Central Provinces and Berar

The Central Provinces and Berar was a province of British India and later the Dominion of India which existed from 1936 to 1950. It was formed by the merger of the Central Provinces with the province of Berar, which was territory leased by the British from the Hyderabad State. Through an agreement signed on 5 November 1902, 6th Nizam Mahbub Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VI leased Berar permanently to the British for an annual payment of 25 lakhs Rupees. Lord Curzon decided to merge Berar with the Central Provinces, and this was proclaimed on 17 September 1903.[1]

The Central Provinces was formed in 1861 by the merger of the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories and Nagpur Province. Administration of the Berar region of the Hyderabad princely state was assigned to the Chief Commissioner of the Central Provinces in 1903, and for administrative purposes, Berar was merged with the Central Provinces to form the Central Provinces & Berar on October 24, 1936.[2] After Indian Independence in 1947, a number of princely states were merged into the Central Provinces and Berar, which, when the Constitution of India went into effect in 1950, became the new Indian state of Madhya Bharat, merged with Madhya Pradesh in 1956, also meaning Central Province.

As its name suggests, the province was situated in the center of the Indian peninsula. It comprised large portions of the broad belt of hill and plateau which interposes between the plains of the Ganges and the Deccan plateau. The Central Provinces and Berar were bounded on the north and northeast by the Central India Agency, including the Bundelkhand and Bagelkhand agencies, and along the northern edge of Sagar District by the United Provinces of Agra & Oudh; on the west by the princely states of Bhopal, Indore and by the Kandesh District of Bombay Presidency; on the south by Hyderabad State, and on the east by Orissa (till 1937, a part of Bengal Presidency) and the Eastern States Agency.

Central Provinces and Berar
मध्य प्रांत और वऱ्हाड
Province of British India

 

1936–1950
 

 

Flag of Central Provinces and Berar
Flag
Location of Central Provinces and Berar
Central Provinces and Berar in 1909, showing the districts, divisions, and princely states under the authority of the province, as well as the 1905 changes to the eastern boundary
History
 •  Merger of the Central Provinces and Berar Province 1936
 •  Creation of Madhya Pradesh State 1950
Population
 •  1941 16,813,584 
 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Central Provinces and Berar" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

History

British India

The Central Provinces comprised 19th-century British conquests from the Mughals and Marathas in central India, and covered much of present-day Chhattisgarh with portions of Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra states. Its capital was Nagpur.[3]

After the defeat of the Marathas in the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the territories north of the Satpura Range ceded in 1817 by the Maratha Peshwa (parts of Saugor and Damoh) and in 1818 by Appa Sahib, were in 1820, formed into the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories under an agent to the governor-general. In 1835 the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories were included in the newly formed North-Western Provinces (which later became the United Provinces of Agra & Oudh). In 1842, in consequence of an uprising, they were again placed under the jurisdiction of an agent to the governor-general. They were restored to the North-Western Province in 1853.

In 1818, the Maratha Bhonsle Maharajas of Nagpur submitted to British sovereignty. In 1853, on the death of Raghoji III without heirs, Nagpur was annexed by the British under the doctrine of lapse. Until the formation of the Central Provinces in 1861, Nagpur Province, which consisted of the Nagpur Division, Chhindwara and Chhattisgarh, was administered by a commissioner under the central colonial government.

Central Provinces India 1903
Central Provinces and Berar, 1903. Princely states are shown in yellow.

The Saugor and Nerbudda Territories were joined with the Nagpur province to constitute the new Central Provinces in 1861. On 1 October 1903 Berar was placed under the administration of the commissioner of the Central Provinces. In October 1905 most of Sambalpur and the princely states of Bamra, Rairakhol, Sonpur, Patna and Kalahandi were transferred from the Central Provinces and Berar to Bengal, while the Hindi-speaking Chota Nagpur States of Chang Bhakar, British Korea, Surguja, Udaipur and Jashpur were transferred from Bengal to the Central Provinces & Berar.

