Cephalon, Inc. was a U.S. biopharmaceutical company co-founded in 1987 by Frank Baldino, Jr, pharmacologist, Michael Lewis, neuroscientist and James C. Kauer, organic chemist, all three former scientists with the DuPont Company. Baldino served as the company's chairman and chief executive officer until his death in December 2010. The company's name comes from the adjective "cephalic" meaning "related to the head or brain", and it was established primarily to pursue treatments for neurodegenerative diseases.
In its early years, Cephalon initially avoided involving itself in activities that would require maintaining a sales staff, managing clinical trials, and shepherding new drugs through the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval process. With no product to sell, Cephalon's only asset was its scientific expertise. That expertise proved sufficient to attract investors, and the company managed to fund its operations through research grants and contracts with larger pharmaceutical firms.
Sales revenues reached $2.8 billion in 2010, ranking Cephalon among the leading biopharmaceutical companies in the world. In 2006, industry publication MedAd News named the company one of the ten most respected biotechnology firms in the world. Cephalon employs more than 3,700.
Cephalon was first included in the Fortune 1000 list of U.S. companies based upon annual revenues for 2006.
|Subsidiary of Teva Pharmaceutical Industries|
|Headquarters||Frazer, Pennsylvania, United States|
|J. Kevin Buchi, CEO|
|Products||medical development (Central nervous system, oncology)|
Number of employees
|3,726 (December 31, 2010)|
The company's early research efforts were focused on the development of IGF-1, an insulin-like growth factor, under a collaboration with Chiron Corporation to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or Lou Gehrig's Disease, but the product has never been approved.
The company developed and commercialized products for the treatment of sleep disorders, pain, addiction and cancer, establishing the "wake franchise" on the basis of Provigil (Modafinil) and later Nuvigil, with the R-enantiomer of modafinil. In addition to conducting research on kinase inhibitors and other small molecules, it has licensed compounds and acquired both products and other companies, including CIMA Labs, Anesta, and Laboratoire Lafon. It was from the latter company that Cephalon obtained the rights to modafinil, which it marketed under the trade name Provigil for the treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness associated with narcolepsy, sleep apnea and shift work sleep disorder. Sales of Provigil reached nearly one billion dollars in 2008, by which time the company had acquired Lafon.
In February 2009, Cephalon announced its intention to acquire Australian biotechnology firm Arana Therapeutics. The acquisition of Arana brought Cephalon its lead biologic candidate ART621 for inflammatory diseases. Moreover, Cephalon acquired biologics for the treatment of cancers. In February 2010, Cephalon exercised its option to acquire Ception Therapeutics, following receipt of positive data from a clinical study in adults with eosinophilic asthma. Commenting on this Frank Baldino, Jr, the CEO of Cephalon, said “The acquisition of Ception is consistent with our strategy to diversify into biologics and provides us with an important phase three asset for further development.”
The company was headquartered west of Philadelphia in Frazer, Pennsylvania and had research operations in nearby West Chester, as well as manufacturing and other operations in suburban Minneapolis, Minnesota and Salt Lake City, Utah. European operations were based near Paris, France. After the acquisition of Arana, Research and Development operations continued in Sydney, Australia.
Longtime chief financial officer J. Kevin Buchi succeeded Baldino as CEO in 2011. Members of the board included venture capitalist William Egan, former COR Therapeutics CEO Vaughan Kailian, prominent healthcare economist Dr. Gail Wilensky, former SmithKline Beecham executive Dr. Martyn Greenacre, former Harvard physician and Glaxo USA head Dr. Charles Sanders and former Ambassador Kevin Moley.
Cephalon settled a lawsuit for $17 million in which it faced claims that Baldino and other company executives had overstated the potential for a drug aimed at treating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (known informally as Lou Gehrig's disease). The Federal Trade Commission claimed that Cephalon had made improper deals to postpone the availability of generic versions of modafinil. In September 2008, Cephalon paid $425 million to the federal government to settle four whistleblower lawsuits and a criminal charge alleging Cephalon had marketed Actiq, Gabitril and Provigil for “off-label” (unapproved) uses.
