Centre-right politics

Centre-right politics or center-right politics (American English), also referred to as moderate-right politics, are politics that lean to the right of the left–right political spectrum, but are closer to the centre than other right-wing politics. From the 1780s to the 1880s, there was a shift in the Western world of social class structure and the economy, moving away from the nobility and mercantilism, as well as moving towards the bourgeoisie and capitalism.[1][2][3] This general economic shift towards capitalism affected centre-right movements such as the British Conservative Party, that responded by becoming supportive of capitalism.[4]

The International Democrat Union is an alliance of centre-right to right-wing political parties, including the British Conservative Party, the Republican Party of the United States, the Conservative Party of Canada, the Liberal Party of Australia, the New Zealand National Party and Christian democratic parties, which is committed to human rights as well as economic development.[5]

History

French Revolution to World War II

The prominent inspiration for the centre-right (especially in Britain) was the traditionalist conservatism of Edmund Burke.[6] Burke's traditionalist conservatism was more moderate than the continental conservatism developed by Joseph De Maistre in France, that upon experiencing the French Revolution completely denounced the status quo that existed immediately prior to the revolution (unlike Burke) and de Maistre sought a reactionary counter-revolution that would dismantle all modern society and return it to a strictly religious-based society.[7] While Burke condemned the French Revolution, he had supported the American Revolution that he viewed as being a conservative revolution.[8] Burke claimed that the Americans revolted for the same reason as the English had during the Glorious Revolution, in both cases a monarch had overstepped the boundaries of his duties.[8] Burke claimed that the American Revolution was justified because King George III had overstepped his customary rights by imposing taxes on the American colonists without their consent.[8] Burke opposed the French Revolution because he opposed its anti-traditionalism and its use of abstract ideas, such as the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen and its universal egalitarianism that Burke rebuked by claiming that it effectively endorsed "hairdressers" being able to be politicians.[8]

In Britain, the traditionalist conservative movement was represented in the British Conservative Party.[4] Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Benjamin Disraeli sought to address social problems affecting the working class due to lack of assistance from the laissez-faire economy and formed his one nation conservatism that claimed that lack of assistance for the lower classes had divided British society into two nations – the rich and the poor as the result of unrestrained private enterprise, he claimed that he sought to break down.[9] Disraeli said that he supported a united British nation while presenting the other parties representing the upper-class or the lower-class.[4] Disraeli was hostile to free trade and preferred aristocratic paternalism as well as promoting imperialism.[4] However, with the revival in Britain of the socialist movement with the rise of the Labour Party and the demise of the Liberal Party, the Conservative Party shifted to become a supporter of capitalism and an opponent of socialism, while advocacy of capitalism was promoted within the principles of traditionalist conservatism.[4]

Another centre-right movement that arose in France in response to the French Revolution was the beginning of the Christian democracy movement, where moderate conservative Catholics accepted the democratic elements of the French Revolution.[9] The first Christian democratic party was founded in Italy in 1919 by Luigi Sturzo, but it was suppressed by the Italian Fascist regime and was forced into exile in France.[9] In France, Sturzo founded an international movement that supported the creation of a European common market and European integration to prevent war, amongst those who attended the group included future German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, Alcide de Gasperi and Robert Schuman.[9]

Post-World War II

In Europe after World War II, centre-right Christian democratic parties arose as powerful political movements while the authoritarian reactionary Catholic traditionalist movements in Europe diminished in strength.[9] Christian democratic movements became major movements in Austria, the Benelux countries, Germany and Italy.[9]

Neoliberalism arose as an economic theory by Milton Friedman that condemned government interventionism in the economy that it associated with socialism and collectivism.[10] Neoliberals rejected Keynesian economics that they claimed advocate too much emphasis on relieving unemployment in response to their observance of the Great Depression, identifying the real problem as being with inflation and advocate the policy of monetarism to deal with inflation.[11]