In 1935 the Government of India Act was passed by the British Parliament. This act provided for the election of a provincial assembly, with an electorate made up of men with a minimum of financial resources, and excluding women and the poor. Supervisory powers over the enclaved and attached Princely States were reserved to the Governor and removed from the authority of the popular provincial governments. Elections were held in 1937, and the Indian National Congress took a majority of the seats but declined to form the government. A minority provisional government was formed under E. Raghavendra Rao.[4]

Minister Portfolio
E. Raghavendra Rao Gaol, Police, Political, Military, Judicial and Legal
Balkrishna Ganesh Khaparde Revenue, Land Records, Survey, Settlement, Forest, Excise, Stamp and Education
Syed Wakil Ahmed Rizvi Finance, Local Self-Government, Medical, Public Health and Public Works
Dharamrao Bhujangrao Agriculture, Commerce, Industry and Registration

The Congress reversed its decision and resolved to accept office in July 1937. Therefore, the Governor invited N. B. Khare to form the government in August 1937.[5][6][7]

Minister Portfolio
N. B. Khare Premier, Home
Yusuf Shareef Law and Justice
P. B. Gole Revenue
Ramrao Deshmukh Public Works
Ravi Shankar Shukla Education
Dwarka Prasad Mishra Local Self-government
D. K. Mehta Finance

Khare resigned in 1938, and Ravi Shankar Shukla next became Premier. In 1939, along with Congress leaders from other provinces, Shukla resigned in protest of the Governor-General's declaration of war on Germany without consulting with Indian leaders, and the Central Provinces & Berar came under Governor's Rule. Another round of elections were held in 1946, yielding another Congress majority, and Shukla again became Premier.[8]

After Indian independence

India became independent on 15 August and the Central Provinces & Berar became a province of the Dominion of India. The princely states, which were under the Central Provinces before 1936, were merged into the province, and organized into new districts. When the Constitution of India went into effect in 1950, the Central Provinces & Berar was reorganized with territorial changes as the state of Madhya Pradesh, which name also means Central Province.

After Indian Independence in 1947, the Central Provinces and Berar became part of India as Madhya Pradesh. On 1 November 1956, Madhya Bharat, together with the states of Vindhya Pradesh and Bhopal State, was merged into Madhya Pradesh. In 1956, under pressure from Marathi Irredentists, the Berar and Nagpur divisions were transferred to Bombay state. In 1960, the Bombay State was partitioned into Maharashtra & Gujarat. In 2000, the eastern portion of Madhya Pradesh was split off to become the new state of Chhattisgarh.[9]

Administration

The 1941 Census of India counted 16,813,584 persons in the province, of which 2,093,767 were urban and 14,719,817 were rural.[10]

Districts

The Central provinces and Berar was made up of 22 districts, grouped into five divisions :

Princely States

The Central provinces and Berar included also 15 princely states, whose native rulers enjoyed indirect rule under British protection.

Salute states, in order of precendence :

  • Kalahandi (Karond), title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 9-guns
  • Patna, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 9-guns
  • Sonepur, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 9-guns

Non-salute states, alphabetically :

See also

References

  1. ^ "Gazetteers of the Bombay Presidency-Buldhana district-History-British Period". Buldhana District Gazetteer website. Archived from the original on 6 October 2008. Retrieved 25 March 2009.
  2. ^ "Provinces". Retrieved 28 September 2014.
  3. ^ Hunter, Sir William Wilson, et al. (1908). Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1908-1931; Clarendon Press, Oxford
  4. ^ http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1937/apr/19/provincial-governments-ministers
  5. ^ Tomlinson, B.R. The Indian National Congress and the Raj, 1929–1942: The Penultimate Phase. Macmillan Press Ltd. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-333-19369-3.
  6. ^ Researches in social sciences.
  7. ^ Baker, David E. U. (1979). Changing political leadership in an Indian province: the Central Provinces and Berar, 1919-1939. Oxford University Press.
  8. ^ Olson, James S. and Robert Shadle, eds. Historical Dictionary of the British Empire, Vol. 1. Greenwood Publishing Group, UK 1996. P. 227.
  9. ^ Markovits, Claude (ed.) (2004). A History of Modern India: 1480-1950. Anthem Press, London
  10. ^ Census of India 1941, accessed 12 November 2013

Coordinates: 21°09′N 79°05′E / 21.15°N 79.09°E

Amravati division

Amravati division also known as Varhad is one of the six administrative divisions of Maharashtra state in India. Amravati and Nagpur divisions constitute the ancient Vidarbha region. Amravati Division is bound by Madhya Pradesh state to the north, Nagpur Division to the east, Telangana state to the southeast, Marathwada region (Aurangabad Division) to the south and southwest, and Nashik Division to the west.

Area: 46,090 km²

Population (2011 census): 11,266,653

Districts: Akola, Amravati, Buldhana, Washim, Yavatmal

Largest City: Amravati

Literacy: 77.79%

Area under irrigation: 2,582.02 km²

Railways: broad gauge 249 km, meter gauge 227 km, narrow gauge 188 km.

Bastar state

Bastar state was a princely state in India during the British Raj. It was founded in the early 14th century, supposedly by a brother of the last ruler of the Kakatiya dynasty proper, Prataparudra II.