Select products that Cephalon manufactures and markets include:
Armodafinil (trade name Nuvigil) is the enantiopure compound of the eugeroic modafinil (Provigil). It consists of only the (R)-(−)-enantiomer of the racemic modafinil. Armodafinil is produced by the pharmaceutical company Cephalon Inc. and was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in June 2007. In 2016, the FDA granted Mylan rights for the first generic version of Cephalon's Nuvigil to be marketed in the U.S.Because armodafinil has a longer half-life than modafinil does, it may be more effective at improving wakefulness in patients with excessive daytime sleepiness.Asaphida
Asaphida is a large, morphologically diverse order of trilobites found in marine strata dated from the Middle Cambrian until their extinction during the Silurian. Asaphida contains six superfamilies (Anomocaroidea, Asaphoidea, Cyclopygoidea, Dikelocephaloidea, Remopleuridoidea and Trinucleioidea), but no suborders. Asaphids comprise some 20% of described fossil trilobites.Aulacopleura
Aulacopleura is a genus of proetid trilobite that lived from the Middle Ordovician to the Middle Devonian. The cephalon is semicircular or semielliptical, with border and preglabellar field. The glabella is short, with or without defined eye ridges connecting it with eyes of variable size. Spines at the rear outer corners of the cephalon (or genal spines) are present, typically reaching back to the 2nd to 4th thorax segment. The 'palate' (or hypostome) is not connected to the dorsal shield of the cephalon (or natant). The cephalon is pitted, or has small tubercles. The thorax has up to 22 segments. The pleural ends are usually rounded. The pygidium is small (micropygous), with an even margin.Bumastus
Bumastus is an extinct genus of corynexochid trilobites which existed from the Early Ordovician period to the Late Silurian period. They were relatively large trilobites, reaching a length of 6 in (15 cm). They were distinctive for their highly globular, smooth-surfaced exoskeleton. They possessed well-developed, large compound eyes and were believed to have dwelled in shallow-water sediments in life.
Bumastus fossils have been found in North and South America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. They are classified under the family Styginidae in the order Corynexochida.Cephalon (arthropod head)
The cephalon is the head section of an arthropod. It is a tagma, i.e., a specialized grouping of arthropod segments. The word cephalon derives from the Greek κεφαλή (kephalē), meaning "head".Corynexochida
Corynexochida is an order of trilobite that lived from the Lower Cambrian to the Late Devonian. Like many of the other trilobite orders, Corynexochida contains many species with widespread characteristics.
The middle region of the cephalon (the glabella) is typically elongate, with the sides often spreading forward (pestle-shaped). Some species have glabellae that are effaced, meaning they are smooth and show little detail. The glabellar furrows (when not effaced) typically have a splayed arrangement. In most species, the hind pair on either side of the cephalon become spines that point sharply backwards, and the spinose tips of the anterior pairs of thoracic segments tend to become more and more forward directed toward the pygidium. The eyes are typically large. Pygidia are typically large, competing in size with the cephalon in some species.
The tips of the thoracic segments of many Corynexochida species are spine-like (though in some species they are flush with the sides and smooth). The thorax can have 2-12 segments (rarely more), but they more typically have 7-8.Dalmanites
Dalmanites is a genus of trilobite in the order Phacopida. They lived from the Late Ordovician to Middle Devonian.The trilobites of this genus have slightly convex exoskeletons with an average length of 4–7 cm (1.5–3 in). The cephalon is semicircular or parabolic. The glabella (center portion of the head) is often pear-shaped, and tapers outward toward the front. The glabella also always contains three pairs of obvious glabellar furrows. Also prominent are the large mosaic (schizochroal) eyes.
