Centre-left politics or center-left politics (American English), also referred to as moderate-left politics, are political views that lean to the left-wing on the left–right political spectrum, but closer to the centre than other left-wing politics. Those on the centre-left believe in working within the established systems to improve social justice. The centre-left promotes a degree of social equality that it believes is achievable through promoting equal opportunity. The centre-left has promoted luck egalitarianism, which emphasizes the achievement of equality requires personal responsibility in areas in control by the individual person through their abilities and talents as well as social responsibility in areas outside control by the individual person in their abilities or talents.
The centre-left opposes a wide gap between the rich and the poor and supports moderate measures to reduce the economic gap, such as a progressive income tax, laws prohibiting child labour, minimum wage laws, laws regulating working conditions, limits on working hours and laws to ensure the workers' right to organize. The centre-left typically claims that complete equality of outcome is not possible, but instead that equal opportunity improves a degree of equality of outcome in society.
In Europe, the centre-left includes social democrats, progressives and also some democratic socialists, greens and the Christian left. Some social liberals are described as centre-left, but many social liberals are in the centre of the political spectrum as well.
The main ideologies of the centre-left are social democracy, social liberalism (when paired with other ideologies), progressivism, democratic socialism and green politics (also known as the red–green alliance).
Throughout the world, centre-left groups generally support:
The term may be used to imply positions on the environment, religion, public morality, etc., but these are usually not the defining characteristics, since centre-right parties may take similar positions on these issues. A centre-left party may or may not be more concerned with reducing industrial emissions than a centre-right party.
The term "centre-left" appeared during the French "July Monarchy" in 1830s, a political-historical phase during the Kingdom of France when the House of Orléans reigned under an almost parliamentary system. The centre-left was distinct from the left, composed of republicans, as well as the centre-right, composed of the Third Party and the liberal-conservative Doctrinaires.
During this time, the centre-left was led by Adolphe Thiers (head of the liberal-nationalist Movement Party) and Odilon Barrot, who headed the populist "Dynastic Opposition". The centre-left was Orléanist, but supported a liberal interpretation of the Charter of 1830, more power to the Parliament, manhood suffrage and support to rising European nationalisms. Adolphe Thiers served as Prime Minister for King Louis Philippe I twice (in 1836 and 1840), but he then lost the King's favour, and the centre-left rapidly fell.
In France, during the Second Republic and the Second Empire the centre-left was not strong or organised, but became commonly associated with the moderate republicans' group in Parliament. Finally, in 1871 the Second Empire fell as consequence of the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War and Adolphe Thiers re-established the centre-left after the foundation of the Third Republic. This time the centre-left was constituted of moderate republicans, then called "Opportunists", anti-royalist liberals and radicals from the Republican Union. During the Third Republic, the centre-left was led by political and intellectual figures like Jules Dufaure, Édouard René de Laboulaye, Charles de Rémusat, Léon Say, William Waddington, Jean Casimir-Perier, Edmond Henri Adolphe Schérer and Georges Picot.
Elsewhere in Europe, centre-left movements appeared from the 1860s, mainly in Spain and Italy. In Italy, the centre-left was born as coalition between the liberal Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour and the progressive Urbano Rattazzi, the heads respectively of the Right and Left groupings in Parliament. This alliance was called "connubio" ("marriage") for its opportunist characteristics. In the 1900s, centre-left positions were expressed by people and parties who believed in social democracy and democratic socialism, but also some liberals or Christian-democrats were associated with the centre-left. Currently, the centre-left parties in Europe are united in the social democratic Party of European Socialists and ecologist European Green Party.
Despite the rise of centre-left politics in continental Europe, Britain and its colonies along with the United States only saw the rise of the centre-left in the late 19th century to the early 20th century. The prevalence of the position occurred mainly due to the rise of socialism caused Liberals to move away from laissez-faire policies to more interventionist policies, which created the New Liberal movement. Currently, the Anglo-sphere major centre-left parties are the following:
The All Armenian Labour Party is a social democratic political party in Armenia.
