Central Weather Bureau

The Central Weather Bureau (CWB; Chinese: 中央氣象局; pinyin: Zhōngyāng Qìxiàng Jú) is the government meteorological research and forecasting institution of the Republic of China (Taiwan). In addition to meteorology, the Central Weather Bureau also makes astronomical observations, reports on sea conditions, and conducts research into seismology and provides earthquake reports. The Central Weather Bureau is headquartered in Taipei City and is administered under the Ministry of Transportation and Communications.

Central Weather Bureau
中央氣象局
ROC Central Weather Bureau
Agency overview
Formed1941
Jurisdiction Republic of China
HeadquartersChongqing (1941-1949)[1]
Taipei, Taiwan (1949-)
Agency executive
  • Tzay-Chyn Shin (辛在勤), Director-General
Parent agencyMinistry of Transportation and Communications
Websitewww.cwb.gov.tw

History

While Taiwan was under Japanese rule, the government set up five weather monitoring stations on the island, located in Taipei, Taichung, Tainan, Hengchun, and Penghu. On 19 December 1897, the Governor-General moved the headquarters to the present location occupied by the eventual successor agency of the Japanese "Taipei Observatory": the Central Weather Bureau. In 1945 when the Kuomintang took control of Taiwan the various stations set up by the Japanese were incorporated into the new Taiwan Provincial Weather Institution, under the Chief Executive of Taiwan Province, Chen Yi. When the position of Chief Executive was abolished in 1947 (the new head of local government being the Governor of Taiwan Province) the institution became an agency of the Taiwan Provincial Government.[2][3]

The Central Weather Bureau itself was established in 1941 in Chongqing under the Executive Yuan of the Republic of China.[4] In 1947 (and again from 1971 onwards) it was reassigned to the Ministry of Transportation and Communications. After the Kuomintang defeat in the Chinese Civil War and their subsequent flight to Taiwan in 1949, the Central Weather Bureau relocated from Mainland China to Taiwan. From 1949 to 1958 it was under the control of the Taiwan Provincial Weather Institution, then from 1958 onwards it was resurrected to become the principal meteorological organisation of the government. In 1971 the Central Weather Bureau switched from being a part of the Taiwan Provincial Government to the Ministry of Transportation and Communications, under central government authority.[4]

Departments

ROC-MOTC Central Weather Bureau 20120706
Central Weather Bureau
Tzay-Chyn Shin, the Director-General of Central Weather Bureau 20120426
Tzay-Chyn Shin, the incumbent Director-General of the Central Weather Bureau

The Central Weather Bureau has a number of responsibilities, represented by the various departments.[5]

Weather Forecast Center

The Weather Forecast Center (Chinese: 氣象預報中心; pinyin: Qìxiàng Yùbào Zhōngxīn) is the department responsible for monitoring actual weather conditions and making short and medium term forecasts concerning the weather. It also issues severe weather advisories for conditions including heavy rain, cold snaps, typhoons and storms, and dense fog. In the case of typhoons, the department closely monitors all tropical storms which might impact the island and issues warnings and predicted typhoon path and severity based on the collected data.[6]

Seismological Center

The Seismological Center (Chinese: 地震測報中心; pinyin: Dìzhèn Cèbào Zhōngxīn) of the Central Weather Bureau was founded in 1989, with a mission to monitor seismic activity in and around the island, publish reports on significant earthquakes, study earthquake precursor phenomena, issue tsunami warnings where appropriate, and provide information to the public of earthquake precautions. Taiwan is in a seismically active region on the Pacific Ring of Fire, with 44 deadly earthquakes occurring there during the twentieth century.[7] The center has 150 seismological monitoring stations through Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen (Quemoy) and Matsu.[8]

Marine Meteorology Center

The Marine Meteorology Center (Chinese: 海象測報中心; pinyin: Hǎixiàng Cèbào Zhōngxīn) was established in 1993 to monitor sea conditions and make predictions about weather at sea for shipping, fisheries, tourism and other interested parties. Variables including wave height, tides, sea level variations, sea surface temperature, and ocean currents are measured to provide an accurate picture of current conditions. The center is also responsible for informing the public of tide times, and cooperates with local tourism bureaux and Fishermen's Associations to erect electronic billboards in harbours to inform seafarers of ocean conditions.[9]

