The Nuclear Power Plant in Cernavodă (Romanian: Centrala Nucleară de la Cernavodă) is a nuclear power plant in Romania. It produces around 20% of the country's electricity. It uses CANDU reactor technology from AECL, using heavy water produced at Drobeta-Turnu Severin as its neutron moderator and as its coolant agent. The Danube water is not used for cooling of the active zone (nuclear fuel).
By using nuclear power, Romania is able to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by over 10 million tonnes each year.
The power plant was designed in Canada by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited in the 1980s, and was contracted during the Communist era. The initial plan was to build five units. Units 1 and 2 are currently operational. Three more partially completed CANDU reactors exist on the same site, part of a project discontinued at the fall of the Ceauşescu regime.
CNE-INVEST is responsible for the preservation of Units 3-5.
|Cernavodă Nuclear Power Plant|
The Cernavodă Nuclear Power Plant
Location of Cernavodă Nuclear Power Plant
|Construction began||Unit 1: July 1, 1982|
Unit 2: July 1, 1983
Units 2–5: 1980s
|Commission date||Unit 1: December 2, 1996|
October 31, 2007
|Nuclear power station|
|Reactor type||CANDU PHWR|
|Fuel type||37-element fuel bundles|
|Units operational||2 × 650 MW|
|Make and model||CANDU 6|
|Units planned||2 × 655 MW (suspended construction)|
|Units cancelled||1 × 655 MW (cancelled at 2.8% complete)|
|Thermal capacity||2 × 2180 MWth|
|Nameplate capacity||1300 MW|
|Capacity factor||92.90% (2017)|
92.05% (lifetime) 94.7%
|Annual net output||10,580 GWh (2017)|
It was commissioned and began operating at full power in 1996 and has had record capacity factors of 90 percent since 2005.
In 2019 planning was progressing for a modernisation scheme for 30 years of plant life, to be carried out by Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power who have experience of CANDU modernisation at Wolseong. A refurbishment outage is expected from December 2026 and December 2028.
A consortium of AECL and Ansaldo Nucleare of Italy, along with the Nuclearelectrica (SNN) SA, Romania’s nuclear public utility, was contracted in 2003 to manage the construction of the partially completed Unit 2 power plant and to commission it into service.
Four years later, Unit 2, another CANDU 6-reactor, achieved criticality on 6 May 2007 and was connected to the national grid on 7 August. It began operating at full capacity on 12 September 2007, also producing 706 MW.
Unit 2 was officially commissioned on Friday, October 5, 2007 during ceremonies attended by Romanian Prime Minister Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu and senior officials from Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). This makes CNE-Cernavoda Station the third largest power producer in the country.
Units 3 and 4 were expected to be CANDU 6 reactors with a similar design to Unit 2 and will each have a capacity of 720 MW. The project was estimated to take up to six years after the contracts are signed.
In a feasibility study carried out by Deloitte and Touche, the most economically viable scenario would be to build the two phases at the same time, with the cost estimated at €2.3 billion.
On 20 November 2008, Nuclearelectrica, ArcelorMittal, ČEZ, GDF Suez, Enel, Iberdrola and RWE agreed to set up a joint company dedicated to the completion, commissioning and operation of Units 3 and 4. The company named Energonuclear was registered in March 2009.
20 January 2011, GDF Suez, Iberdrola and RWE pulled out of the project, following ČEZ which had already left in 2010, citing "Economic and market-related uncertainties surrounding this project, related for the most part to the present financial crisis, are not reconcilable now with the capital requirements of a new nuclear power project". That left Nuclearelectrica with large majority share in the project, prompting a search for other investors. In November 2013, China General Nuclear Power Corp. (CGN) signed an agreement to invest in the project at an undisclosed level. Shortly thereafter, AcelorMittal and Enel announced plans to sell their stakes.
In 2016 the Romanian government gave support for the creation of a joint venture led by China General Nuclear (CGN) to progress the project. A joint venture company will be created, majority owned by CGN.