Neoliberal economics was endorsed by Conservative British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher who adapted it as part of a free-market conservatism closer to the developments in American conservatism, while traditionalist conservatism became less influential within the British Conservative Party.[12] However, the British Conservative Party still has a large traditional conservative base, particularly the conservative Cornerstone Group. Thatcher publicly supported centre-right politics and supported its spread in Eastern Europe after the end of the Marxist-Leninist regimes in the late 1980s and early 1990s.[13] After the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe, a variety of centre-right political parties have emerged there, including many that support neoliberalism.[14][15]

In the United States, President Ronald Reagan (1981–1989) adopted many policies stemming from Milton Friedman's economic theories, including principles from the Chicago school of economics and monetarism.[16] While social conservatives and the rise of the Christian Right contributed greatly to forming the Reagan Coalition, the President also had the support of right-wing economic neoliberals. Using Friedman's neoliberal theories, the Reagan administration cut the marginal income tax from 70% to 28%, reduced inflation from 13.5% in Jimmy Carter's final year (1980) to 1.9% in 1986 and reduced civilian unemployment from 10.8% to 5.3% of the workforce.[17]

See also

References

  1. ^ Kahan, Alan S. (2010), "The unexpected honeymoon of mind and money, 1730-1830", in Kahan, Alan S., Mind vs. money: the war between intellectuals and capitalism, New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers, p. 88, ISBN 9781412810630.
  2. ^ Shenon, Philip; Greenhouse, Linda (17 August 1988). "Washington talk: Briefing; the King and the Joker". The New York Times. This is the title of nobility clause, which provides: 'No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States'.
  3. ^ Wood, Diane (October 2005). "Our 18th century constitution in the 21st century world". New York University Law Review, Madison Lecture. New York University School of Law. 80 (4): 1079–1107. Debate [over the Constitution's] meaning is inevitable whenever something as specific as the... Titles of Nobility Clause is not at issue pp. 105. Pdf.
  4. ^ a b c d e Adams, Ian (2001). Political ideology today (2nd ed.). Manchester New York: Manchester University Press. p. 57. ISBN 9780719060205.
  5. ^ International Democrat Union. (History. Archived 1 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine Founders. Archived 1 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine Declaration of Principles. Archived 1 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine) Accessed on 22 June 2012.
  6. ^ Eatwell, Roger (1990), "The nature of the Right: the right as a variety of styles of thought", in Eatwell, Roger; O'Sullivan, Noël, The nature of the right: American and European politics and political thought since 1789, Themes in right-wing ideology and politics series, Boston: Twayne Publishers, p. 66, ISBN 9780861879342, Burke has been seen as the father of modern British conservatism, which serves as the best example of the moderate right tradition.
  7. ^ Adams, Bert; Sydie, R.A. (2001), "Section I The origins of sociological theory: the philosophical precursors of sociology", in Adams, Bert; Sydie, R.A., Sociological theory, Thousand Oaks, California: Pine Forge Press, pp. 25–26, ISBN 9780761985570.
  8. ^ a b c d Bridge, Carl (1985), "Burke and the conservative tradition", in Close, David H.; Bridge, Carl, Revolution: a history of the idea, London: Croom Helm Ltd., p. 81, ISBN 9780709934202.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Adams, Ian (2001). Political ideology today (2nd ed.). Manchester New York: Manchester University Press. p. 59. ISBN 9780719060205.
  10. ^ Adams, Ian (2001). Political ideology today (2nd ed.). Manchester New York: Manchester University Press. p. 206. ISBN 9780719060205.
  11. ^ Adams, Ian (2001). Political ideology today (2nd ed.). Manchester New York: Manchester University Press. p. 207. ISBN 9780719060205.
  12. ^ Adams, Ian (2001). Political ideology today (2nd ed.). Manchester New York: Manchester University Press. p. 58. ISBN 9780719060205.
  13. ^ Evans, Eric J. (1997), "Thatcher abroad III: the bringer of freedom? Principle, pragmatism and the limits of power", in Evans, Eric J., Thatcher and Thatcherism, London New York: Routledge, p. 107, ISBN 9780203178980, Thatcher praised the winning party of the Hungarian election of 1990 as what she called a "really genuine centre-right government".
  14. ^ Hanley, Seán (2006), "Blue velvet: the rise and decline of the new Czech Right", in Szczerbiak, Aleks; Hanley, Seán, Centre-right parties in post-communist East-Central Europe, London New York: Routledge, p. 37, ISBN 9780415347815.
  15. ^ Smith, John (4 March 2015). "Labour's lackluster tuition fee pledge is the tip of the iceberg: mainstream politics is melting away". openDemocracy.
  16. ^ Cornwell, Rupert (17 November 2006). "Milton Friedman, free-market economist who inspired Reagan and Thatcher, dies aged 94". The Independent. Washington: Independent Print Ltd.
  17. ^ "The second American revolution: Reagonomics". reaganfoundation.org. Ronald Reagan Presidential Library.
Activate (organisation)

