Centre-right politics

Centre-right politics or center-right politics (American English), also referred to as moderate-right politics, are politics that lean to the right of the left–right political spectrum, but are closer to the centre than other right-wing politics. From the 1780s to the 1880s, there was a shift in the Western world of social class structure and the economy, moving away from the nobility and mercantilism, as well as moving towards the bourgeoisie and capitalism.[1][2][3] This general economic shift towards capitalism affected centre-right movements such as the British Conservative Party, that responded by becoming supportive of capitalism.[4]

The International Democrat Union is an alliance of centre-right to right-wing political parties, including the British Conservative Party, the Conservative Party of Canada, the Liberal Party of Australia, the New Zealand National Party and Christian democratic parties, which is committed to human rights as well as economic development.[5]

According to a 2019 study, center-right parties had approximately 27% of the vote share in 21 Western democracies in 2018.[6] This was a decline from 37% in 1960.[6]

History

French Revolution to World War II

The prominent inspiration for the centre-right (especially in Britain) was the traditionalist conservatism of Edmund Burke.[7] Burke's traditionalist conservatism was more moderate than the continental conservatism developed by Joseph De Maistre in France, that upon experiencing the French Revolution completely denounced the status quo that existed immediately prior to the revolution (unlike Burke) and de Maistre sought a reactionary counter-revolution that would dismantle all modern society and return it to a strictly religious-based society.[8] While Burke condemned the French Revolution, he had supported the American Revolution that he viewed as being a conservative revolution.[9] Burke claimed that the Americans revolted for the same reason as the English had during the Glorious Revolution, in both cases a monarch had overstepped the boundaries of his duties.[9] Burke claimed that the American Revolution was justified because King George III had overstepped his customary rights by imposing taxes on the American colonists without their consent.[9] Burke opposed the French Revolution because he opposed its anti-traditionalism and its use of abstract ideas, such as the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen and its universal egalitarianism that Burke rebuked by claiming that it effectively endorsed "hairdressers" being able to be politicians.[9]

In Britain, the traditionalist conservative movement was represented in the British Conservative Party.[4] Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Benjamin Disraeli sought to address social problems affecting the working class due to lack of assistance from the laissez-faire economy and formed his one nation conservatism that claimed that lack of assistance for the lower classes had divided British society into two nations – the rich and the poor as the result of unrestrained private enterprise, he claimed that he sought to break down.[10] Disraeli said that he supported a united British nation while presenting the other parties representing the upper-class or the lower-class.[4] Disraeli was hostile to free trade and preferred aristocratic paternalism as well as promoting imperialism.[4] However, with the revival in Britain of the socialist movement with the rise of the Labour Party and the demise of the Liberal Party, the Conservative Party shifted to become a supporter of capitalism and an opponent of socialism, while advocacy of capitalism was promoted within the principles of traditionalist conservatism.[4]

Another centre-right movement that arose in France in response to the French Revolution was the beginning of the Christian democracy movement, where moderate conservative Catholics accepted the democratic elements of the French Revolution.[10] The first Christian democratic party was founded in Italy in 1919 by Luigi Sturzo, but it was suppressed by the Italian Fascist regime and was forced into exile in France.[10] In France, Sturzo founded an international movement that supported the creation of a European common market and European integration to prevent war, amongst those who attended the group included future German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, Alcide de Gasperi and Robert Schuman.[10]

Post-World War II

In Europe after World War II, centre-right Christian democratic parties arose as powerful political movements while the authoritarian reactionary Catholic traditionalist movements in Europe diminished in strength.[10] Christian democratic movements became major movements in Austria, the Benelux countries, Germany and Italy.[10]

Neoliberalism arose as an economic theory by Milton Friedman that condemned government interventionism in the economy that it associated with socialism and collectivism.[11] Neoliberals rejected Keynesian economics that they claimed advocate too much emphasis on relieving unemployment in response to their observance of the Great Depression, identifying the real problem as being with inflation and advocate the policy of monetarism to deal with inflation.[12]

Neoliberal economics was endorsed by Conservative British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher who adapted it as part of a free-market conservatism closer to the developments in American conservatism, while traditionalist conservatism became less influential within the British Conservative Party.[13] However, the British Conservative Party still has a large traditional conservative base, particularly the conservative Cornerstone Group. Thatcher publicly supported centre-right politics and supported its spread in Eastern Europe after the end of the Marxist-Leninist regimes in the late 1980s and early 1990s.[14] After the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe, a variety of centre-right political parties have emerged there, including many that support neoliberalism.[15][16]

In the United States, President Ronald Reagan (1981–1989) adopted many policies stemming from Milton Friedman's economic theories, including principles from the Chicago school of economics and monetarism.[17] While social conservatives and the rise of the Christian Right contributed greatly to forming the Reagan Coalition, the President also had the support of right-wing economic neoliberals. Using Friedman's neoliberal theories, the Reagan administration cut the marginal income tax from 70% to 28%, reduced inflation from 13.5% in Jimmy Carter's final year (1980) to 1.9% in 1986 and reduced civilian unemployment from 10.8% to 5.3% of the workforce.[18]