At the last elections, on 25 May 2003, the party won 1 seat.Centre-right politics
Centre-right politics or center-right politics (American English), also referred to as moderate-right politics, are politics that lean to the right of the left–right political spectrum, but are closer to the centre than other right-wing politics. From the 1780s to the 1880s, there was a shift in the Western world of social class structure and the economy, moving away from the nobility and mercantilism, as well as moving towards the bourgeoisie and capitalism. This general economic shift towards capitalism affected centre-right movements such as the British Conservative Party, that responded by becoming supportive of capitalism.The International Democrat Union is an alliance of centre-right to right-wing political parties, including the British Conservative Party, the Conservative Party of Canada, the Liberal Party of Australia, the New Zealand National Party and Christian democratic parties, which is committed to human rights as well as economic development.According to a 2019 study, center-right parties had approximately 27% of the vote share in 21 Western democracies in 2018. This was a decline from 37% in 1960.Clann na Talmhan
Clann na Talmhan ([ˈkl̪ˠan̪ˠ n̪ˠə t̪ˠal̪ˠuːnˠ], "Family/Children of the land"; formally known as the National Agricultural Party) was an Irish agrarian political party active between 1939 and 1965.Cuban Democratic Socialist Current
The Cuban Democratic Socialist Current (Corriente Socialista Democrática Cubana) is a Cuban social democratic party that seeks to "be critical [of] our historical process hegemony within [the] civil society debate of ideas, intents and purposes over the interests and diversity of proposals, what contributes to its richness, within a single space for the nation and society at a time."
They consider that "1959 freezes the social debate. The Cuban Revolution with its attendant double expectations and frustration seized the anxious questions and monopolized all possible answers to the needs of cultural activity, political and social," and want to return to the rational basis of the discussion of ideas.Democratic Party (Italy, 1913)
The Democratic Party (Partito Democratico, PD) was a social liberal and social democratic political party in Italy.
It emerged in 1913 from the left-wing of the dominant Liberals, of which it continued to be a government coalition partner until 1919. In the 1913 general election the party won 2.8% of the vote and 11 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. In 1919 the PD was merged with other liberal parties and groupings in the Italian Social Democratic Party, that gained 10.9% and 60 seats in the 1919 general election, while other Democrats joined Liberal–Radical joint lists.Democratic Peasants' Party–Lupu
The Democratic Peasants' Party–Lupu (Romanian: Partidul Țărănesc Democrat–Lupu) was a political party in Romania.Democratic Regional Union
The Democratic Regional Union (Greek: Δημοκρατική Περιφερειακή Ένωση, Dimokratiki Periferiaki Enosi) is a Greek political party. It led by Mihalis Haralambidis.
The party was founded in March, 2000 as a split from the Panhellenic Socialist Movement.Hope Front (Peru)
The Hope Front (Spanish: Frente Esperanza) was a Peruvian political party. At the legislative elections, 10 April 2016, the party won 1.1% of the popular vote and 0 out of 130 seats in the Congress of the Republic. Its presidential candidate at the elections of the same day, Fernando Olivera, won 1.3% of the vote. Since the election threshold is 5%, the party lost its inscription in the Electoral National Jury. Olivera has announced that he will inscribe the party again for the 2021 elections.Il Mattino
Il Mattino (English: the Morning) is an Italian daily newspaper published in Naples, Italy.Italy Work in Progress
Italy Work in Progress (Italia Lavori in Corso, ILC) was a centre-left populist political party in Italy, which has been active mainly as a sub-group within the Mixed Group of the Senate. Its leaders were Fabrizio Bocchino and Francesco Campanella.