The thorax is composed of eleven segments, with the relatively large pygidium with a slender axis of 11 to 16 rings and 6 or 7 pleural ribs. The pygidium ends in a striking tail spike.Harpetida
Harpetida is one of the nine orders of the extinct arthropod class Trilobita. The first harpetid trilobites appear in the Upper Cambrian, and the last species die out at the end of the Devonian period.
Harpetid trilobites are characterized among trilobites by bearing a comparatively large, semicircular brim around the cephalon (head) which is often perforated by small pores. This brim is thought to serve as a filter-feeding apparatus. The brim stretches backward on either side of the cephalon (head) and typically has a pronounced suture along the outside.
The compound eyes are typically reduced to small tubercles, though they have strong ridges stretching to the glabella (central region of the cephalon). They also typically have 12 or more thoracic segments. The pygidia are usually small.
The families of Harpetida were formerly included in the order Ptychopariida, but were recently given their own order (Ebach & McNamara 2002). The subclass Librostoma was erected in 1990 by Richard Fortey to cover the various orders originally placed within Ptychopariida. The name "Harpidae" was once used as the name for the trilobite family containing the type genus Harpes. However, this is in conflict with the use of the same name for the family of harp snails and that taxon had precedence.Lestaurtinib
Lestaurtinib (rINN, codenamed CEP-701) is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor structurally related to staurosporine. This semisynthetic derivative of the indolocarbazole K252a was investigated by Cephalon as a treatment for various types of cancer. It is an inhibitor of the kinases fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3), Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), tropomyosin receptor kinase (trk) A (TrkA), TrkB and TrkC.Modafinil
Modafinil, sold under the brand name Provigil among others, is a medication to treat sleepiness due to narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In OSA continuous positive airway pressure is the preferred treatment. While it has seen off-label use as a purported cognitive enhancer, the research on its effectiveness for this use is not conclusive. It is taken by mouth.Common side effects include headache, anxiety, trouble sleeping, and nausea. Serious side effects may include allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, modafinil abuse, or hallucinations. It is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe. The amount of medication used may need to be adjusted in those with kidney or liver problems. It is not recommended in those with an arrhythmia, significant hypertension, or left ventricular hypertrophy. How it works is not entirely clear. One possibility is that it may affect the areas of the brain involved with the sleep cycle.Modafinil was approved for medical use in the United States in 1998. In the United States it is classified as a schedule IV controlled substance due to concerns about addiction. In the United Kingdom it is a prescription only medication. It is available as a generic medication. In the United Kingdom it costs the NHS about £105.21 a month as of 2018. In the United States the wholesale cost per month is about US$34.20 as of 2018. In 2016, it was the 284th most prescribed medication in the United States, with more than a million prescriptions.Naraoia
Naraoia is a genus of small to average size (about 2-4½ cm long) marine arthropods within the family Naraoiidae, that lived from the early Cambrian to the late Silurian period. The species are characterized by a large alimentary system and sideways oriented antennas.Ptychopariida
Ptychopariida is a large, heterogeneous order of trilobite containing some of the most primitive species known. The earliest species occurred in the second half of the Lower Cambrian, and the last species did not survive the Ordovician–Silurian extinction event.
Trilobites have facial sutures that run along the margin of the glabella and/or fixigena to the shoulder point where the cephalon meets the thorax. These sutures outline the cranidium, or the main, central part of the head that does not include the librigena (free cheeks). The eyes are medial along the glabella on the suture line (and some species have no eyes). The fossils of the moults of trilobites can often be told from the fossils of the actual animals by whether the librigena are present. (The librigena, or cheek spines, detach during moulting.) In ptychopariids, short bladelike genal spines are often present on the tips of the librigena.
The thorax is large and is typically made up of eight or more segments. The thorax is usually much longer than the pygidium, which is usually small. In some species the pygidium is outlined with a flat border.