It is today used to refer the same region, called Bastar district in Chhattisgarh state.In the early 19th century the state became part of the Central Provinces and Berar under the British Raj, and acceded to the Union of India on 1 January 1948, to become part of the Madhya Pradesh in 1956, and later part of the Bastar district of Chhattisgarh state in 2000. The current ceremonial ruler is Maharaja Kamal Chandra Bhanj Deo of Bastar, of the Bhanj dynasty.

Berar Division

The Berar Division, formerly Berar Province (Marathi: Varhāḍa/वऱ्हाड), was one of the former administrative divisions of the Central Provinces and Berar of British India. Ellichpur (Achalpur) was the capital and the administrative headquarters of the division.

The Berar Division had an area of 28,515 km² with a population of 2,672,673 in 1881. The main mountain chains in the area were the Satpura and the Ajanta ranges, and the main rivers the Tapi, the Purna, the Wardha, the Penganga and the Pranhita. It was located in present-day Maharashtra state of India.

Berar Province

Berar Province (Marathi: Varhāḍa/वऱ्हाड), also known as the Hyderabad Assigned Districts, was a province of British India. The province was ruled by the Nizam of Hyderabad, but after 1853 it was administered by the British although the Nizam retained formal sovereignty over the province. Azam Jah, the eldest son of 7th Nizam held the title of Mirza-Baig ("Prince") of Berar.

After October 1, 1903, the administration of the province was placed under the commissioner-general for the Central Provinces as the Berar Division. In 1936, with the establishment of the legislative assembly of the 'Central Provinces and Berar' the territory was renamed as the Central Provinces and Berar. In 1881, the population of Berar was 2,672,673, mostly Marathi language speaking people. The total area of the territory was 113,281 square miles (293,400 km2). It is now part of the Maharashtra state, in the Vidarbha region. The boundaries of Berar have changed, but the British province corresponds to Maharashtra's Amravati Division.

Central Province

Central Province may refer to:

Central Province (Kenya)

Central Province, Maldives

Central Province (Papua New Guinea)

Central Province (Solomon Islands)

Central Province, Sri Lanka

Central Province (Victoria), a former electorate of the Victorian Legislative Council, Australia. Existing 1856–1882

Central Province, Zambia

Central Provinces and Berar, a former province of British India corresponding roughly to Madhya Pradesh

Centre Province, Cameroon

Markazi province, Iran

Madhya Pradesh, India

Töv Province, MongoliaCentral province may also refer to the province in the centre of the country, such as:

Manitoba, Canada

Central Provinces

The Central Provinces was a province of British India. It comprised British conquests from the Mughals and Marathas in central India, and covered parts of present-day Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra states. Its capital was Nagpur. It became the Central Provinces and Berar in 1936.

The Central Provinces was formed in 1861 by the merger of the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories and Nagpur Province. The district of Nimar which was administered by the Central India Agency was added in 1864. It was almost an island encircled by a sea of "native States" such as Bhopal State and Rewa State to the north, the Chota Nagpur States and Kalahandi State to the east, and the Nizam's territories of Hyderabad to the south and Berar to the west.

Central Provinces and Berar cricket team

The Central Provinces and Berar cricket team represented the Indian province and state of Central Provinces and Berar in the Ranji Trophy from 1934-35 to 1949-50. After the state was dissolved and redistributed into several states in 1950, the Central Provinces and Berar team was superseded by the Madhya Pradesh team, beginning with the 1950-51 Ranji Trophy, and the Vidarbha team, beginning with the 1957-58 Ranji Trophy.

Central provinces

Central provinces may refer to:

Central Canada

Central Provinces, British India (1861–1936)

Central Provinces and Berar of former British India (1936–1950)

Ceylonese cricket team in India in 1932–33

The Ceylon cricket team toured India in December 1932 and January 1933. Ceylon did not then have Test status, but two three-day unofficial Tests were played, both of which were drawn. The tour also included four other first-class matches and four minor matches. It was the first tour abroad by a Ceylonese team. The victories against Patiala and Central Provinces and Berar were Ceylon's first victories in first-class matches.

Chhattisgarh Division

Chhattisgarh Division was a former administrative division of the Central Provinces of British India. It was located in the east of the Central Provinces and encompassed the upper Mahanadi River basin, in the central part of present-day Chhattisgarh state of India.

With the advent of the British the town of Raipur, headquarters of Chhattisgarh Division, gained prominence over Ratanpur, the historical capital of the territory.

The Central Provinces became the Central Provinces and Berar in 1936 until the Independence of India.