Other departments

The Bureau also includes the following departments:

  • The Meteorological Satellite Center (Chinese: 氣象衛星中心; pinyin: Qìxiàng Wèixīng Zhōngxīn), which receives and analyses weather satellite data for observation and prediction purposes.[10]
  • The Astronomical Observatory (Chinese: 天文站; pinyin: Tiānwén Zhàn), which not only observes astronomical phenomena such as sunspots and eclipses, but also publishes an annual almanac and provides information on astronomy to the public.[5]

Transportation

The CWB building is accessible within walking distance South from NTU Hospital Station of the Taipei Metro.

Supercomputing

A research supercomputer shared between the Central Weather Bureau and CAA was listed by TOP500 as the world's 313rd most powerful computer in 2002, obtaining 0.2 TFlop/s with 25 300MHz cores.[11]

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V7e/about/Brief_History.htm
  2. ^ "南區氣象中心 (Southern Meteorological Center)" (in Chinese). Central Weather Bureau.
  3. ^ "氣象博物館 (Meteorological Museum)" (in Chinese).
  4. ^ a b "Brief History & Organization". Central Weather Bureau.
  5. ^ a b "Missions". Central Weather Bureau. Archived from the original on 2009-07-20. Retrieved 2009-08-08.
  6. ^ "Weather Forecast Center" (PDF). Central Weather Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-16.
  7. ^ 二十世紀(1901-2000)台灣地區災害性地震 (in Chinese). Central Weather Bureau. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
  8. ^ "Seismological Center" (PDF). Central Weather Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-12-29.
  9. ^ "Marine Meteorology Center" (PDF). Central Weather Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-16.
  10. ^ "Meteorological Satellite Center" (PDF). Central Weather Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-16.
  11. ^ https://www.top500.org/system/172342
  12. ^ "Taibeixian, Taiwan, China weather forecast". Weather China. The Public Weather Service Center of CMA.
1904 Douliu earthquake

The 1904 Douliu earthquake (Chinese: 1904年斗六地震; pinyin: 1904 nián Dǒuliù dìzhèn) struck central Taiwan with a magnitude of 6.1 at 04:25 on November 6. The quake caused widespread damage and killed 145 people, making it the fifth deadliest earthquake of the 20th century in Taiwan.

1906 Meishan earthquake

The 1906 Meishan earthquake (Chinese: 1906年梅山地震; pinyin: 1906 nián Měishān Dìzhèn) was centered on Moe'akhe (Chinese: 梅仔坑; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Môe-á-kheⁿ), Kagi-cho, Japanese Taiwan (modern-day Meishan, Chiayi County, Taiwan) and occurred on March 17. Referred to at the time as the Great Kagi earthquake (Chinese: 嘉義大地震; pinyin: Jiāyì Dà Dìzhèn), it is the third-deadliest earthquake in Taiwan's recorded history, claiming around 1,260 lives. The shock had a surface wave magnitude of 6.8 and a Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent).

1941 Chungpu earthquake

The 1941 Chungpu earthquake (Chinese: 1941年中埔地震; pinyin: 1941 nián Zhōngpǔ Dìzhèn) occurred with a magnitude of 7.1 on December 17, and was centred on the town of Chūho Village, Kagi District, Tainan Prefecture of Taiwan under Japanese rule. It was the fourth-deadliest earthquake of the 20th century in Taiwan, claiming 358 lives.

1946 Hsinhua earthquake

The 1946 Hsinhua earthquake (Chinese: 1946年新化大地震; pinyin: 1946 nián Xīnhuà dà dìzhèn), also referred to as the 1946 Tainan earthquake (Chinese: 1946年台南大地震; pinyin: 1946 nián Táinán dà dìzhèn) was a magnitude 6.1 earthquake which hit Tainan County (now part of Tainan City), Taiwan, on 5 December 1946, at 06:47. The quake claimed 74 lives and was the eighth deadliest earthquake in twentieth century Taiwan.