ILC was launched in May 2014 by nine senators who had left (or had been expelled from) the Five Star Movement (M5S), a populist party which had come first in the 2013 general election, over disagreements with Beppe Grillo's and Gianroberto Casaleggio's leadership. In the following months seven senators left the party.As of July 2015, the two remaining members of the party, Bocchino and Campanella, showed interest in joining Giuseppe Civati's Possible, along with other former M5S members from Free Alternative, but instead they chose to join The Other Europe, changing the name to their sub-group within the Senate's Mixed Group accordingly .Liberal Party (Japan, 1890)
The Liberal Party (Japanese: 自由党, Jiyūtō) was a political party in Japan.Liberalism (book)
Liberalism (original German title: Liberalismus) is a book by Austrian School economist and libertarian thinker Ludwig von Mises, containing economic analysis and indicting critique of socialism. It was first published in 1927 by Gustav Fischer Verlag in Jena and defending classical liberal ideology based on individual property rights. Starting from the principle of private property, Mises shows how the other classical liberal freedoms follow from property rights and argues that liberalism free of government intervention is required to promote peace, social harmony and the general welfare. The book was translated into English by a student of Mises, Ralph Raico, but its first English edition in 1962 was titled The Free and Prosperous Commonwealth rather than Liberalism, as Mises thought that the literal translation would create confusion because the term liberalism after the New Deal and especially in the 1960s became widely used in the United States to refer to a centre-left politics that supports degrees of government intervention, in opposition to Mises' central premise. The English translation was made available online by the Ludwig von Mises Institute in 2000.New Liberal Party (New Zealand)
The New Liberal Party of New Zealand was a splinter group of the original Liberal Party. It was formed at a meeting in the Christchurch suburb of Papanui in June 1905 by two Liberal-aligned independents who sought a more "progressive" policy than that followed by the Liberal leader, Richard Seddon, and was similar to the Radical Party in 1896.Organic Centre-left
The Organic Centre-left (Italian: Centro-sinistra Organico), was a coalition of four Italian political parties that formed governments throughout the 1960s and the middle 1970s. The word “organic” meant that the Socialist Party was fully part of the governement, it was within the organization of the cabinet, differently from other centre-left governments in the early 1960s, where the PSI gave an external support only.Popular Socialists (Russia)
The Popular Socialist Party (Narodno-Sotsialisticheskaya Partiya) emerged in Russia in the early twentieth century.Progressive Party (Spain)
The Progressive Party (Spanish: Partido Progresista) was one of the two Spanish political parties that contended for power during the reign of Isabel II (reigned 1833–1868). They were to the left of the opposing Moderate Party (Spanish: Partido Moderado), but also characterized themselves as liberal. Like the Moderates, they supported Isabel against the claims of the Carlists.Shimpotō
Shimpotō (Progressive Party) (進歩党, Shinpotō) was a short-lived political party in Meiji period Japan.
The Shimpotō was founded by Ōkuma Shigenobu in March 1896, as a merger of the Rikken Kaishintō and minor political parties to offset a temporary alliance between Ōkuma's rival, Itō Hirobumi and the Liberal Party of Japan (Jiyuto).
In June 1898, the Shimpotō merged with the Jiyutō to form the Kenseitō.Tullia Zevi
Tullia Zevi (née Calabi) (2 February 1919 – 22 January 2011) was an Italian journalist and writer. Zevi's family fled Italy to France and then to the US after the rise of fascism in the 1930s. While in New York City, she married Bruno Zevi. She returned to Europe in 1946, and was one of the few women journalists to report the Nuremberg Trials. On her return to Italy, she played a major role in Interfaith dialog, and was active in Italian Centre-left politics. Zevi was president of the Union of Italian Jewish Communities from 1983 to 1998.Unitary Socialist Party (Italy, 1949)
The Unitary Socialist Party (Italian: Partito Socialista Unitario) was a social-democratic political party in Italy existing from 1949 to 1951.
The party was founded by some moderate members of the Italian Socialist Party, which had unsuccessfully asked for a collaboration of their former party with the Italian Christian Democracy, and some leftist members of the Italian Socialist Workers' Party. The party was led by a former Minister of Interior, Giuseppe Romita.
On 1 May 1951, the party fused with the Italian Socialist Workers' Party, previously founded by the reformist wing of the Italian Socialist Party in 1947 and led by Giuseppe Saragat, to give birth to the Italian Democratic Socialist Party (PSDI).