A centurion (/sɛnˈtjʊəriən/; Latin: centurio; Greek: κεντυρίων, kentyríōn or ἑκατόνταρχος, hekatóntarkhos) was a professional officer of the Roman army after the Marian reforms of 107 BC. Most centurions commanded groups of centuries of around 100 legionaries, but senior centurions commanded cohorts or took senior staff roles in their legion. Centurions were also found in the Roman navy. In the Byzantine Army, they were also known by the name kentarch (κένταρχος, kentarchos). Their symbol of office was the vine staff, with which they disciplined even Roman citizens protected from other forms of beating by the Porcian Laws.
In the Roman infantry, centurions initially commanded a centuria or "century". Centuries, or centuriae, developed from the Roman tribal system under the Servian reforms and could contain 200 to 1000 legionaries. Later, generals and Caesars further manipulated these numbers with double and half-strength units. Julius Caesar, for instance, made the first century double strength.
Centurions seemed to receive a much higher rate of pay than the average legionary, which is twice as much or more (possibly as much as 17 times as much as a legionary soldier). Veteran legionaries often worked as tenants of their former centurions.
During the Imperial era, centurions gradually rose in seniority in their cohort, commanding centuries with higher precedence, until commanding the senior century and therefore the whole cohort. The very best centurions were then promoted to become centurions in the First Cohort, called Primi Ordines, commanding one of the ten centuries and also taking on a staff role. The most senior centurion of the legion was the Primus Pilus who commanded the first century. All centurions, however senior, had their own allocated century. There was little difference between the ranks of centurions except for the Primus Pilus. The Primus Pilus also participated in war councils.
The Primus Pilus was so called because his own century was the first file (primus pilus) of the first (rightmost) cohort. Only eight officers in a fully officered legion outranked the Primus Pilus: the legate (legatus legionis), commanding the legion; the senior tribune (tribunus laticlavius), second-in-command of the legion; the Camp Prefect (praefectus castrorum); and the five other tribunes (tribuni angusticlavii), who apparently served as senior staff officers to the legate with a rank roughly equivalent to a modern Colonel.
Comparisons between the centurion grades and modern officer ranks can lead to many incorrect assumptions. Centurions could be elected, appointed by the Senate, or promoted "from the ranks" for a variety of reasons. Julius Caesar is said to have promoted his centurions for displays of valor. Other historians cite examples of them being the first over the enemy's wall or through the breach. If this case were strictly so, then there would be a lack of centurions in peacetime garrisons, which is where the Roman Army mostly spent its time. Nonetheless, although not directly comparable to modern ranks, the various centurion grades may be loosely compared to modern junior and middle officer grades. A modern captain is typically in command of roughly 200 men and, although he controlled far less weaponry, a centurion would typically have command over a company of similar size.
Centurions often suffered heavy casualties in battle, generally fighting alongside the legionaries they commanded. They usually led from the front, occupying a position at the front right of the century formation. They could be identified by the transverse horse-hair crest on top of their helmet, their metal greaves and (unlike the legionaries) the sword worn on the left, like all Roman officers. They led and inspired their men by example. They also sought to display the skill and courage that may have brought them to their rank in the first place.
Below the centurions were the optiones, seconds-in-command of centuries.
Being held personally responsible for the training and discipline of the legionaries under their command, centurions had a well-deserved reputation for dealing out harsh punishment. In The Annals, Tacitus tells the story of one known as 'Cedo Alteram' - which roughly translates to 'Fetch Me Another': "The mutinous soldiers thrust out the tribunes and the camp-prefect; they plundered the baggage of the fugitives, and then killed a centurion, Lucilius, to whom, with soldier's humour, they had given the nickname 'Cedo Alteram', because when he had broken one vine-stick across a soldier's back, he would call in a loud voice for another... and another."
The vine-stick mentioned above by Tacitus was called a vitis; it was a symbol of the centurion's authority and the implement with which he would mete out punishment.
Evidence suggests that centurions had important social status and held powerful positions in society. They seem to have received their status according to their rank. On retirement they could be eligible for employment as Lictors.