Activate was a British political organisation, which described itself as a seeking to engage young people in centre-right politics. It was founded in August 2017 by young members of the Conservative Party. It had been compared to the left-wing group Momentum. The organisation was shut down on 31 May 2018.

Armenian Democratic Liberal Party

This article is about the Armenian party established as Armenakan Party in 1885 and reformed as Armenian Democratic Liberal Party in 1921; For party established in 1991 and dissolved in 2012 see Democratic Liberal Party of Armenia; For party established in 2009 and dissolved in 2012, see Armenakan-Democratic Liberal Party; For party established on 3 June 2012 from the unification and merger of the two preceding parties, see Democratic Liberal Party (Armenia)The Armenian Democratic Liberal Party (Armenian: Ռամկավար Ազատական Կուսակցութիւն), the Ramgavar Party, (known before 1921 as the Armenakan party) (Armenian: Արմենական Կուսակցութիւն), also known by its Armenian initials (Armenian: ՌԱԿ) or its English initials ADL (meaning Armenian Democratic Liberal) is an Armenian political party in the Armenian diaspora including the Middle East, Europe, the Americas and Australia.

It was established in Constantinople in 1921 as a result of the unification of 3 political parties: the Armenakan Party, the Liberal Party of the Reformed Hunchakians, and the Constituent Democratic Party. The Armenakan Party was founded in 1885 by Mekertich Portukalian as part of the national movement in Van in the Ottoman Empire.

In the Armenian parliamentary elections on 25 May 2003, the party won 2.9% of the popular vote but no seats. Ever since, the party has lost all presence in the political landscape of Armenia. A few pockets of its presence exist in the diaspora with ever-decreasing numbers, a far cry from their heyday during the Soviet era.

Centrism

In politics, centrism—the centre (British/Canadian/Australian English) or the center (American/Philippine English)—is a political outlook or specific position that involves acceptance or support of a balance of a degree of social equality and a degree of social hierarchy, while opposing political changes which would result in a significant shift of society strongly to either the left or the right.Centre-left and centre-right politics both involve a general association with centrism combined with leaning somewhat to their respective sides of the spectrum.

Various political ideologies, such as Christian democracy, can be classified as centrist.

Civic Democratic Union (Slovakia)

The Civic Democratic Union (Slovak: Občianska demokratická únia) was a liberal political party in Slovakia between 1991 and 1994. It was founded as the Civic Democratic Union–Public Against Violence (Slovak: Občianska demokratická únia–Verejnosť proti násilu) as a new political party succeding former political movement Public Against Violence (VPN). During term of Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia Marián Čalfa he joined the party and became one of the leading members. In 1992 Slovak parliamentary election party failed to gain any seats in parliament. In 1994 party merged into the Democratic Party.

