Cernavodă (Romanian pronunciation: [t͡ʃernaˈvodə], historical names: Thracian: Axiopa, Greek: Ἀξιούπολις, Bulgarian: Черна вода, Cherna voda, Turkish: Boğazköy) is a town in Constanța County, Northern Dobruja, Romania with a population of 20,514.
The town's name is derived from the Bulgarian černa voda (черна вода in Cyrillic), meaning "black water". This name is regarded by some scholars as a calque of the earlier Thracian name Axíopa, from IE *n.ksei "dark" and upā "water" (cf. Avestan axšaēna "dark" and Lithuanian ùpė "river, creek").
Cernavodă and the Danube-Black Sea Canal
Coat of arms
Location of Cernavodă
|• Mayor||Liviu Negoiță (National Liberal Party)|
|• Total||46.69 km2 (18.03 sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+3 (EEST)|
The town is a Danube fluvial port. It houses the Cernavodă Nuclear Power Plant, consisting of two CANDU reactors providing about 18% of Romania's electrical energy output. The second reactor was built through a joint venture between Canada's Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and Italy's ANSALDO and became fully functional in November 2007.
|Source: Census data|
The A2 motorway (Romanian: Autostrada A2), also known as The Sun's Motorway (Romanian: Autostrada Soarelui), is a motorway in Romania which links Bucharest with Constanța, a city-port on the shore of the Black Sea, where it merges after an interchange into the A4 motorway. It is 206 km long, and has been operational on its entire length since November 2012.Anghel Saligny
Anghel Saligny (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈaŋɡel saˈliɲi]; 19 April 1854, Șerbănești, Moldavia – 17 June 1925, Bucharest, Romania) was a Romanian engineer, most famous for designing the Feteşti-Cernavodă railway bridge (1895) over the Danube, the longest bridge in Europe at that time. He also designed the storage facilities in Constanţa seaport, one of the earliest examples of reinforced concrete architecture in Europe.Castra of Cernavodă
The castra of Cernavodă was a fort in the Roman province of Moesia.Cernavodă Bridge
The Cernavodă Bridge is a complex of two motorway-railroad truss bridges in Romania, across the Danube River, connecting the cities of Cernavodă and Feteşti, between the regions of Dobruja and Muntenia.
Inaugurated in 1987, the bridges have a total length of 2,622.85 m (8,605.2 ft) of which 1,640.35 m (5,381.7 ft) over the Danube and 982.5 m (3,223 ft) over the Borcea branch of the Danube.Cernavodă Bridge lies on the A2 Sun Motorway, in the vicinity of the old Anghel Saligny Bridge.Cernavodă Nuclear Power Plant
The Nuclear Power Plant in Cernavodă (Romanian: Centrala Nucleară de la Cernavodă) is a nuclear power plant in Romania. It produces around 20% of the country's electricity. It uses CANDU reactor technology from AECL, using heavy water produced at Drobeta-Turnu Severin as its neutron moderator and as its coolant agent. The Danube water is not used for cooling of the active zone (nuclear fuel).
By using nuclear power, Romania is able to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by over 10 million tonnes each year.The power plant was designed in Canada by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited in the 1980s, and was contracted during the Communist era. The initial plan was to build five units. Units 1 and 2 are currently operational. Three more partially completed CANDU reactors exist on the same site, part of a project discontinued at the fall of the Ceauşescu regime.
CNE-INVEST is responsible for the preservation of Units 3-5.Cernavodă culture
The Cernavodă culture, ca. 4000–3200 BC, was a late Copper Age archaeological culture. It was along the lower Eastern Bug River and Danube and along the coast of the Black Sea and somewhat inland, generally in present-day Romania and Bulgaria. It is named after the Romanian town of Cernavodă.
It is a successor to and occupies much the same area as the earlier neolithic Karanovo culture, for which a destruction horizon seems to be evident. It is part of the "Balkan-Danubian complex" that stretches up the entire length of the river and into northern Germany via the Elbe and the Baden culture; its northeastern portion is thought to be ancestral to the Usatovo culture.