1959 Hengchun earthquake

The 1959 Hengchun earthquake (Chinese: 1959年恆春地震; pinyin: 1959 nián Héngchūn dìzhèn) struck the southern tip of Taiwan on August 15 with a Richter magnitude 7.1. It was the tenth deadliest earthquake in twentieth century Taiwan, killing 16 or 17 people.

1972 Ruisui earthquake

The 1972 Ruisui earthquake (also known as the 1972 Juisui earthquake) occurred on April 24 at 17:57 local time. The magnitude of this earthquake was given as Ms 7.2 by the United States Geological Survey and ML 6.9 by the Central Weather Bureau of Taiwan. The epicenter was located near Ruisui Township, Hualien County, Taiwan. The intensity was shindo 4 in Taipei and Hualien. Five people were reported dead. The Ruisui Bridge (Chinese: 瑞穗大橋) was destroyed. The water treatment plant in Ruisui was damaged.

This earthquake was caused by the Juisui Fault with a vertical movement of 70 centimeters (28 in). The Juisui Fault is a segment of the 150 kilometers (93 mi) long Longitudinal Valley Fault, which is a left-lateral fault with a reverse component. The boundary between the Eurasian Plate and the Philippine Plate lies along the Longitudinal Valley Fault.

2009 Hualien earthquake

The 2009 Hualien earthquake occurred on December 19 at 21:02:14 (local time) with a moment magnitude of 6.4 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of VI (Strong). The oblique-slip event took place off the coast of Hualian, Taiwan. Strong shaking could be felt in Hualian City (Shindo 5 according to Central Weather Bureau) and Taipei (Shindo 4 according to Central Weather Bureau). The earthquake could also be felt in Hong Kong and Xiamen, China, and on several islands between Yonaguni and Tarama, Japan.

Chenggong, Taitung

Chenggong Township (Chinese: 成功鎮; pinyin: Chénggōng Zhèn; Wade–Giles: Ch'eng2-kung1 Chen4; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Sêng-kong-tìn) is an urban township in Taitung County, Taiwan. It is a coastal town facing the Pacific Ocean. Chenggong Fish Harbor is just west of downtown.

Chi Wen-jong

Chi Wen-jong (Chinese: 祁文中; pinyin: Qí Wénzhōng) is a Taiwanese engineer.

