Centre-right politics or center-right politics (American English), also referred to as moderate-right politics, are politics that lean to the right of the left–right political spectrum, but are closer to the centre than other right-wing politics. From the 1780s to the 1880s, there was a shift in the Western world of social class structure and the economy, moving away from the nobility and mercantilism, as well as moving towards the bourgeoisie and capitalism. This general economic shift towards capitalism affected centre-right movements such as the British Conservative Party, that responded by becoming supportive of capitalism.
The International Democrat Union is an alliance of centre-right to right-wing political parties, including the British Conservative Party, the Conservative Party of Canada, the Liberal Party of Australia, the New Zealand National Party and Christian democratic parties, which is committed to human rights as well as economic development.
The prominent inspiration for the centre-right (especially in Britain) was the traditionalist conservatism of Edmund Burke. Burke's traditionalist conservatism was more moderate than the continental conservatism developed by Joseph De Maistre in France, that upon experiencing the French Revolution completely denounced the status quo that existed immediately prior to the revolution (unlike Burke) and de Maistre sought a reactionary counter-revolution that would dismantle all modern society and return it to a strictly religious-based society. While Burke condemned the French Revolution, he had supported the American Revolution that he viewed as being a conservative revolution. Burke claimed that the Americans revolted for the same reason as the English had during the Glorious Revolution, in both cases a monarch had overstepped the boundaries of his duties. Burke claimed that the American Revolution was justified because King George III had overstepped his customary rights by imposing taxes on the American colonists without their consent. Burke opposed the French Revolution because he opposed its anti-traditionalism and its use of abstract ideas, such as the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen and its universal egalitarianism that Burke rebuked by claiming that it effectively endorsed "hairdressers" being able to be politicians.
In Britain, the traditionalist conservative movement was represented in the British Conservative Party. Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Benjamin Disraeli sought to address social problems affecting the working class due to lack of assistance from the laissez-faire economy and formed his one nation conservatism that claimed that lack of assistance for the lower classes had divided British society into two nations – the rich and the poor as the result of unrestrained private enterprise, he claimed that he sought to break down. Disraeli said that he supported a united British nation while presenting the other parties representing the upper-class or the lower-class. Disraeli was hostile to free trade and preferred aristocratic paternalism as well as promoting imperialism. However, with the revival in Britain of the socialist movement with the rise of the Labour Party and the demise of the Liberal Party, the Conservative Party shifted to become a supporter of capitalism and an opponent of socialism, while advocacy of capitalism was promoted within the principles of traditionalist conservatism.
Another centre-right movement that arose in France in response to the French Revolution was the beginning of the Christian democracy movement, where moderate conservative Catholics accepted the democratic elements of the French Revolution. The first Christian democratic party was founded in Italy in 1919 by Luigi Sturzo, but it was suppressed by the Italian Fascist regime and was forced into exile in France. In France, Sturzo founded an international movement that supported the creation of a European common market and European integration to prevent war, amongst those who attended the group included future German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, Alcide de Gasperi and Robert Schuman.
In Europe after World War II, centre-right Christian democratic parties arose as powerful political movements while the authoritarian reactionary Catholic traditionalist movements in Europe diminished in strength. Christian democratic movements became major movements in Austria, the Benelux countries, Germany and Italy.
Neoliberalism arose as an economic theory by Milton Friedman that condemned government interventionism in the economy that it associated with socialism and collectivism. Neoliberals rejected Keynesian economics that they claimed advocate too much emphasis on relieving unemployment in response to their observance of the Great Depression, identifying the real problem as being with inflation and advocate the policy of monetarism to deal with inflation.
Neoliberal economics was endorsed by Conservative British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher who adapted it as part of a free-market conservatism closer to the developments in American conservatism, while traditionalist conservatism became less influential within the British Conservative Party. However, the British Conservative Party still has a large traditional conservative base, particularly the conservative Cornerstone Group. Thatcher publicly supported centre-right politics and supported its spread in Eastern Europe after the end of the Marxist-Leninist regimes in the late 1980s and early 1990s. After the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe, a variety of centre-right political parties have emerged there, including many that support neoliberalism.
In the United States, President Ronald Reagan (1981–1989) adopted many policies stemming from Milton Friedman's economic theories, including principles from the Chicago school of economics and monetarism. While social conservatives and the rise of the Christian Right contributed greatly to forming the Reagan Coalition, the President also had the support of right-wing economic neoliberals. Using Friedman's neoliberal theories, the Reagan administration cut the marginal income tax from 70% to 28%, reduced inflation from 13.5% in Jimmy Carter's final year (1980) to 1.9% in 1986 and reduced civilian unemployment from 10.8% to 5.3% of the workforce.
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Burke has been seen as the father of modern British conservatism, which serves as the best example of the moderate right tradition.
Thatcher praised the winning party of the Hungarian election of 1990 as what she called a "really genuine centre-right government".
Activate was a British political organisation, which described itself as a seeking to engage young people in centre-right politics. It was founded in August 2017 by young members of the Conservative Party. It had been compared to the left-wing group Momentum. The organisation was shut down on 31 May 2018.Catholic People's Party (Poland)
The Catholic People's Party (Polish: Stronnictwo Katolicko-Ludowe, SKL) was a political party in Poland.Centrism
In politics, centrism—the centre (British/Canadian/Australian English) or the center (American/Philippine English)—is a political outlook or specific position that involves acceptance or support of a balance of a degree of social equality and a degree of social hierarchy, while opposing political changes which would result in a significant shift of society strongly to either the left or the right.Centre-left and centre-right politics both involve a general association with centrism combined with leaning somewhat to their respective sides of the spectrum.