The Subclass Librostoma was recently erected to encompass several related orders, including Ptychopariida, Asaphida, Proetida, Harpetida, and possibly Phacopida. These are now known as the "Librostome Orders". Trilobites of the orders Proetida, Harpetida, and of the family Damesellidae were originally placed in Ptychopariida.Pygidium
The pygidium (plural pygidia) is the posterior body part or shield of crustaceans and some other arthropods, such as insects and the extinct trilobites. It contains the anus and, in females, the ovipositor. It is composed of fused body segments, sometimes with a tail, and separated from thoracic segments by an articulation.Redlichiida
Redlichiida is an order of trilobites, a group of extinct marine arthropods. Species assigned to the order Redlichiida are among the first trilobites to appear in the fossil record, about halfway during the Lower Cambrian. Due to the difficulty to relate sediments in different areas, there remains some discussion, but among the earliest are Fallotaspis (suborder Olenellina), and Lemdadella (suborder Redlichiina), both belonging to this order. The first representatives of the orders Corynexochida and Ptychopariida also appear very early on and may prove to be even earlier than any redlichiid species. In terms of anatomical comparison, the earliest redlichiid species are probably ancestral to all other trilobite orders and share many primitive characters. The last redlichiid trilobites died out before the end of the Middle Cambrian.Suture
Suture, literally meaning "seam", may refer to:
Surgical suture, a stitch used by doctors and surgeons to hold tissue together
Suture (anatomy), a rigid joint between hard parts of animals
Suture (joint), concerning the major joints in the bones of the cranium
Ammonitic suture, the intersection of the septum with the outer shell in Ammonites
Facial suture (trilobite), divisions in the cephalon (head) of most trilobites, along which the exoskeleton splits during molting
Suture (geology), a major fault through an orogen or mountain range
A seam in a fruit capsuleSuture (anatomy)
In anatomy, a suture is a fairly rigid joint between two or more hard elements of an organism, with or without significant overlap of the elements.
Sutures are found in the skeletons or exoskeletons of a wide range of animals, in both invertebrates and vertebrates. Sutures are found in animals with hard parts from the Cambrian period to the present day. Sutures were and are formed by several different methods, and they exist between hard parts that are made from several different materials.Tiagabine
Tiagabine (trade name Gabitril) is an anticonvulsant medication used in the treatment of epilepsy that is produced by Cephalon. The drug is also used off-label in the treatment of anxiety disorders and panic disorder.Trilobite
Trilobites ( ; meaning "three lobes") are a group of extinct marine arachnomorph arthropods that form the class Trilobita. Trilobites form one of the earliest-known groups of arthropods. The first appearance of trilobites in the fossil record defines the base of the Atdabanian stage of the Early Cambrian period (521 million years ago), and they flourished throughout the lower Paleozoic era before beginning a drawn-out decline to extinction when, during the Devonian, all trilobite orders except the Proetids died out. Trilobites disappeared in the mass extinction at the end of the Permian about 252 million years ago. The trilobites were among the most successful of all early animals, existing in oceans for over 300 million years.By the time trilobites first appeared in the fossil record, they were already highly diversified and geographically dispersed. Because trilobites had wide diversity and an easily fossilized exoskeleton, they left an extensive fossil record, with some 50,000 known species spanning Paleozoic time. The study of these fossils has facilitated important contributions to biostratigraphy, paleontology, evolutionary biology, and plate tectonics. Trilobites are often placed within the arthropod subphylum Schizoramia within the superclass Arachnomorpha (equivalent to the Arachnata), although several alternative taxonomies are found in the literature.
Trilobites had many lifestyles; some moved over the sea bed as predators, scavengers, or filter feeders, and some swam, feeding on plankton. Most lifestyles expected of modern marine arthropods are seen in trilobites, with the possible exception of parasitism (where scientific debate continues). Some trilobites (particularly the family Olenidae) are even thought to have evolved a symbiotic relationship with sulfur-eating bacteria from which they derived food.
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