Chi's father was a lighthouse keeper stationed at the Kaohsiung Lighthouse. Chi earned his bachelor's degree from National Chiao Tung University's Department of Traffic and Transportation Engineering in 1981, followed by a master's degree within the school's Institute of Traffic and Transportation three years later.Chi worked as the chief engineer of the Taipei City Traffic Engineering Office between 1997 and 1999, then served as director of the Taiwan Area National Freeway Bureau, a division of the Ministry of Transportation and Communications until 2005, when he was named deputy chief engineer within the same department. From 2006 to 2008, Chi worked for the Taichung City Government, within its Transportation Bureau.Chi returned to the Ministry of Transportation and Communications in 2008 as the director of the Department of Railways and Highways. By 2010, he was named the director of the Department of Aviation and Navigation. He remained head of Aviation and Navigation through 2012. By 2013, Chi was appointed Maritime and Port Bureau director-general. From this position, Chi commented on the practice of ship inspection as the Ministry of Transportation and Communications considered increasing the frequency of such inspections in 2014. The Ocean Researcher V sunk in October of that year, and Chi was called upon to discuss details of the shipwreck and subsequent investigation. In October 2014, Chi commented on the perceived national security threat of the Hua Yun No. 12, a Chinese-owned, Hong Kong-operated ship registered in Cambodia, as the vessel traveled near Taiwan. In May 2016, Chi helped make travel arrangements for Nien Chi-cheng to visit Beiding Island Lighthouse on Kinmen, where Nien's father, a lighthouse keeper, was once stationed. As leader of the Maritime and Port Bureau, Chi also supported the designation of Dongyong Lighthouse as a national historical landmark, a status it had first gained in 1988.Following the election of Tsai Ing-wen as president, Chi was appointed administrative deputy minister of transportation and communications. In this role, Chi announced in December 2016 an intention for the government to focus on instances of drunk driving by young adults. That same month, Chi was questioned about construction delays on the Taichung Metropolitan Area Elevated Railway Project, as well as fines levied on Hua Sheng Engineering Construction Company, which was responsible for a portion of the project. Throughout 2017, Chi commented on several issues, including a protest action organized by the National Motorcycles Management Industry Advancement Association, toll discounts in place for National Day, the results of an investigation into a road incident involving a bus, and a misleading report issued by the Central Weather Bureau. In January 2018, Chi was appointed to a task force to promote the New Southbound Policy. Additionally, he replaced Tseng Dar-jen, who had resigned as Taoyuan International Airport Corporation chairman, on a temporary basis in October, serving to the end of 2018. That same year, Chi commented on the regulations mandating car inspections, legal campsites, and participated in discussions about the Tourism Bureau’s winter domestic travel subsidy program. Following an outbreak of African swine fever in 2018, Chi explained how Taiwan's airlines dispose of leftovers from in-flight meals. Later that year, Chi discussed amendments to the Regulations Governing Business Income Tax Exemption for Foreign Countries, Mainland China, Hong Kong or Macau Profit-Seeking Enterprises Conducting Goods Storage and/or Simple Processing Operations in Free Trade Zones. In 2019, Chi discussed proposed amendments to the Act for the Development of Tourism. He later disclosed further penalties against Far Eastern Air Transport, an airline that cancelled several flights without prior notice in May 2019 to manage flight hours control in effect against the airline since March 2017.As deputy transportation and communications minister, Chi has signed reciprocal drivers license agreements with Wyoming and New Mexico, participated in inspections at Taiwan Railways Administration offices, and Taoyuan International Airport, and attended a number of public functions, such as the opening of a traffic safety park for children at Youth Park in Taipei in 2018, and the 60th anniversary celebration of Japan Airlines service to Taipei Songshan Airport in 2019.

China Meteorological Administration

The China Meteorological Administration (CMA), headquartered in Beijing, is the national weather service for the People's Republic of China.

Fangliao

Fangliao Township is a rural township in Pingtung County, Taiwan.

Hengchun

Hengchun Township is a township located on the southern tip of the Hengchun Peninsula in Pingtung County, Taiwan. It is the southernmost township in Taiwan. Hengchun is also the only urban township in the southern part of Pingtung County. Hengchun has a land area of 136.76 km2 (52.80 sq mi) and has a population of 30,859 as of December 2014.

The city of Hengchun is the entryway to Kenting National Park, the southernmost National Park in the country. With pristine beaches and a vibrant tourist industry, the Hengchun area often attracts more travelers than local residents. The city itself was once completely surrounded by a city wall; now about half of the wall remains intact, as well as the four city gates. On weekends, the streets of nearby Kenting are filled with cars and tour buses.

The 2008 Taiwanese film Cape No. 7, the top-grossing film in Taiwan's film history, features Hengchun.

List of earthquakes in Taiwan

This list of earthquakes in Taiwan charts significant earthquakes which have affected the island of Taiwan.

Taiwan is in a seismically active zone, on the Pacific Ring of Fire, and at the western edge of the Philippine Sea Plate. Geologists have identified 42 active faults on the island, but most of the earthquakes detected in Taiwan are due to the convergence of the Philippine Sea plate and the Eurasian Plate to the east of the island. Most of the earthquakes registered in Taiwan actually occur off the east coast and cause little damage, whereas smaller quakes beneath the island itself have historically proven more destructive. The first recorded earthquake in Taiwan was in 1624, the founding year of Dutch Formosa. Between 1901 and the year 2000 there were 91 major earthquakes in Taiwan, 48 of them resulting in loss of life. The most recent major earthquake was the 921 earthquake, which struck on 21 September 1999, and claimed 2,415 lives.