Each century had a precedence within the cohort. Centurions' seniority within the cohort and legion depended on the position within the legion of the century they were in charge of, which often took their name from their centurion. Centurions began by leading junior centuries before being promoted to leading a more senior one. Promotion usually came with experience, or at least length of service, but many still never made it as far as leading a 1st cohort. Yet for centurions who showed, say, particularly conspicuous bravery during battle, there was the opportunity to be promoted several grades at once. For example, Julius Caesar's reward for a centurion who had greatly pleased him was to advance him eight grades. Promotion through the various grades often meant transferring to another legion.
The precedence during the times of the manipular legion, commanding sixty men, was organized like this:
For the imperial legion they were organized (in order of who advanced first);
and so on.
There were five centuries in the first cohort, each century with twice the number of soldiers of a normal century. All first-cohort centurions outranked all centurions from other cohorts.
Centurions had to be literate (to be able to read written orders), have connections (letters of recommendation), be at least 30 years of age, and have already served a few years in the military.
The centurion in the infantry is chosen for his size, strength and dexterity in throwing his missile weapons and for his skill in the use of his sword and shield; in short for his expertness in all the exercises. He is to be vigilant, temperate, active and readier to execute the orders he receives than to talk; Strict in exercising and keeping up proper discipline among his soldiers, in obliging them to appear clean and well-dressed and to have their arms constantly rubbed and bright.
Matthew's Gospel and Luke's Gospel relate an incident in which a servant of a centurion based in Capernaum was ill. In the Gospel of Luke, the centurion concerned had a good relationship with the elders of the local Jewish population and had funded the development of the synagogue in Capernaum, and when he heard that Jesus was in the locality, he asked the Jewish elders to request healing for his servant. In the Gospel of Matthew, the centurion makes direct contact with Jesus. The stories report that Jesus marveled at his faith and restored his servant to health.
The book of Acts tells of a centurion named Cornelius whose righteous and generous acts find favor with God. The apostle Simon Peter is told in a vision to visit Cornelius, a Gentile, with whom association was not permitted under Jewish law. The encounter leads Simon Peter to understand that God accepts non-Jews who believe in God and repent. After this revelation, the message of Jesus was evangelized to the Gentiles.
The Beretta 92 (also Beretta 96 and Beretta 98) is a series of semi-automatic pistols designed and manufactured by Beretta of Italy. The model 92 was designed in 1972 and production of many variants in different calibers continues today.
The United States military replaced the M1911A1 .45 ACP pistol in 1985 with the Beretta 92FS, designated as the M9.Centurion, Gauteng
Centurion (previously known as Verwoerdburg and before that Lyttelton) is an area with 236,580 (2011 Census) inhabitants in Gauteng Province of South Africa, located between Pretoria and Midrand (Johannesburg). Formerly an independent municipality, with its own town council, it has formed part of the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality since 2000. Its heart is located at the intersection of the N1 and N14 freeways. The R21 also passes through Centurion.
The Waterkloof Air Force Base, as well as the Swartkop Air Force Base (which includes the South African Air Force Museum) are located in Centurion.Centurion (bicycle company)
Centurion was a brand of bicycles created in 1969 by Mitchell (Mitch) M. Weiner and Junya (Cozy) Yamakoshi, who co-founded Western States Import Co. (WSI) in Canoga Park, California (initially Wil-Go Imports) to design, specify, distribute and market the bicycles. The bikes themselves were manufactured initially in Japan by companies including H. Tano Company of Kobe and later in Taiwan by companies including Merida. The Centurion brand was consolidated with WSI's mountain bike brand Diamond Back in 1990. WSI ceased operations in 2000.
Centurion and WSI competed in the U.S. against domestic and European bicycle manufacturers including Schwinn, Raleigh, Peugeot, Gitane and Motobecane — as well as other nascent Japanese bicycle brands including Miyata, Fuji, Bridgestone, Panasonic, Univega, Lotus and Nishiki — itself a line of Japanese-manufactured bicycles that were specified, distributed and marketed by West Coast Cycles — a U.S. company similar to WSI. Japanese-manufactured bikes succeeded in the U.S. market until currency fluctuations in the late 1980s made them less competitive, leading companies to source bicycles from Taiwan.