There are currently no plans to complete Unit 5  at this time. However, the possibility of finishing construction remains.
This is a list of 2014 events that occurred in Romania.Atomic Energy of Canada Limited
Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL; French: Énergie atomique du Canada limitée (EACL)) is a Canadian federal Crown corporation and Canada's largest nuclear science and technology laboratory. AECL developed the CANDU reactor technology starting in the 1950s, and in October 2011 licensed this technology to Candu Energy (a wholly owned subsidiary of SNC-Lavalin).
Today AECL develops peaceful and innovative applications from nuclear technology through expertise in physics, metallurgy, chemistry, biology and engineering. AECL's activities range from research and development, design and engineering to specialized technology development, waste management and decommissioning. AECL partners with Canadian universities, other Canadian government and private-sector R&D agencies (including Candu Energy), various national laboratories outside Canada, and international agencies such as the IAEA.
AECL describes its goal as ensuring that "Canadians and the world receive energy, health, environmental and economic benefits from nuclear science and technology - with confidence that nuclear safety and security are assured".
Until October 2011 AECL was also the vendor of CANDU technology, which it had exported worldwide. Throughout the 1960s-2000s AECL marketed and built CANDU facilities in India, South Korea, Argentina, Romania, and the People's Republic of China. It is a member of the World Nuclear Association trade group.
In addition, AECL manufactures nuclear medicine radioisotopes for supply to MDS Nordion in Ottawa, Ontario, and is the world's largest supplier of molybdenum-99 for diagnostic tests, and cobalt-60 for cancer therapy.
AECL is funded through a combination of federal government appropriations and commercial revenue. In 2009, AECL received $651 million in federal support.In October 2011 the federal government of Canada sold the commercial CANDU design and marketing business of AECL to Candu Energy for $15 million (including 15 years worth of royalties, the government could get back as much as $285 million). The sale entered the exclusive negotiation stage in February, a month after the other bidder, Bruce Power pulled out). Poor sales and cost overruns ($1.2 billion in the last five years) were reasons for the divestment though SNC-Lavalin expects to reverse that trend by focusing on new generation reactors. SNC-Lavalin Nuclear Inc, SNC's nuclear subsidiary is already part of Team CANDU, a group of five companies that manufacture and refurbish the CANDU reactors. The government will continue to own the Chalk River Laboratories (produces isotopes for medical imaging). The transaction puts 800 jobs at risk while improving job security for 1,200 employees. Due to safety concerns many countries are considering thorium nuclear reactors which AECL's CANDU reactors easily convert into (from uranium fuelled). Higher energy yields using thorium as the fuel (1 ton of thorium produces the same amount of energy as 200 tons of uranium) also makes it more attractive. OMERS has also shown interest in the company.CANDU Owners Group
CANDU Owners Group is a private, not-for-profit corporation funded voluntarily by CANDU operating utilities worldwide, Canadian Nuclear Laboratories (CNL) and supplier participants. It is dedicated to providing programs for cooperation, mutual assistance and exchange of information for the successful support, development, operation, maintenance and economics of CANDU technology. All CANDU Operators in the world are members of COG. This includes plants in Canada (Pickering Nuclear Generating Station, Darlington Nuclear Generating Station, Bruce Nuclear Generating Station and Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station), Argentina (Embalse Nuclear Power Station), China (Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant), India (Rajasthan Atomic Power Station), Pakistan (Karachi Nuclear Power Complex), South Korea (Wolseong Nuclear Power Plant), and Romania (Cernavodă Nuclear Power Plant). Its headquarters is in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
COG was formed in 1984 by an agreement among the Canadian CANDU-owning utilities Ontario Hydro (now Ontario Power Generation), Hydro-Québec and New Brunswick Power, plus Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. It became a non-profit corporation in 1999 .Canada–Romania relations
Canadian-Romanian relations are the bilateral relations between the governments of Canada and Romania.Cernavodă
Cernavodă (Romanian pronunciation: [t͡ʃernaˈvodə], historical names: Thracian: Axiopa, Greek: Ἀξιούπολις, Bulgarian: Черна вода, Cherna voda, Turkish: Boğazköy) is a town in Constanța County, Northern Dobruja, Romania with a population of 20,514.