Various political ideologies, such as Christian democracy, can be classified as centrist.Civic Democratic Party (Lithuania)
The Civic Democratic Party (Lithuanian: Pilietinės demokratijos partija, PDP) was a liberal conservative political party in Lithuania.Democratic Front (Peru)
Democratic Front (in Spanish: Frente Democrático), also known as FREDEMO, was a center-right economically liberal and social-conservative political alliance in Peru founded in 1988 by Liberty Movement, Popular Action and Christian People's Party. FREDEMO contested the 1989 municipal elections and the 1990 presidential elections (with famous author Mario Vargas Llosa as its candidate).House of Freedoms
The House of Freedoms (Italian: Casa delle Libertà, CdL), was a major centre-right political and electoral alliance in Italy, led by Silvio Berlusconi.LGBT conservatism
LGBT conservatism refers to a socio-political movement which embraces and promotes the ideology of conservatism within an LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) context. Gay conservatives may also refer to lesbian or gay persons with socially and economically conservative political views. The number of openly LGBT advocates for conservative policies has only become increasingly apparent since the advent of the modern LGBT civil rights movement in the 1970s while many more LGBT conservatives remain closeted in countries where other socially conservative politicians have led the most organized opposition to LGBT rights efforts as well as the backlash from liberal and left-leaning LGBT social activists. The situation and ideology for LGBT conservatives varies by each country's social and political LGBT rights climate.Liberal Democratic Party (Spain, 1982)
The Liberal Democratic Party (Partido Demócrata Liberal in Spanish language, PDL) was a liberal Spanish political party led by Antonio Garrigues Walker, founded in 1982.Liberal conservatism
Liberal conservatism is a political ideology combining conservative policies with liberal stances, especially on economic, social and ethical issues, or a brand of political conservatism strongly influenced by liberalism.
Liberal conservatism incorporates the classical liberal view of minimal government intervention in the economy, according to which individuals should be free to participate in the market and generate wealth without government interference. However, individuals cannot be thoroughly depended on to act responsibly in other spheres of life, therefore liberal conservatives believe that a strong state is necessary to ensure law and order and social institutions are needed to nurture a sense of duty and responsibility to the nation. They also support civil liberties, along with some social conservative positions. In Europe liberal conservatism is the dominant form of contemporary conservatism and centre-right politics.Party of Greek Hunters
The Party of Greek Hunters (Greek: Κόμμα Ελλήνων Κυνηγών, KEK), is a minor Greek political party that advocates the rights of hunters. It is led by Giorgos Tsagkanelias.People's Party (Armenia)
Not to be confused with the People's Party of ArmeniaThe People's Party (Armenian: Ժողովրդական Կուսակցություն; Zhoghovrdakan Kusaktsutyun) is a political party in Armenia.
In the 2007 Armenian parliamentary elections it won no seats with 2.74% of the popular vote.People's Party (Bulgaria)
The People's Party (Bulgarian: Народна партия, Narodna partiya) was a political party in Bulgaria between 1894 and 1920.Pole for Freedoms
The Pole for Freedoms (Italian: Polo per le Libertà) was a centre-right political and electoral alliance in Italy, which was active from 1996 to 2001. It included Forza Italia (FI), the National Alliance (AN), Union of the Centre (UdC), Christian Democratic Centre (CCD), United Christian Democrats (UCD), and Pannella–Sgarbi List.Polish Christian Democratic Party
Polish Christian Democratic Party (Polish: Polskie Stronnictwo Chrześcijańskiej Demokracji, PSChD, commonly known as Chrześcijańska or Chadecja), was a political party of Polish right wing christian democracy faction existing in the first year of the Second Polish Republic. Its leader and main activist was Wojciech Korfanty.
In 1922 Chadecja became part of the Chrześcijański Związek Jedności Narodowej (Chiena) coalition. Part of the Chjeno-Piast coalition after signing the Lanckorona Pact in 1923.
After the May Coup of 1926, split into three factions. Member of Centrolew coalition in 1929. Member of Front Morges coalition in 1937, and merged with National Workers' Party to form the Labor Party.Progressive Party (Cape Colony)
The Progressive Party of the Cape Colony, was a political party in the Cape Parliament that was primarily composed of and supported by British immigrants to the Cape. It supported pro-British, pro-Imperialist policies, and was in power from 1900 until 1908.Shōwakai
The Shōwakai (Japanese: 昭和会, literally Shōwa Society) was a political party in Japan.Third Way (Palestinian authority)
The Third Way (Arabic: الطريق الثالث aṭ-Ṭarīq ath-Thālith) is a small centrist Palestinian political party active in the Palestinian National Authority (PNA). Founded on 16 December 2005, the party was led by Salam Fayyad and Hanan Ashrawi. The party presents itself as an alternative to the two-party system of Hamas and Fatah.
In the January 2006 PLC elections the party received 2.41% of the popular vote and won two of the Council's 132 seats. After the disappointing election results, the party disappeared from the Palestinian arena, but in July 2015 party leaders held a series of meetings in Ramallah and Hebron to discuss the party's ability to reactivate its platform and return.Turkey Party
Turkey Party (Türkiye Partisi, TP) was a conservative liberal party in Turkey, which was founded on 25 May 2009 by Abdüllatif Şener in Çankaya, Ankara. It had one seat in Turkish Grand National Assembly.
Şener announced that the party was officially closed on August 27, 2012 due to difficulties to maintain the political goals outside the parliament.United Australia Party – Queensland
The United Australia Party was the short-lived Queensland branch of the national United Australia Party in the 1930s and 1940s. Based around Brisbane, it spent the entire of its history in opposition, merging in 1941 into the Country-National Organisation. When that party separated in 1944, the remnants of the UAP joined the Queensland People's Party which in 1949 became the Liberal Party of Australia (Queensland Division)