WSI marketed the Centurion brand of road and touring bicycles in the United States using the tag line "Where Centurion leads, others must follow" and "A Lifetime Bicycle", offering a warranty without time limit. For a brief period the bikes carried a "Centurion Bicycle Works" headbadge.
The German company Centurion, which still exists, imported Centurion bikes from Japan to Germany from 1976 on and bought the name-rights in 1990.Centurion (tank)
The Centurion was the primary British main battle tank of the post-Second World War period. Introduced in 1945, it is widely considered to be one of the most successful post-war tank designs, remaining in production into the 1960s, and seeing combat in the front lines into the 1980s. The chassis was also adapted for several other roles, and these have remained in service to this day.
Development of the Centurion began in 1943 with manufacture beginning in January 1945. Six prototypes arrived in Belgium less than a month after the war in Europe ended in May 1945. It first entered combat with the British Army in the Korean War in 1950, in support of the UN forces. The Centurion later served in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, where it fought against US-supplied M47 and M48 Patton tanks and it served with the Royal Australian Armoured Corps in Vietnam.
Israel used Centurions in the 1967 Six-Day War, 1973 Yom Kippur War, and during the 1978 and 1982 invasions of Lebanon. Centurions modified as armoured personnel carriers were used in Gaza, the West Bank and on the Lebanese border. The Royal Jordanian Land Force used Centurions, first in 1970 to fend off a Syrian incursion within its borders during the Black September events and later in the Golan Heights in 1973. South Africa deployed its Centurions in Angola during the South African Border War.It became one of the most widely used tank designs, equipping armies around the world, with some still in service until the 1990s. As recently as the 2006 Israel–Lebanon conflict the Israel Defense Forces employed heavily modified Centurions as armoured personnel carriers and combat engineering vehicles. The South African National Defence Force still employs over 200 Centurions, which were modernised in the 1980s and 2000s as the Olifant (elephant).
Between 1946 and 1962, 4,423 Centurions were produced, consisting of 13 basic marks and numerous variants. In British Army use it was replaced by the Chieftain.Centurion Bank of Punjab
The Centurion Bank of Punjab (formerly Centurion Bank) was an Indian private sector bank that provided retail and corporate banking services. It operated on a strong nationwide franchise of 403 branches and had over 5,000 employees. The bank listed its shares on the major Indian stock exchanges and on the Luxembourg Stock Exchange. On 23 May 2008 HDFC Bank acquired Centurion Bank of Punjab.Centurion Card
The American Express Centurion Card, known informally as the Amex Black Card, is an invitation-only charge card issued by American Express to platinum card holders after they meet certain criteria. There are three different issues of the Centurion Card: personal, business, and corporate.Centurion Glacier
Centurion Glacier (68°12′S 66°56′W) is a small steep glacier flowing northwest to Neny Bay between Mount Nemesis and Roman Four Promontory, on the west coast of Graham Land. It was first roughly surveyed in 1936 by the British Graham Land Expedition under Rymill, and resurveyed in 1947 by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (FIDS). The name, given by FIDS, derives from association with Roman Four Promontory.Cessna 210
The Cessna 210 Centurion is a six-seat, high-performance, retractable-gear, single-engine, high-wing general aviation aircraft which was first flown in January 1957 and produced by Cessna until 1986.Conqueror (tank)
The FV 214 Conqueror, also known as "Tank, Heavy No. 1, 120 mm Gun, Conqueror" was a British heavy tank of the post-World War II era. It was developed as a response to the Soviet Joseph Stalin IS-3 heavy tanks; its 120 mm gun was larger than the 20-pounder (83.4 mm) gun carried by its peer, the Centurion. The Conqueror's role was to provide long range anti-tank support for the Centurion. Conquerors were issued at nine for each regiment in Germany, usually grouped in three tank troops. In the British Army both the Conqueror and the Centurion were replaced by the Chieftain.Cornelius the Centurion
Cornelius (Greek: Κορνήλιος) was a Roman centurion who is considered by Christians to be one of the first Gentiles to convert to the faith, as related in Acts of the Apostles.Cylon (Battlestar Galactica)
The Cylons are a cybernetic civilization at war with the Twelve Colonies of humanity in the Battlestar Galactica science fiction franchise, in the original 1978 and 1980 series, the 2004 reimagining, as well as the spin-off prequel series, Caprica. In the 1978 series, Cylon is also the name of the reptilian race who created the robot Cylons.