The town's name is derived from the Bulgarian černa voda (черна вода in Cyrillic), meaning "black water". This name is regarded by some scholars as a calque of the earlier Thracian name Axíopa, from IE *n.ksei "dark" and upā "water" (cf. Avestan axšaēna "dark" and Lithuanian ùpė "river, creek").Danube–Black Sea Canal
The Danube–Black Sea Canal (Romanian: Canalul Dunăre – Marea Neagră) is a navigable canal in Romania, which runs from Cernavodă, on the Danube river, to Constanța (southern arm, the main branch), and to Năvodari (northern arm), on the Black Sea. Administrated from Agigea, it is an important part of the European canal system that links the North Sea (through the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal) to the Black Sea. The main branch of the canal, with a length of 64.4 km (40.0 mi), which connects the Port of Cernavodă with the Port of Constanța, was built between 1976–1984, while the north branch, known as the Poarta Albă – Midia Năvodari Canal, with a length of 31.2 km (19.4 mi), connecting Poarta Albă and Port of Midia, was built between 1983–1987.The Canal was notorious as the site of labor camps in early 1950s Communist Romania, when at any given time, up to 20,000 political prisoners worked on its excavation. The total number of people used as a workforce for the entire period is unknown, with the total number of deaths estimated at several thousand. These works were later used in the Carasu irrigation system.EDP Cernavodă Wind Farm
The EDP Cernavodă Wind Farm is located in Cernavodă, Constanţa County, Romania. It has 46 individual wind turbines with a nominal output of around 3 MW which delivers up to 138 MW of power, enough to power over 85,000 homes, which required a capital investment of approximately €200 million. The project was undertaken and commissioned between 2010 and May 2011. The substation control system is based on ABB MicroSCADA Pro technology using LON and DNP protocol communication with field equipment and IEC104 with two dispatch centres situated in Oporto, Portugal and Bucharest, Romania|. The control and protection system was designed and engineered by Spanish company GEDLux Sistemas de Control. The EDP Cernavodă Wind Farm is the sister project of the EDP Peştera Wind Farm, a 90 MW wind farm which is currently operating and located 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) east of the Cernavodă farm close to the Cernavodă Nuclear Power Plant and the Danube – Black Sea Canal.The wind farm is owned by EDP Renováveis, the renewable energy branch of the Portuguese conglomerate Energias de Portugal.EDP Peștera Wind Farm
The EDP Peştera Wind Farm is located in Peștera a commune in the Constanţa County of Dobruja. Costing €200 million, the wind farm consists of 30 three-bladed Danish wind turbines, each capable of generating 3 megawatts (MW) of power, giving a total output of 90 MW. The EDP Peştera Wind Farm is the sister project of the EDP Cernavodă Wind Farm, a 138 MW wind farm located 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) west of the Peştera farm close to the Cernavodă Nuclear Power Plant and the Danube – Black Sea Canal.The wind farm is owned by EDP Renováveis, the renewable energy branch of the Portuguese conglomerate Energias de Portugal.Energy policy of Romania
Romania is the 38th largest energy consumer in the world and the largest in South Eastern Europe as well as an important producer of natural gas, oil and coal in Europe.
