breast while in civilian dress, was a means of discouraging such incidents being directed at ex-forces' personnel. It was forbidden to wear the badge on a military uniform.
The badge bears the royal cipher of "GRI" (for Georgius Rex Imperator; George, King and Emperor) and around the rim "For King and Empire - Services Rendered".
Each badge was uniquely numbered on the reverse. The War Office maintained a register recording which serviceman each one had been issued to in United Kingdom, and the governments of Canada, New Zealand, Australia, South Africa and Rhodesia maintained their own registers of issue (which were copied to the War Office in London to provide it with an Imperial master-record). Silver War Badges issued by the Empire's dominion nations had their identification numbers on the reverse prefixed with the first letter of the issuing nation: Australia with the letter 'A', Canada 'C', etc. In the United Kingdom the War Office made it known that it would not replace Silver War Badges if they were lost, however if one was handed into a police station then it would be returned to the War Office, which would seek to return it using its records to its recipient.
A similar award called the King's Badge was issued in World War II. Although each was issued with a certificate, unlike its World War I counterpart it was not individually numbered.Singapore
Singapore ( (listen)), officially the Republic of Singapore (Malay: Republik Singapura; Chinese: 新加坡共和国; Tamil: சிங்கப்பூர் குடியரசு), is a city-state and island country in Southeast Asia. It lies one degree (137 kilometres or 85 miles) north of the equator, at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, with Indonesia's Riau Islands to the south and Peninsular Malaysia to the north. Singapore's territory consists of one main island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its total size by 23% (130 square kilometres or 50 square miles). The country is known for its transition from a developing to a developed one in a single generation under the leadership of its founding father, Lee Kuan Yew.Stamford Raffles founded colonial Singapore in 1819 as a trading post of the British East India Company. After the company's collapse in 1858, the islands were ceded to the British Raj as a crown colony. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan. It gained independence from the UK in 1963 by federating with other former British territories to form Malaysia, but separated two years later over ideological differences, becoming a sovereign nation in 1965. After early years of turbulence and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation developed rapidly as an Asian Tiger economy, based on external trade and its workforce.
Singapore is a global hub for education, entertainment, finance, healthcare, human capital, innovation, logistics, manufacturing, technology, tourism, trade, and transport. The city ranks highly in numerous international rankings, and has been recognised as the most "technology-ready" nation (WEF), top International-meetings city (UIA), city with "best investment potential" (BERI), world's smartest city, world's safest country, second-most competitive country, third-largest foreign exchange market, third-largest financial centre, third-largest oil refining and trading centre, fifth-most innovative country, and the second-busiest container port. The Economist has ranked Singapore as the most expensive city to live in, since 2013. It is identified as a tax haven. Singapore is the only country in Asia with an AAA sovereign rating from all major rating agencies, and one of 11 worldwide. Globally, the Port of Singapore and Changi Airport have held the titles of leading "Maritime Capital" and "Best Airport" respectively for consecutive years, while Singapore Airlines is the 2018 "World's Best Airline".Singapore ranks 9th on the UN Human Development Index with the 3rd highest GDP per capita. It is placed highly in key social indicators: education, healthcare, life expectancy, quality of life, personal safety and housing. Although income inequality is high, 90% of homes are owner-occupied. According to the Democracy Index, the country is described as a "flawed democracy". The Singaporean passport is second in the world after Japan for visa-free travel granted by the most countries to its citizens.The city-state is home to 5.6 million residents, 39% of whom are foreign nationals, including permanent residents. There are four official languages: English, Malay, Mandarin Chinese, and Tamil; most Singaporeans are bilingual and English serves as the nation's lingua franca. Its cultural diversity is reflected in its extensive ethnic cuisine and major festivals. Pew Research has found that Singapore has the highest religious diversity of any country. Multiracialism has been enshrined in its constitution since independence, and continues to shape national policies in education, housing, politics, among others.
Singapore is a unitary parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government. The People's Action Party has won every election since self-government began in 1959. As one of the five founding members of ASEAN, Singapore is the host of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Secretariat and Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC) Secretariat, as well as many international conferences and events. It is also a member of the East Asia Summit, Non-Aligned Movement and the Commonwealth of Nations.South African nationality law
South Africa rewrote its nationality law since the end of Apartheid in 1994 and the establishment of majority rule in the country under the African National Congress. The 1995 South African Citizenship Act did away with the previous Apartheid-era 1949 and 1970 acts which had established separate bantustan citizenship to the country's African majority and inferior levels of citizenship to the country's Asian and coloured minorities.Vehicle registration plates of Singapore
Vehicle registration plates in Singapore are administered by the Land Transport Authority.Visa policy of Morocco
A foreign national wishing to enter Morocco must obtain a visa unless he or she is a citizen of one of the countries eligible for visa exemption.Visa policy of the United Arab Emirates
Visitors to the United Arab Emirates must obtain a visa prior to travel unless they come from one of the visa exempt countries or one of the countries whose citizens are eligible for visa on arrival.
Citizens of member nations of the Gulf Cooperation Council have a freedom of movement in the UAE, except for citizens of Qatar who are no longer allowed to enter (since 2017), unless they are a family member of a resident.All visitors visiting the United Arab Emirates must hold a passport valid for at least 6 months. GCC nationals (except Qatar) need to only show their government issued ID card or driving license.Visa requirements for British Overseas Territories citizens
A British Overseas Territories citizen holds British nationality by virtue of a connection with a British Overseas Territory.
British Overseas Territories citizens (BOTCs) enjoy visa-free entry to a number of countries and territories. However, in some cases, foreign authorities only grant them a visa-free entry if they present a passport with an endorsement stating their right of abode in the United Kingdom.
Visa requirements for other classes of British nationals such as British citizens, British Nationals (Overseas), British Overseas citizens, British Protected Persons or British Subjects are different.Visa requirements for South African citizens
Visa requirements for South African citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of South Africa. As of February 2018, South African citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 102 countries and territories, ranking the South African passport 53rd in terms of travel freedom according to the Henley Passport Index.Where visa-free access is permitted, such access is not necessarily a right, and admission is at the discretion of border enforcement officers. Visitors engaging in activities other than tourism, including unpaid work, may require a visa or work permit.
It does not provide for where certain people under the assumption remained British Subjects without Citizenship, then later became British Overseas Citizens or British Subjects in 1983, there are different requirements. See Visa requirements for British Overseas citizens or South African nationality law.