The nature and origin of the Cylons differ greatly between the two Battlestar Galactica continuities. However, both series feature Cylon Raiders, Cylon Basestars and Cylon Centurions. The prequel series, Caprica, focuses on the creation of the Cylons, which differs from all the previous Battlestar Galactica series.Go Bowling at The Glen
The Go Bowling at The Glen is a 90-lap, 220.86-mile (355.44 km) annual Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series stock car race held at Watkins Glen International in Watkins Glen, New York, on the 2.45-mile (3.94 km) road course. It is one of three road course races on the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series schedule, with the others being the Toyota/Save Mart 350 at Sonoma Raceway and the Bank of America Roval 400 at Charlotte Motor Speedway.HDFC Bank
HDFC Bank Limited (Housing Development Finance Corporation) is an Indian banking and financial services company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra. It has 88,253 permanent employees as of 31 March 2018 and has a presence in Bahrain, Hong Kong and Dubai. HDFC Bank is India’s largest private sector lender by assets. It is the largest bank in India by market capitalization as of February 2016. It was ranked 69th in 2016 BrandZ Top 100 Most Valuable Global Brands.HMS Centurion (1911)
HMS Centurion was the second of four King George V-class dreadnought battleships built for the Royal Navy in the early 1910s. She spent the bulk of her career assigned to the Home and Grand Fleets. Aside from participating in the failed attempt to intercept the German ships that had bombarded Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby in late 1914, and the Battle of Jutland in May 1916, her service during the First World War generally consisted of routine patrols and training in the North Sea.
By the end of 1919, Centurion had been transferred to the Mediterranean Fleet. Although she spent much of her time in reserve, she had a peripheral role in the Allied Intervention in the Russian Civil War. After her return home in 1924, the ship became the flagship of the Reserve Fleet. In 1926 Centurion was converted into a target ship and participated in trials evaluating the effectiveness of aerial bombing in addition to her normal duties. During the Second World War, the ship was rearmed with light weapons and was converted into a blockship in 1941. When that operation was cancelled, she was then modified into a decoy with dummy gun turrets in an attempt to fool the Axis powers. Centurion was sent to the Mediterranean in 1942 to escort a convoy to Malta, although the Italians quickly figured out the deception. The ship was deliberately sunk during the Invasion of Normandy in 1944 to form a breakwater.List of Roman army unit types
This is a list of Roman army unit types.
Actarius – A military or camp clerk.
Adiutor – A camp or headquarters adjutant or assistant
Aeneator – Military musician such as a bugler.
Agrimensor – A surveyor (a type of immunes).
Aquilifer – Bearer of the legionary eagle.
Alaris – A cavalryman serving in an ala.
Architecti – An engineer or artillery constructor.
Armicustos – A soldier tasked with the administration and supply of weapons and equipment. A quartermaster.
Ballistarius – An artillery operator (a type of immunes).
Beneficiarius – A soldier performing an extraordinary task such as military policing or a special assignment.
Bucinator – A trumpeter or bugler.
Cacula – Servant or slave of a soldier.
Capsarior – A medical orderly.
Causarius – A soldier discharged for wounds or other medical reasons.
Centurion – Officer rank, generally one per 80 soldiers, in charge of a centuria.
Clinicus – A medic.
Cornicen – Bugler.
Doctor – A trainer, subdivisions for everything from weapons to hornblowing.
Draconarius – Bearer of a cavalry standard.
Decurion – Leader of a troop of cavalry (14-30 men). Often confused with decanus.