The total energy consumption of Romania was in 2005 40.5 million toe structured as follows:
36.4 % - natural gas
25.1 % - oil and derivates
22.4 % - coal and coke
16.1 % - hydro and othersList of Romanian counties by foreign trade
There are 42 first-level administrative divisions in Romania (41 counties and one municipality) that are listed below in order of their total international trade in 2008 (Ilfov County and Bucharest are listed together). The figures in the table are represented for exports and imports. The figures are given in millions of United States dollars. Romania's exports totalled US$ 41.67 billion and imports totalled US$ 66.78 billion in 2008.The Ilfov County and the national capital Bucharest together are the country's top exporter and account for around 19% of the total exports. They are also the largest importer in the country accounting to nearly 40% of total imports. The next two important foreign trade counties are Argeș and Timiș which represent 16.7% of exports and 10.3% of imports, both counties having a production based economy. The economy of Timiș County is mostly based on automotive parts, telecommunications, electronics and consumer goods with large companies having production facilities in the region such as Continental AG, Dräxlmaier Group, Flextronics, Alcatel-Lucent, TRW, TT Electronics, American Superconductor, Philips, Delphi Corporation, Siemens, Smithfield Foods, Nestlé or Procter & Gamble. The economy of Argeș County is mostly based upon automobile manufacturing, oil processing and electrical equipment production with important companies like Automobile Dacia, Petrom (Arpechim Refinery) and Ana Imep. The Automobile Dacia company is the main exporter from Romania with a market share of 10% of total exports.Constanța County represents an important part of the Romanian economy due to the Cernavodă Nuclear Power Plant which generates 18% of the total electricity output of the country and the Port of Constanţa, one of the largest ports in Europe, which is used for exporting and importing goods. Other important activities include oil and natural gas extraction (the county accounts for 10.3% of oil and 2% of natural gas production in Romania), oil processing (Petromidia Refinery), cement production (large cement factory operated by Lafarge), vegetable oil production and ship production and repair in the most important shipyards in Romania the Constanţa Shipyard and Daewoo Mangalia Heavy Industries. The Petromidia Refinery has a market share of 4% of total exports. The Galaţi County has an economy mostly based upon the ArcelorMittal steel mill with a capacity of 5 million tonnes and that represents 3.8% of Romania's exports. The Olt County is an important metallurgy region with the Alro Slatina company producing 288,000 tonnes of aluminium in 2008 making it the largest aluminium smelter in Central and Eastern Europe (excluding CIS). Other important manufacturing counties include Bihor, Mureș, Satu Mare, Hunedoara, Dolj, and Dâmbovița.List of companies in the nuclear sector
This is a list of large companies in the nuclear power industry that are active along the nuclear chain, from uranium mining, processing and enrichment, to the actual operating of nuclear power plant and nuclear waste processing.
There are many other companies that provide nuclear technologies such as nuclear medicine that are independent of the electrical power generation sector.List of largest power stations
This article lists the largest power stations in the world, the ten overall and the five of each type, in terms of current installed electrical capacity. Non-renewable power stations are those that run on coal, fuel oils, nuclear, natural gas, oil shale and peat, while renewable power stations run on fuel sources such as biomass, geothermal heat, hydro, solar energy, solar heat, tides, waves and the wind. Only the most significant fuel source is listed for power stations that run on multiple sources.
At present, the largest power generating facility ever built is the Three Gorges Dam in China. The facility generates power by utilizing 32 Francis turbines each having a capacity of 700 MW and two 50 MW turbines, totalling the installed capacity to 22,500 MW, more than twice the installed capacity of the largest nuclear power station, the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa (Japan) at 7,965 MW. As of 2017 no power station comparable to Three Gorges is under construction, as the largest under construction power stations are hydroelectric Baihetan Dam (16,000 MW) and Belo Monte Dam (11,233 MW).Although currently only a proposal, the Grand Inga Dam in the Congo would surpass all existing power stations, including the Three Gorges Dam, if construction commences as planned. The design targets to top 39,000 MW in installed capacity, nearly twice that of the Three Gorges. Another proposal, Penzhin Tidal Power Plant Project, presumes an installed capacity up to 87,100 MW.List of power stations in Romania
This is a list of the main thermal power plants in Romania which at the end of 2006 had a total generating capacity of 11.335 MW.Mioveni
Mioveni (Romanian pronunciation: [mi.oˈvenʲ]) is a town in Argeș County, Romania, approximately 15 km (9 miles) north-east of Pitești. As of 2011, it had a population of 31,998. The town administers four villages: Clucereasa, Colibași, Făgetu and Racovița.Nuclear power in Romania
Romania currently has 1,400 MW of nuclear power capacity by means of one active nuclear power plant with 2 reactors, which constitutes around 18% of the national power generation capacity of the country. This makes Romania the 23rd largest user of nuclear power in the world.Nuclearelectrica
Nuclearelectrica is a state-owned company, its shares being held by the Ministry of Economy and Commerce, which has as main objective power generation with the only nuclear power plant in Romania.