Coalition Party (Norway)

The Coalition Party (Norwegian: Samlingspartiet) was a Norwegian political coalition drawn from the Conservative Party, the Moderate Liberal Party and independent Liberals. Its main issues were opposition to the Liberal Party's political union radicalism, as well as to the rising growth of social democracy. Originally formed to pursue a more careful negotiating line towards Sweden, the party turned around and took part in Michelsen's Cabinet, which carried through the dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden in 1905. The coalition's leading members included Christian Michelsen himself, Wollert Konow (SB) and Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson.

Compassionate conservatism

Compassionate conservatism is an American political philosophy that stresses using traditionally conservative techniques and concepts in order to improve the general welfare of society. The term itself is often credited to the American historian and politician Doug Wead, who used it as the title of a speech in 1979, although its origins lie in paternalism. This label and philosophy has been espoused by Republican and Democratic politicians since then though in recent times it has been strongly associated with former U.S. President George W. Bush, who commonly used the term to describe his personal views. The term has also been used in the United Kingdom by former Prime Minister David Cameron, and in New Zealand by former Prime Minister John Key.

Conservatism (disambiguation)

Conservatism is a set of political philosophies that favour tradition.

Conservatism or conservative may also refer to:

A member or supporter of a Conservative Party

Conservative (language), a language form that has changed relatively little over its history

Conservatism (Bayesian), a cognitive bias in Bayesian belief revision

Convention of conservatism, a policy in accounting of anticipating possible future losses but not future gains

Epistemic conservatism, a view about the structure of reasons or justification for belief

Conservative force, a physical force whose work is path-independent

Conservative vector field

The Conservative, a weekly journal published in Nebraska by Julius Sterling Morton from 1898 to 1902

Conservative liberalism

Conservative liberalism is a variant of liberalism, combining liberal values and policies with conservative stances, or simply representing the right-wing of the liberal movement. It is a more positive and less radical variant of classical liberalism. Conservative liberal parties tend to combine market liberal policies with more traditional stances on social and ethical issues. Neoconservatism has also been identified as an ideological relative or twin to conservative liberalism, and some similarities exist also between conservative liberalism and national liberalism.

Democratic Reformist Party

The Democratic Reformist Party (Partido Reformista Democrático in Spanish language) was a Spanish political party led by Miquel Roca emerged in 1984. Within this the Liberal Democratic Party (PLD) of Antonio Garrigues Walker, the Riojan Progressive Party (PRP) and the Majorcan Union. This was known as the "Operation Roca," referring to its main reference and candidate for President of the Government, Miquel Roca i Junyent. The party was present in all Spain, with the exception of Galiza, where it was represented by Galician Coalition (CG), and Catalonia, where its representant was Convergence and Union (CiU).

The party got 194,538 votes (0.96%) in the Spanish elections of 1986, failing to gain any seat. Due to this election failures the party dissolved itself in 1986.

European Coalition (2004)

European Coalition (Spanish: Coalición Europea, CE) was a Spanish electoral list in the European Parliament election in 2004 made up from various regionalist and moderate nationalist parties. The coalition failed to gain any representation in the European Parliament.

Executive Orders

Executive Orders is a techno-thriller novel, written by Tom Clancy and released on July 1, 1996. It picks up immediately where the final events of Debt of Honor (1994) left off, and features now-U.S. President Jack Ryan as he tries to deal with foreign and domestic threats. The book is dedicated to former U.S. President Ronald Reagan, who had been responsible for Clancy's worldwide success as a novelist. The book debuted at number one on the New York Times bestseller list.