Decanus – Leader of a contubernium (a legionary tent group of 8 men).
Discens – Miles in training for an immunis position.
Dux – A general in charge of two or more legions. In the Third Century AD, an officer with a regional command transcending provincial boundaries, responsible directly to the emperor alone, usually appointed on a temporary basis in a grave emergency. In the fourth century AD, an officer in charge of a section of the frontier answering to the Magister Militum.
Equites singulares Augusti – Elite cavalry unit tasked to guard the Roman Emperors. Usually commanded by a tribunus of praetorian rank.
Evocatus – A soldier who had served out his time and obtained his discharge (missio), but had voluntarily enlisted again at the invitation of the consul or other commander.
Frumentarii – Officials of the Roman Empire during the 2nd and 3rd era. Often used as a Secret Service, mostly operating in uniform.
Hastatus – The youngest of the heavy infantry in the pre-Marian armies, who were less well-equipped than the older Principes and Triarii. These formed the first line of battle in front of the Principes.
Hastatus Prior – A centurion commanding a manipulus or centuria of hastati. A high-ranking officer within a manipulus or centuria.
Hastatus Posterior – A deputy to the hastatus prior
Hastiliarius – a weapons instructor.
Imaginifer – A standard-bearer carrying the imago – the standard which bore a likeness of the emperor, and, at later dates, his family.
Immunes – Soldiers who were "immune" from combat duty and fatigues through having a more specialist role within the army.
Legatus legionis – A legion commander of senatorial rank; literally the "deputy" of the emperor, who was the titular commander-in-chief.
Legatus pro praetore – Provincial governor of senatorial rank with multiple legions under his command.
Legionary – The heavy infantry that was the basic military force of the ancient Roman army in the period of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
Medicus – Physician or combat medic. Specializations included surgery (medicus vulnerarius), ophthalmology (medicus ocularius), and also veterinary (medicus veterinarius). At least some held rank equivalent to a centurion.
Miles or Miles Gregarius – The basic private level foot soldier.
Numerus – A unit of barbarian allies not integrated into the regular army structure. Later, a unit of border forces.
Optio – One per century as second-in-command to the centurion. Could also fill several other specialized roles on an ad hoc basis.
Pedites – The infantry of the early army of the Roman kingdom. The majority of the army in this period.
Peditatus – A term referring to any infantryman in the Roman Empire.
Pilus Prior – Senior centurion of a cohort.
Pilus Posterior – Deputy to the pilus prior.
Praefectus Castrorum – Camp prefect, third-in-command of the legion, also responsible for maintaining the camp, equipment, and supplies. Usually a former primus pilus.
Praefectus Cohortis - Commander of a cohort.
Praefectus legionis agens vice legati – Equestrian officer given the command of a legion in the absence of a senatorial legatus. After the removal of senators from military command, the title of a legionary commander. ("...agens vice legati, dropped in later Third Century")
Praetorians – A special force of bodyguards used by Roman Emperors.
Primus Ordinis – The commanding officer of each centuria in the first cohort with the exception of the first centuria of the cohort.
Primus Pilus (literally 'first file', not spear) – The centurion commanding the first cohort and the senior centurion of the entire Legion.
Princeps – Pre-Marian soldier, initially equipped with the Hasta spear, but later with the pilum, these men formed the second line of battle behind the Hastati in the pre-Marian armies. They were also chieftains in Briton like Dumnorix of the Regneses (he was killed by Gaius Salvius Liberalis' soldiers).
Princeps Prior – A centurion commanding a century of principes.
Princeps Posterior – A deputy to the princeps prior.
Principales – A group of ranks, including aquilifer, signifer, optio, and tesserarius. Similar to modern NCOs (Non-commissioned officers).
Protectores Augusti Nostri (a.k.a. Protectores Divini Lateris) – honorific title for senior officers singled out for their loyalty to the Emperor and soldierly qualities. The protectores were an order of honor rather than a military unit. The order first appeared in the mid-200s AD.
Quaestionarius – An interrogator or torturer.
Retentus – A soldier kept in service after serving required term.