Nuclearelectrica owns the Cernavodă Nuclear Power Plant which has 2 reactors and a total installed capacity of 1,411.6 MW and an annual average power production of 5.613 GWh meaning 19.4% of the total national output of Romania.
The company is also undergoing negotiations for the construction of the 3 and 4 units at Cernavodă Nuclear Power Plant, project expected to cost around US$ 3.5 billion. On 7 March 2008, Nuclearelectrica, ArcelorMittal, CEZ, Electrabel, Enel, Iberdrola and RWE agreed to set up a company dedicated to the completion, commissioning and operation of the units 3 and 4. The company is expected to be registered in May 2008.Socialist Republic of Romania
The Socialist Republic of Romania (Romanian: Republica Socialistă România, RSR) refers to Romania under Marxist-Leninist one-party communist rule that existed officially from 1947 to 1989. From 1947 to 1965, the state was known as the Romanian People's Republic (Republica Populară Romînă, RPR). The country was a Soviet-aligned Eastern Bloc state with a dominant role for the Romanian Communist Party enshrined in its constitutions.
As World War II ended, Romania, a former Axis member, was occupied by the Soviet Union, the sole representative of the Allies. On 6 March 1945, after mass demonstrations by communist sympathizers and political pressure from the Soviet representative of the Allied Control Commission, a new pro-Soviet government that included members of the previously outlawed Romanian Workers' Party was installed. Gradually, more members of the Workers' Party and communist-aligned parties gained control of the administration and pre-war political leaders were steadily eliminated from political life. In December 1947, King Michael was coerced to abdicate and the People's Republic of Romania was declared.
At first, Romania's scarce post-war resources were drained by the "SovRoms", new tax-exempt Soviet-Romanian companies that allowed the Soviet Union to control Romania's major sources of income. Another drain was the war reparations paid to the Soviet Union. In the 1950s, however, Romania's communist government began to assert more independence, inducing, for example, the withdrawal of all Soviet troops from Romania by 1958.In the 1960s and 1970s, Nicolae Ceaușescu became General Secretary of the Communist Party (1965), Chairman of the State Council (1967) and assumed the newly established role of President in 1974. Ceaușescu's denunciation of the 1968 Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia and a brief relaxation in internal repression helped give him a positive image both at home and in the West. However, rapid economic growth fueled in part by foreign credits gradually gave way to an austerity and political repression that led to the fall of his totalitarian government in December 1989.A large number of people were executed or died in custody during communist Romania's existence, most during the Stalinist era of the 1950s. While judicial executions between 1945 and 1964 numbered 137, deaths in custody are estimated in the tens or hundreds of thousands. Many more were imprisoned for political, economical or other reasons and suffered abuse, torture and/or death.
Geographically, Romania bordered the Black Sea to the east; the Soviet Union (via the Ukrainian and Moldavian SSRs) to the north and east; Hungary and Yugoslavia to the west and Bulgaria to the south.Tarnița – Lăpuștești Hydroelectric Power Station
Tarnița - Lăpuștești Hydropower Plant is a proposed hydroelectric pumped-storage project on the Someșul Cald River in Cluj County, Romania. If built it would be the largest hydro-electric load balancing system in Romania. During the night, when the demand is low and electricity is cheap because of powerplants which generate electricity continuously, such as the Cernavodă nuclear power plant, it will use electricity to pump water up the hill, while during the day, it will use the hydro energy to generate electricity.