Donald Rutnam

Donald Ross Rutnam (1902 – 1968) was an Indian civil servant and Sportsman of Ceylonese origin. He was a member of the Ceylon Civil Service and served as the Deputy Commissioner of the Central Provinces and Berar. He represented India in Tennis at the 1924 Summer Olympics and at the Wimbledon Championships.Born in Colombo, Ceylon, Rutnam was educated at Royal College Colombo where he captained the college cricket team at the Royal–Thomian. He died on 10 June 1968 in Camberwell, United Kingdom.

Jhunnilal Verma

Jhunnilal Verma (also Jhunni Lal Verma or J. L. Verma) was an Indian lawyer and politician from Madhya Pradesh. He was freedom fighter from Bundelkhand Damoh region.In December 1933, Verma was elected unopposed to the Legislative Council of the Central Provinces and Berar, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of G. S. Singhai. He represented the Damoh district non-Muhammadan rural constituency. He was still a member in 1936.During establishment of Saugor University he was in the team with Dr. Hari Singh Gour and also the founder of Damoh Degree College. J. L. Verma Law College, the law school affiliated with Dr. Hari Singh Gour University was named in his honor. He wrote two books Bharat Darshan and Karm Sanyasi Krishna.

Korea State

Korea State, currently spelled as Koriya, was a princely state of the British Empire of India. After Indian independence in 1947, the ruler of Korea acceded to the Union of India on 1 January 1948, and Koriya was made part of Surguja District of Central Provinces and Berar province. In January 1950, “Central Provinces and Berar” province was renamed Madhya Pradesh state. After November 2000, Korea and the former princely state of Changbhakar became Koriya district of Chhattisgarh state.

Korea had an area of 1,631 sq. miles and a population of 126,874 as of 1941.

Laxman Shrawan Bhatkar

Laxman Shrawan Bhatkar (b 1901 Thugaon Amravati district - d 1970 ) was a politician and social worker from Central Provinces and Berar of British India. He was born in 1901 at Thugaon village of then Amravati district of the Province. He studied at Depressed Classes Mission High School at Bombay.

Later he became member of Satyasodhak Samaj. He used to compose playfolk songs and stories for the welfare of untouchables. For them, he started Chokhamela Hostel at Chikhali in Buldana district in 1921.In 1951, he was elected to first Lok Sabha from the 2 seats of Buldana Akola constituency of then Madhya Pradesh State along with Gopalrao Khedkar. In 1957, he was re-elected as a representative of the second Lok Sabha from Buldana Akola constituency of then Bombay State.He represent Khamgaon (Lok Sabha constituency) in 3rd Lok Sabha.Along with it they are the Member of Constitution Assembly of India as Members (by province/state) Central Provinces and Berar

He died in 1970.

Nerbudda Division

The Nerbudda Division, named after the Narmada River (Nerbudda), was a former administrative division of the Central Provinces of British India. It encompassed a good part of the Narmada River basin in the eastern part of present-day Madhya Pradesh state of India. The Nerbudda Division had an area of 47,609.2 km² with a population of 1,785,008 in 1901.The Central Provinces became the Central Provinces and Berar in 1936 until the Independence of India.

Rajoli

Rajoli is a town situated at Sakoli tahsil in the District Of Bhandara in the Indian state of Maharashtra.

Before its independence Zamindari estate was under Muslim family rule from 1851 to 1947. The ruler was popularly known as Nawab of Rajoli. The Zamindari system was abolished in India after independence in 1947.The Rajoli estate is said to have been conferred on the ancestors of the present family about six generations ago for assistance given by them against the Gonds. A grant signed by the Bhonsla Raja in 1775 stated that it had been held by the family for many years. The family is believed to have been a branch of that of Rahim Ali Khan, the governor of Dongartal, who held the fort of Sangarhi in Bhandara, and granted these estates to some of his relatives.

Shankar Madhav Chitnavis

Shankar Madhav Chitnavis (b. 1867 - ) was a statutory officer and worked a deputy commissioner of Central Province. He was brother of Gangadhar Rao Chitnavis.He was member of First and Second Legislative Council of Central Provinces and Berar during 1921-23 and 1923-1926.He was elected President of Third and Fourth Legislative Council of Central Provinces and Berar during 1927-30 and 1930-1937.He was awarded the Kaisar-i-Hind Gold Medal 9 November 1901. and appointed ISO in the 1914 Birthday Honours.

Veni Shankar Jha

Veni Shankar Jha was an Indian educationist. He served as the director of public instruction of the Central Provinces and Berar and was the vice chancellor of Banaras Hindu University from July 3, 1956 to April 6, 1960. The Government of India awarded him Padma Bhushan, the third highest Indian civilian award, in 1971.

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