Rorarii – The final line, or reserve, in the ancient pre-Marius Roman army. These were removed even before the Marian reforms, as the Triarii provided a very sturdy anchor.
Sagittarii – Archers, including horse-riding auxiliary archers recruited mainly in the Eastern Empire and Africa.
Salararius – A soldier enjoying special service conditions or hired as a mercenary.
Scholae Palatinae – An elite troop of soldiers created by the Emperor Constantine the Great to provide personal protection of the Emperor and his immediate family.
Scorpionarius – An artilleryman operating a scorpio artillery piece.
Signifer – Standard bearer of the Roman Legion.
Socii – Troops from allied states in the pre-Marian army before the Social War (91–88 BC)
Speculatores and Exploratores – The scouts and reconnaissance element of the Roman army.
Supernumerarii – Supernumerary soldiers who served to fill the places of those who were killed or disabled by their wounds.
Tablifer – A guard cavalry standard-bearer
Tesserarius – Guard commander, one per centuria.
Tirones – A basic trainee.
Triarii – Spearmen of the pre-Marian armies, equipped with the Hasta, who formed the third line of battle behind the Principes.
Tribuni militum angusticlavii or military tribune – Military tribune of equestrian rank, five of whom were assigned to each legion.
Tribunus militum laticlavius – Military tribune of senatorial rank. Second in command of a legion. Appointments to this rank seem to have ceased during the sole reign of Gallienus as part of a policy of excluding senators from military commands.
Tubicen – A trumpeter.
Urbanae – A special police force of Rome, created to counterbalance the Praetorians.
Velites – A class of light infantry in the army of the Roman Republic.
Venator – A hunter (a type of immunes).
Vexillarius – Bearer of a vexillum (standard).Phalanx CIWS
The Phalanx CIWS (pronounced "sea-whiz") is a close-in weapon system for defense against anti-ship missiles, helicopters, etc. It was designed and manufactured by the General Dynamics Corporation, Pomona Division (now a part of Raytheon). Consisting of a radar-guided 20 mm Vulcan cannon mounted on a swiveling base, the Phalanx has been used by multiple navies around the world, notably the U.S. Navy on every class of surface combat ship with the exception of the San Antonio-class LPD, by the Canadian Royal Canadian Navy, the British Royal Navy, and by the U.S. Coast Guard aboard its Hamilton and Legend-class cutters. The Phalanx is used by 15 other allied nations.
A land variant, known as the LPWS (Land Phalanx Weapon System), part of the C-RAM system, has recently been deployed in a short range missile defense role, to counter incoming rockets and artillery fire.Because of their distinctive barrel-shaped radome and their automated nature of operation, Phalanx CIWS units are sometimes nicknamed "R2-D2" after the famous droid character from the Star Wars films.Power hour
Power Hour or 21 for 21 is a drinking game where players must consume a specified number of alcohol shots within one hour. Variants include one shot of beer every minute for an hour, or 60 shots within one hour. In the United States, a power hour event is often associated with a person's 21st birthday when they reach the legal drinking age.SuperSport Park
Supersport Park is a cricket ground in Centurion, Gauteng, South Africa.
It was renamed from Centurion Park after television company Supersport bought shares in the stadium. The capacity of the ground is 22,000.
The Titans cricket team, have played most of their home games here since 2004. The ground was home to the Titan's predecessor team Northerns (cricket team) (previously Northern Transvaal) since 1986.The Centurion
The Centurion is a conservative online magazine focused on Rutgers University-New Brunswick campus life.
Its motto is "veritas vos liberabit," which is Latin for "the truth shall set you free." The magazine attempts to counterbalance that which its staff perceive as a predominant orthodoxy of social liberalism and political progressivism of the professors and staff at the university. They believe this is confirmed by documented faculty donations to political candidates in the 2004 presidential election.The Centurion was founded in September 2004 by James O'Keefe, a junior philosophy major, after he left The Daily Targum. It was co-founded by fellow Rutgers college students Matthew Klimek, Joseph P. Nedick and Mason-Gross art student Justine Mertz.