It is characterized by defensive hilltop settlements. The pottery shares traits with that found further east on the south-west Eurasian steppe; burials similarly bear a resemblance to those further east.Constanța County
Constanța (Romanian pronunciation: [konˈstant͡sa] (listen)) is a county (județ) of Romania on the border with Bulgaria, in the Dobruja region. Its capital city is also named Constanța.DN3
DN3 (Romanian: Drumul Național 3) is a national road in Romania, originally linking Bucharest and Constanța via Călărași, but no longer serving this purpose for more than four decades. The road is not complete, in the sense of having a gap across the Danube between Călărași and Ostrov. The gap is covered by ferry-boats operated by two private companies every 30–35 minutes during the day and every 45–90 minutes during the night.
When designated as a trunk route, in the early 1960s, this was the shortest road between Bucharest and Constanta, as, at that time, there were no road bridges connecting Dobrudja with the rest of Romania (the King Carol I Bridge at Cernavodă being rail only).
As road bridges over the Danube were constructed, the first one in 1970 at Giurgeni – Vadu Oii, and the second one at Fetești–Cernavodă (Cernavodă Bridge) in the late 1980s, the road lost almost all importance. Currently, the main road connection between Bucharest and Constanta is done via the A2 motorway, opened between 2004 and 2009, while Călărași is served through an exit from the same motorway at Drajna.
Currently, the route is very sparsely used between Bucharest and Călărași, mainly by commuters between Bucharest and its suburbs of Pantelimon and Brănești, as well as by villagers along its route, as a feeder to A2. Between Ostrov and Constanta, the road provides a vital link between southwestern Dobrudja and the rest of the country. However, as southwestern Dobrudja is sparsely populated, with no notable towns or cities (Ostrov being the biggest, at slightly over 5000 inhabitants), that stretch of the road is sparsely used as well.
DN3 connects with the Bulgarian road network through a border crossing facility at Ostrov – Silistra (Bulgaria), immediately after the ferry landing. Thus, if counting the Călărași-Ostrov ferry as part of the DN3 road, it can be said that one of the main remaining roles of DN3 is providing a connection between Călărași and Silistra. Note that as of 2009, there is also a direct, newly built Călărași – Silistra ferry, but is far slower (takes almost 2 hours to cross the 8 km distance) and far more infrequent.Danube–Black Sea Canal
The Danube–Black Sea Canal (Romanian: Canalul Dunăre – Marea Neagră) is a navigable canal in Romania, which runs from Cernavodă, on the Danube river, to Constanța (southern arm, the main branch), and to Năvodari (northern arm), on the Black Sea. Administrated from Agigea, it is an important part of the European canal system that links the North Sea (through the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal) to the Black Sea. The main branch of the canal, with a length of 64.4 km (40.0 mi), which connects the Port of Cernavodă with the Port of Constanța, was built between 1976–1984, while the north branch, known as the Poarta Albă – Midia Năvodari Canal, with a length of 31.2 km (19.4 mi), connecting Poarta Albă and Port of Midia, was built between 1983–1987.The Canal was notorious as the site of labor camps in early 1950s Communist Romania, when at any given time, up to 20,000 political prisoners worked on its excavation. The total number of people used as a workforce for the entire period is unknown, with the total number of deaths estimated at several thousand. These works were later used in the Carasu irrigation system.EDP Cernavodă Wind Farm
The EDP Cernavodă Wind Farm is located in Cernavodă, Constanţa County, Romania. It has 46 individual wind turbines with a nominal output of around 3 MW which delivers up to 138 MW of power, enough to power over 85,000 homes, which required a capital investment of approximately €200 million. The project was undertaken and commissioned between 2010 and May 2011. The substation control system is based on ABB MicroSCADA Pro technology using LON and DNP protocol communication with field equipment and IEC104 with two dispatch centres situated in Oporto, Portugal and Bucharest, Romania|. The control and protection system was designed and engineered by Spanish company GEDLux Sistemas de Control. The EDP Cernavodă Wind Farm is the sister project of the EDP Peştera Wind Farm, a 90 MW wind farm which is currently operating and located 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) east of the Cernavodă farm close to the Cernavodă Nuclear Power Plant and the Danube – Black Sea Canal.The wind farm is owned by EDP Renováveis, the renewable energy branch of the Portuguese conglomerate Energias de Portugal.EDP Peștera Wind Farm
The EDP Peştera Wind Farm is located in Peștera a commune in the Constanţa County of Dobruja. Costing €200 million, the wind farm consists of 30 three-bladed Danish wind turbines, each capable of generating 3 megawatts (MW) of power, giving a total output of 90 MW. The EDP Peştera Wind Farm is the sister project of the EDP Cernavodă Wind Farm, a 138 MW wind farm located 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) west of the Peştera farm close to the Cernavodă Nuclear Power Plant and the Danube – Black Sea Canal.The wind farm is owned by EDP Renováveis, the renewable energy branch of the Portuguese conglomerate Energias de Portugal.Energy in Romania
Energy in Romania describes energy and electricity production, consumption and import in Romania.