See also

References

  1. ^ Kahan, Alan S. (2010), "The unexpected honeymoon of mind and money, 1730-1830", in Kahan, Alan S. (ed.), Mind vs. money: the war between intellectuals and capitalism, New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers, p. 88, ISBN 9781412810630.
  2. ^ Shenon, Philip; Greenhouse, Linda (17 August 1988). "Washington talk: Briefing; the King and the Joker". The New York Times. This is the title of nobility clause, which provides: 'No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States'.
  3. ^ Wood, Diane (October 2005). "Our 18th century constitution in the 21st century world". New York University Law Review, Madison Lecture. New York University School of Law. 80 (4): 1079–1107. Debate [over the Constitution's] meaning is inevitable whenever something as specific as the... Titles of Nobility Clause is not at issue pp. 105. Pdf.
  4. ^ a b c d e Adams, Ian (2001). Political ideology today (2nd ed.). Manchester New York: Manchester University Press. p. 57. ISBN 9780719060205.
  5. ^ International Democrat Union. (History. Archived 1 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine Founders. Archived 1 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine Declaration of Principles. Archived 1 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine) Accessed on 22 June 2012.
  6. ^ a b Gidron, Noam; Ziblatt, Daniel (11 May 2019). "Center-Right Political Parties in Advanced Democracies". Annual Review of Political Science. 22 (1): 17–35. doi:10.1146/annurev-polisci-090717-092750. ISSN 1094-2939.
  7. ^ Eatwell, Roger (1990), "The nature of the Right: the right as a variety of styles of thought", in Eatwell, Roger; O'Sullivan, Noël (eds.), The nature of the right: American and European politics and political thought since 1789, Themes in right-wing ideology and politics series, Boston: Twayne Publishers, p. 66, ISBN 9780861879342, Burke has been seen as the father of modern British conservatism, which serves as the best example of the moderate right tradition.
  8. ^ Adams, Bert; Sydie, R.A. (2001), "Section I The origins of sociological theory: the philosophical precursors of sociology", in Adams, Bert; Sydie, R.A. (eds.), Sociological theory, Thousand Oaks, California: Pine Forge Press, pp. 25–26, ISBN 9780761985570.
  9. ^ a b c d Bridge, Carl (1985), "Burke and the conservative tradition", in Close, David H.; Bridge, Carl (eds.), Revolution: a history of the idea, London: Croom Helm Ltd., p. 81, ISBN 9780709934202.
  10. ^ a b c d e f Adams, Ian (2001). Political ideology today (2nd ed.). Manchester New York: Manchester University Press. p. 59. ISBN 9780719060205.
  11. ^ Adams, Ian (2001). Political ideology today (2nd ed.). Manchester New York: Manchester University Press. p. 206. ISBN 9780719060205.
  12. ^ Adams, Ian (2001). Political ideology today (2nd ed.). Manchester New York: Manchester University Press. p. 207. ISBN 9780719060205.
  13. ^ Adams, Ian (2001). Political ideology today (2nd ed.). Manchester New York: Manchester University Press. p. 58. ISBN 9780719060205.
  14. ^ Evans, Eric J. (1997), "Thatcher abroad III: the bringer of freedom? Principle, pragmatism and the limits of power", in Evans, Eric J. (ed.), Thatcher and Thatcherism, London New York: Routledge, p. 107, ISBN 9780203178980, Thatcher praised the winning party of the Hungarian election of 1990 as what she called a "really genuine centre-right government".
  15. ^ Hanley, Seán (2006), "Blue velvet: the rise and decline of the new Czech Right", in Szczerbiak, Aleks; Hanley, Seán (eds.), Centre-right parties in post-communist East-Central Europe, London New York: Routledge, p. 37, ISBN 9780415347815.
  16. ^ Smith, John (4 March 2015). "Labour's lackluster tuition fee pledge is the tip of the iceberg: mainstream politics is melting away". openDemocracy.
  17. ^ Cornwell, Rupert (17 November 2006). "Milton Friedman, free-market economist who inspired Reagan and Thatcher, dies aged 94". The Independent. Washington: Independent Print Ltd.
  18. ^ "The second American revolution: Reagonomics". reaganfoundation.org. Ronald Reagan Presidential Library.
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Centrism

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Various political ideologies, such as Christian democracy, can be classified as centrist.

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In the January 2006 PLC elections the party received 2.41% of the popular vote and won two of the Council's 132 seats. After the disappointing election results, the party disappeared from the Palestinian arena, but in July 2015 party leaders held a series of meetings in Ramallah and Hebron to discuss the party's ability to reactivate its platform and return.

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Şener announced that the party was officially closed on August 27, 2012 due to difficulties to maintain the political goals outside the parliament.

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