Great Coalition

The Great Coalition was a grand coalition of political parties that brought the two Canadas together (Canada East and Canada West) in 1864. The previous collapse after only three months of a coalition government formed by George-Étienne Cartier and Conservative John A. Macdonald and liberal George Brown, (the sixth government in six years) had demonstrated that continued governance of Canada East and Canada West under the 1840 Act of Union had become untenable. In order to reform the political system, a coalition was formed between the Clear Grits under George Brown, the Parti bleu under George-Étienne Cartier, and the Liberal-Conservatives under John A. Macdonald. The formation of this coalition took place between June 14 and June 30, 1864 and was officially completed on June 22, 1864 under George-Étienne Cartier and John A. Macdonald, as the colonies of the Canadas, and was significant to Canadian Confederation in 1867. The coalition persisted by the government of the Province of Canada until the moment of Confederation.

The Great Coalition was created to eradicate the political deadlock between Canada West and Canada East. The government at that time was unable to pass any legislation because of the need for a double majority. In order for a bill to pass in the Legislative Assembly, there had to be a vote in both Canada East and Canada West sections of the assembly. As the French and the English could never agree on anything, this caused political deadlock. This coalition was intended to create resolution with long-term impacts in solving some of these problems and unify Canada.The deadlock led to three conferences that preceded confederation. The first was the Charlottetown Conference, which was convened for the purpose of negotiating a Maritime union. However, the politicians began to discuss the possibility of a larger union that would include all of British North America. This continued at the Quebec Conference where they further discussed the union of British North America and defined the details of the government's shape. They also settled on the division of provincial and federal responsibilities. The London Conference revised the Quebec Resolutions.

LGBT conservatism

LGBT conservatism refers to a socio-political movement which embraces and promotes the ideology of conservatism within an LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) context. Gay conservatives may also refer to lesbian or gay persons with socially and economically conservative political views. The number of openly LGBT advocates for conservative policies has only become increasingly apparent since the advent of the modern LGBT civil rights movement in the 1970s while many more LGBT conservatives remain closeted in countries where other socially conservative politicians have led the most organized opposition to LGBT rights efforts as well as the backlash from liberal and left-leaning LGBT social activists. The situation and ideology for LGBT conservatives varies by each country's social and political LGBT rights climate.

Liberal Democratic Party (Spain, 1982)

The Liberal Democratic Party (Partido Demócrata Liberal in Spanish language, PDL) was a liberal Spanish political party led by Antonio Garrigues Walker, founded in 1982.

Liberal conservatism

Liberal conservatism is a political ideology combining conservative policies with liberal stances, especially on economic, social and ethical issues, or a brand of political conservatism strongly influenced by liberalism.

Liberal conservatism incorporates the classical liberal view of minimal government intervention in the economy, according to which individuals should be free to participate in the market and generate wealth without government interference. However, individuals cannot be thoroughly depended on to act responsibly in other spheres of life, therefore liberal conservatives believe that a strong state is necessary to ensure law and order and social institutions are needed to nurture a sense of duty and responsibility to the nation. They also support civil liberties, along with some social conservative positions. In Europe liberal conservatism is the dominant form of contemporary conservatism and centre-right politics.

Nicholas Burgess Farrell

Nicholas Burgess Farrell (born 2 October 1958) is an English journalist and the author of Mussolini: A New Life.

Progressive Conservative

Progressive Conservative may refer to:

Someone who is an advocate of Progressive conservatism

Progressive Party (Russia)

The Progressist Party (Russian: Прогрессивная партия, прогрессисты) was a group of moderate Russian liberals organized in 1908; it had 28 deputies in the Third Duma and 48 in the Fourth. Its most prominent members were Ivan Nikolaevich Efremov, Aleksandr Konovalov, and Pavel Ryabushinsky. In the last two Dumas the Progressists entered into a coalition with the Constitutional Democrats, and in the Fourth Duma they were part of the Progressive Bloc. After the February Revolution Efremov and Konovalov became part of the Provisional Government.

United Bermuda Party

The United Bermuda Party (UBP) was a political party in Bermuda, which represented itself as centrist party with a moderate social and fiscal agenda. The party held power in Bermuda's House of Assembly continuously from 1968 to 1998, the 47-year-old party was wound up on 30 June 2011 after the majority of its members joined the One Bermuda Alliance.

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