Romania has significant oil and gas reserves, substantial coal deposits and it has substantial hydroelectric power installed. However, Romania imports oil and gas from Russia and other first world countries, (it mainly imports from the EU). To ease this dependency Romania seeks to use nuclear power as an alternative to electricity generation. So far, the country has two nuclear reactors, located at Cernavodă, accounting for about 18–20% of the country's electricity production, with the second one online in 2007. Nuclear waste is stored on site at reprocessing facilities.
Electric power in Romania is dominated by government enterprises, although privately operated coal mines and oil refineries also existed. Accordingly, Romania placed an increasingly heavy emphasis on developing nuclear power generation. Electric power was provided by the Romanian Electric Power Corporation (CONEL). Energy used in electric power generation consisted primarily of nuclear, coal, oil, and liquefied natural gas (LNG). Of the electricity generated in 2007, 13.1 percent came from nuclear plants then in operation, 41.69 percent from thermal plants (oil and coal), and 25.8 percent from hydroelectric sites. It was predicted in 2007 that the generation structure by the year 2010 would be 10.2 percent hydroelectric, 12.2 percent oil, 22.9 percent coal, 10.2 percent LNG, and 44.5 percent nuclear.European route E81
European route E 81 is a road part of the International E-road network. It begins in Constanța, Romania and ends in Mukacheve, Ukraine. The road is 623 km (387 mi) long.
The road follows the route: Mukacheve – Halmeu – Satu Mare – Zalău – Cluj-Napoca – Turda – Sebeş – Sibiu – Piteşti – Bucureşti – Lehliu – Feteşti – Cernavodă – Constanţa.Fetești
Fetești (Romanian pronunciation: [feˈteʃtʲ]) is a city and municipality in Ialomița County, Romania. It is located in the Bărăgan plain, on the Borcea branch of the Danube. Fetești has the second largest population in Ialomița, after Slobozia.
In 1895, the King Carol I railway Bridge was built across the Danube to Cernavodă. A newer one was built in the 1980s as part of the Bucharest-Constanța A2 highway.List of power stations in Romania
This is a list of the main thermal power plants in Romania which at the end of 2006 had a total generating capacity of 11.335 MW.Nuclear power in Romania
Romania currently has 1,400 MW of nuclear power capacity by means of one active nuclear power plant with 2 reactors, which constitutes around 18% of the national power generation capacity of the country. This makes Romania the 23rd largest user of nuclear power in the world.Nuclearelectrica
Nuclearelectrica is a state-owned company, its shares being held by the Ministry of Economy and Commerce, which has as main objective power generation with the only nuclear power plant in Romania.
Nuclearelectrica owns the Cernavodă Nuclear Power Plant which has 2 reactors and a total installed capacity of 1,411.6 MW and an annual average power production of 5.613 GWh meaning 19.4% of the total national output of Romania.
The company is also undergoing negotiations for the construction of the 3 and 4 units at Cernavodă Nuclear Power Plant, project expected to cost around US$ 3.5 billion. On 7 March 2008, Nuclearelectrica, ArcelorMittal, CEZ, Electrabel, Enel, Iberdrola and RWE agreed to set up a company dedicated to the completion, commissioning and operation of the units 3 and 4. The company is expected to be registered in May 2008.Port of Cernavodă
The Port of Cernavodă, in the city of Cernavodă on the Danube River, is one of the largest Romanian river ports.Second Battle of Cobadin
The Second Battle of Cobadin was a battle fought from 19 to 25 October 1916 between the Central Powers, chiefly the Bulgarian Third Army and the Entente, represented by the Russo - Romanian Army of the Dobrogea. The battle ended in decisive victory for the Central Powers and the occupation of the strategic port of Constanţa and capture of the railway between that city and Cernavodă.