Many modern buildings in Taiwan are constructed with earthquake safety in mind, including Taipei 101, which had to cope with the dual challenges of being flexible enough to withstand earthquakes, yet rigid enough to resist wind shear. The High Speed Rail system incorporates an automatic safety device to safely bring all trains to a halt when a significant earthquake is detected. Nevertheless, poor construction standards have been blamed for casualties in a number of major earthquakes, including the 1906 Meishan earthquake and the 921 earthquake. Inside Taiwan the Central Weather Bureau is the organisation responsible for monitoring and reporting on earthquakes. Large earthquakes are also assessed by the United States Geological Survey. Scientific studies of the seismology of the island started in the Japanese era, when the first seismograph was installed in Taipei by Fusakichi Omori's company.

March 2013 Nantou earthquake

The 2013 Nantou earthquake struck central Taiwan with a moment magnitude of 5.9 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of V (Moderate) on March 27 at 10:03 a.m. local time. The epicenter was located in mountainous terrain in Ren'ai Township, Nantou County, Taiwan, not far from Sun Moon Lake.

Miaoli County

Miaoli County (Mandarin Pīnyīn: Miáolì Xiàn; Hakka PFS: Mèu-li̍t-yen; Hokkien POJ: Biâu-le̍k-koān or Miâu-le̍k-koān) is a county in western Taiwan. Miaoli is adjacent with Hsinchu County and Hsinchu City to the north, Taichung to the south, and borders the Taiwan Strait to the west. The Council for Economic Planning and Development of Taiwan classifies Miaoli as a county of Central Taiwan, while the Taiwan Central Weather Bureau classifies Miaoli as a county of the North. Miaoli City is the capital of the county, and is also known as "Mountain Town", owing to the number of mountains nearby, making it a destination for hiking.

Ministry of Transportation and Communications (Taiwan)

The Ministry of Transportation and Communications (MOTC; Chinese: 交通部; pinyin: Jiāotōngbù; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Kau-thong-pō͘) is a cabinet-level governmental body of the Republic of China (Taiwan) in charge of all policy and regulation of transportation and communications networks and administration of all transportation and communications operations and enterprises in Taiwan.

Pingtung County

Pingtung County (Mandarin Pīnyīn: Píngdōng Xiàn; Hokkien POJ: Pîn-tong-koān; Hakka PFS: Phìn-tûng-yan; Paiwan: Akaw/Qakaw) is a county in southern Taiwan known for its agriculture and tourism. In recent years, it promotes specialties such as tuna and wax apples. Pingtung is where Kenting National Park, the oldest and the largest national park in Taiwan established in 1984, is located. The county seat is Pingtung City.

Typhoon Dujuan (2015)

Typhoon Dujuan, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Jenny, was the second most intense tropical cyclone of the Northwest Pacific Ocean in 2015 in terms of ten-minute maximum sustained winds, tied with Noul. The twenty-first named storm and the thirteenth typhoon of the 2015 Pacific typhoon season, Dujuan brought extremely powerful winds throughout the Yaeyama Islands and Taiwan in late September, causing 3 deaths in Taiwan. The typhoon also caused over ¥2.5 billion (US$392.9 million) damage in East China.

Dujuan originated as a monsoon depression, developing into a tropical storm on September 22. After slowly consolidating under an improving environment, the system intensified into a typhoon on September 25, and it started to present a large eye two days later. Dujuan reached its peak intensity on September 27 and made landfall over Taiwan on the next day. Interaction with the mountainous terrain of Taiwan significantly weakened the typhoon. Dujuan then made its second landfall over Fujian on September 29.

Typhoon Herb

Typhoon Herb, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Huaning, was the strongest and the largest storm of 1996. Herb struck the Ryūkyū Islands, Taiwan and the People's Republic of China, causing major damage. The name Herb was used in the Western Pacific name list for the first time after the list had been revised earlier in 1996. Although the name was not retired, the Western Pacific name list was changed from English names to Asian names in 2000, so 1996 was in fact the only occasion when the name was used (it was never used in the Atlantic Ocean or the Eastern Pacific.)

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